Reconstruction & Its EffectsSection 1- The Politics of Reconstruction.Section 2- Reconstruction and SocietySection 3- The Collapse of Reconstruction
Learning Goal: Analyze the debate about how to reunite thecountry, and determine the extent to which enactedReconstruction policies achieved their goals.NJCCCS: 6.1.12.D.4.b
Warm Up- Focus & MotivateIdentify ways in which one can resolve a conflict.
Andrew JohnsonSucceeded Lincoln as President As president: Johnson faced a dilemma:Former congressman, governor, and Pardon or punishsenator former ConfederatesOnly senator from a Confederate state How to bring the[TN] to remain loyal to the Union defeated Confederate states back into theFormer slave-owner, by 1863- Unionsupported abolitionHated wealthy s. planters, held themresponsible for dragging poor whitesinto the war1865- endorsed harsh punishment forConfederate leaders
The Little Boy is President Andrew Johnson, the artist believes thatthe Constitution is beyond his understanding, and that Johnson is not fit to be the President & not knowing the Constitution will harm him.
Johnson’s Political Problems Johnson was the Johnson was a ONLY Southern Democrat who broke Senator to remain ranks with his party toloyal to the Union run for VP withwhen the war broke Republican Abe out Lincoln As a result of his political history, which groups may have mistrusted Johnson? Republicans mistrusted Johnson because he was a Democrat Democrats mistrusted Johnson because he ran for office with a Republican Southerners mistrusted Johnson because he took the Union’s side in the warNortherners mistrusted Johnson because the feared he would have sympathy for the south
Plan for ReconstructionReconstruction- [1865-1877] n. theperiod of rebuilding that followed theCivil War, during which the defeatedConfederate states were readmitted tothe Union.Complications quickly arose asLincoln, Andrew Johnson, Congresshad differing ideas on howReconstruction should be handled.Before Lincoln’s death, he made it clearthat he favored a lenientReconstruction policy
Believed secession was constitutionally impossibleand therefore the Confederate states had never leftthe Union Lincoln’s 10%Contended that it was individuals, not states, who Planhad rebelled & that the Constitution gave thepresident the power to pardon individuals.Wished to make the South’s return to the Union-quick & easyDec. 1863- announced his Proclamation ofAmnesty and Reconstruction- aka the 10% PlanGov’t would pardon all Confederates except forhigh-ranking officials & those accused of crimesagainst prisoners of war- who would swear allegianceto the Union10% of those on the 1860 voting lists took this oathof allegiance, a Confederate state could form a newstate gov’t & gain representation in Congress
Review- Summarizing What was President Answer: To make theLincoln’s planned South’s return as easy asapproach to possible, he came up withReconstruction? the Ten-Percent Plan. States could be readmitted if ten percent of voters took an oath.
Terms & Conditions4 states- AR, LA, TN, VA movedtowards readmissionLincoln’s moderate Reconstructionplan angered a minority ofRepublicans in CongressRadical Republicans- n. one of thecongressional Republicans who, afterthe Civil War, wanted to destroy thepolitical power of former slaveholdersand to give African Americans fullcitizenship and the right to vote.Led by MA Senator- Charles Sumnerand PA Representative ThaddeusStevens1865- African-American suffrage wastruly radical; no other country thathad abolished slavery had givenformer slaves the vote
Radical Reaction July- 1864, Radicals responded to 10% Plan: Wade-Davis Bill- n. a bill, passed in 1864 and vetoed by President Lincoln, that would have given Congress control of Reconstruction, and declared that for a state government to be formed, a majority would have to take a solemn oath to support the Constitution Lincoln used a pocket veto- when a bill is passed less than ten days before the end of a congressional session, the president can prevent its becoming law by simply ignoring it Radicals called Lincoln’s pocket veto an outrage and asserted that Congress had supreme authority over Reconstruction
Lincoln and African- AmericansMarch 3rd, 1865- the Freedmen’s Lincoln outlawed discrimination onBureau Bill- The Act, without account of color, in:deference to a persons carrying U.S. mail,color, authorized the Bureau to riding on public street cars inlease confiscated land for a period Washington D.C.of three years and to sell it in pay for soldiersportions of up to 40 acres perbuyer. Lincoln also urged compensated emancipation for the slaves as heThe Bureau was to expire one year thought the North should beafter the termination of the War. willing to share the costs of freedomLincoln was assassinated before hecould appoint a commisioner
Johnson’s PlanAssassination in April 1865 left Andrew Johnson to deal with ReconstructionMay 1865- while Congress was in recess, Johnson announced his own plan-Presidential ReconstructionDeclared that AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC, TX could be admitted under severalconditions Withdraw its secession, swearing allegiance to the Union Annul Confederate war debts Ratify the 13th Amendment- which abolished slaveryTo dismay of Radicals, Johnson’s plan differed little from Lincoln however Johnsonwished to prevent most high-ranking Confederates and wealthy S. landowners fromtaking the oathFailed to address the needs of former slaves in 3 areas: land, voting rights, &protection under the lawPlan relieved most white Southerners, Johnson’s support of states’ rights instead of astrong central gov’t reassured the s. statesJohnson was not in favor of African-American suffrage, pardoned more than 13,000Confederates believing: “white men alone must manage the South”
Confederate ReactionRemaining states quickly agreed toJohnson’s termsWithin a few months, these statesexcept TX held conventions to drawup new state constitutions or newstate governments and elect reps. toCongressMI did not ratify the 13thAmendmentDecember 18650 new S. legislatorsarrived in Washington to take theirseats58 previously sat in the ConfederateCongress, 6 in a Confederatecabinet, 4 fought against the US asgeneralsJohnson pardoned them allinfuriating Radicals, and betrayingAfrican-Americans
Review- Contrasting How did the views of Answer: Both presidentsPresidents Lincoln and favored a lenientJohnson on approach toReconstruction differ Southerners, while thefrom the views of the Radicals wanted to punishRadicals? the South severely and wanted to grant African Americans civil rights, including the vote.
Reconstruction hits a roadblock39th Congress convened in Dec. 1865- Radical Republicans led byStevens disputed Johnson’s claims that Reconstruction wascompletedMost believed the South was not much different from they waythey were before the warCongress refused to admit the newly elected S. legislatorsModerate Republicans pushed for new laws to remedy weaknessesin Johnson’s planFeb. 1866- Congress voted to continue and enlarge theFreedmen’s Bureau- n. a federal agency set up to help formerslaves after the Civil War.Assisted former slaves and poor whites with clothing and food aswell as setting up 40 hospitals, 4,000 schools, 61 industrialinstitutes and 74 teacher-training centers
N. teachers- educating & training newly freed population Illus. in: Frank Leslies illustrated newspaper, v. 23, 1866 Sept. 22, p. 5.
Civil Rights Act of 18662 months later, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 Provided citizenship to African-Americans Forbade states from passing discriminatory laws Black codes- n. the discriminatory laws passed throughout the post-Civil-War South which severely restricted African Americans’ lives, prohibiting such activities as traveling without permits, carrying weapons, serving on juries, testifying against whites, and marrying whites. MS, SC had 1st enacted black codes in 1865, others followed suitBlack codes had the effect of restoring many of the restrictions of slaverythrough their prohibitionsResentful whites used violence to keep blacks from improving theirposition in societyPassage of Black codes indicated that the South had not given up the ideaof African-Americans in bondage.
Review- Analyzing Causes How did black codes help Answer: They convincedbring about the passage of Congress that Africanthe Civil Rights Act of Americans needed federal1866? laws to protect them.
Head-Quarters, District ofAlabama, Montgomery, Alabama, Oct.10, 1867.Major-General O. O. Howard, CommissionerBureau Refugees and
“The Union As it Was” Representatives of the Ku Klux Klan & the White League shake hands over a cowering black family In the background on the right is a burning school houses, in the left is a lynching An October 24th, 1874 Harpers Magazine editorial cartoon by Thomas Nast denouncing KKK and White League murders of innocent blacks
A New Battle EmergesJohnson shocked everyone by vetoingthe Freedmen’s Bureau Act and theCivil Rights ActCongress, Johnson stated: had gonefar beyond anything “contemplated bythe authors of the Constitution”Vetoes became the opening shots in abattle between President andCongressJohnson alienated moderateRepublicans who were trying to On April 14, 1866, Thomas Nast drew aimprove his Reconstruction Plan cartoon of "The Grand Masquerade Ball"Angered the Radicals by appearing to featuring large sketches of many of thesupport Southerners who denied celebrities of the day. Andrew Johnson isAfrican-Americans their rights pictured kicking out the Freedmen’s Bureau with his veto, with scattered black people coming out of it.
Thomas Nast cartoon depicting the president as Iago betraying Othello, a wounded African- American Union soldierAndrew Johnsons Reconstructionand How It Works HarpersWeekly, September 1, 1866
Moderates & Radicals Join Forces mid 1866, Republicans joined to override the vetoes of the Civil Rights Act and Freedmen’s Bureau Civil Rights Act of 1866- 1st major legis. ever enacted over a presidential veto Congress drafted the 14th Amendment- n. an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1868, that makes all persons born or naturalized in the United States— including former slaves—citizens of the country and guarantees equal protection of the laws. Amendment did not specifically give African Americans the vote, but set up provisions
The Woes of RatificationCongress adopted the 14th Amendment- sent it to the states forapprovalIf the Southern states had voted to ratify it, most N. legislators &their constituents would have been satisfied to accept them backinto the UnionJohnson believed that the amendment treated former Confederateleaders too harshly and it was wrong to force states to accept anamendment that their legislators had no part in draftingAdvised the S. to reject the amendmentAll but TN rejected it, preventing ratification until 1868
Review- Summarizing What were the main benefits Answer: It made themthat the 14th Amendment citizens, promised them dueoffered African Americans? process of law, and tried to discourage states from denying them suffrage by having states lose a % of its congressional power equal to the % of citizens kept from polls; and preventing Confederate leaders from holding federal or state offices unless they were permitted by a 2/3 vote of Congress
1866 Congressional Election? Of who should control Reconstruction became a central issue in the 1866congressional electionsJohnson, accompanied by Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, went on a speaking tour, urging votersto elect representatives who agreed with his Reconstruction policy, urging voters to electrepresentatives who agreed with his policyJohnson offended many voters with his rough language and behaviorAudiences jeered him but cheered GrantRace riots in Memphis and New Orleans caused the death of at least 80 AfricanAmericansViolence convinced Northern voters that the federal government must step in to protectformer slaves1866 elections, moderate and Radical Republicans won a landslide victory overDemocratsRepublicans gained a 2/3 majority vote to override presidential vetoesMarch 1867, 40th Congress was ready to move with their Reconstruction policy
Review- Analyzing Effects What effect did the Answer: The election gaveelection of 1866 have on them a majority largeRepublicans’ ability to enough to pass laws andcarry out their plan for override vetoes.Reconstruction?
Reconstruction Act of 1867Did not recognize state In order for a state to reentergovernments formed under the Union, its constitutionLincoln/Johnson plans- except TN had to ensure African-which ratified the 14th American men the vote andAmendment ratify the 14th AmendmentAct divided the other ten Johnson vetoed theConfederate states into 5 military Reconstruction Act of 1867-districts, each headed by a Union believing it was in conflictGeneral with the ConstitutionThe voters in the Congress promptly overrodedistricts, including African- the veto.American men- would electdelegates to conventions in whichnew state constitutions would bedrafted
Johnson Impeached Radical voters felt Pres. Johnson was not carrying out his constitutional obligation to enforce the Reconstruction Act. Johnson removed military officers who attempted to enforce the Act Looked for grounds to impeach- v. to formally charge an official with misconduct in office. The House of Representatives has the sole power to impeach federal officials. They are then tried in the Senate. March 1867- Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act- stated that the president could not remove cabinet officers “during the term of the president by whom they may have been appointed” without the consent of the Senate Used to protect Sec. of War- Edward Stanton, the Radicals’ ally
Johnson w/ others was certain the Tenure of Office Act wasunconstitutionalForced a court test of the act, Johnson fired Sec. of War StantonProvided the Radicals with the opportunity they needed- the Housebrought 11 charges of impeachment against Johnson, 9 which werebased on his violation of the Tenure of Office ActJohnson’s lawyers disputed these charges by pointing out thatLincoln, not Johnson, had appointed Sec. Stanton- so the act didnot applyJohnson’s trial before the Senate took place from March to May1868On the day the final vote was taken at the trial, tension mountedVote- 35 to 19, one short of the 2/3rds majority needed
How does this cartoon show reaction tojob, however many Johnson Johnson was happy, glad to keep his the results of the citizens, newspaper writers & editors & politicians wanted Johnson to impeachment trial? be removed.
ConclusionWhat caused Andrew Johnson’s impeachment: Presidentialwrong-doing or politics? Johnson opposed many civil rights actions supported by Radical Republicans He believed that the Federal Government was forcing its will on States Radical Republicans called for RADICAL change, and passed the Tenure of Office Act, knowing Johnson would violate itJohnson was a victim of politics because he broke an unjust law
Election of 1868Democrats knew they could not winwith Johnson- they nominatedwartime gov. of NY- HoratioSeymourRepublican opponent- Ulysses S.GrantGrant won by a wide margin in theelectoral college, popular vote wasless decisiveOnly a majority of 306,592 votes500,000 Southern AfricanAmericans had voted most forGrant, bringing home theimportance of the African Americanvote to the Republican Party.
The 15 th AmendmentFearful of pro-Confederate S. Whitestrying to limit black suffrage, Radicalsintroduced the 15th Amendment- n.an amendment to the U.S.Constitution, adopted in 1870, thatprohibits the denial of voting rights topeople because of their race or coloror because they have previously beenslaves.Affected N. states as well, many barredAfrican-American suffrageRatified by the states in1870, important victory for RadicalsSome S. government refused toenforce the 14th & 15thAmendments, some white S. usedviolence to prevent African Americansfrom exercising their rights
SummarizerDo you think the RadicalRepublicans were justified inimpeaching President Johnson?Why or why not?Think About: The controversy over Reconstruction policies The meaning of the Tenure of Office Act Johnson’s vetoes
ReconstructingSocietyLearning Goal: NJCCCS: Relate conflictingpolitical, economic, social, and sectionalperspectives on Reconstruction to the resistanceof some Southern individuals and states.6.1.12.D.4.d
Warm Up- Focus & MotivateHow does one decide where to start when they have toclean up a very big mess?What are some ways to approach a massive cleanupand restoration effort?
Tales from the Reconstruction Robert G. Fitzgerald, African American b. DE- 1840 Served in the U.S. Army. Navy & 1866- Freedmen’s Bureau Sent to VA to teach former slaves: reading writing, spelling, arithmetic, geography Labored diligently against illiteracy and poverty forced upon African Americans
Conditions in the Postwar SouthUnder the congressionalReconstruction program, S. voterselected new, Republican-dominatedgovernments1868- AL, AR, FL, LA, NC, SCreentered the UnionRemaining 4 entered in 1870Republicans did not end theprocess of Reconstruction b/c theywanted to make economic changesin the south
Physical & Economic Conditions S. had to physically rebuild battle-scarred region Sherman estimated that his troops alone had destroyed about $100 mil. worth of Confederate property in GA & SC Charred buildings, twisted rr tracks, demolished bridges, neglected road, abandoned farms all had to be replaced Property values plummeted Those who invested in Confederate bonds had little hope of recovering their money Small farms ruined AL- wealth capita among whites dropped from $18,000 in 1860 to $3,000 in 1870 1/5 of adult white Confederate men died in the war Many who survived were maimed for life 10s of 1000s of S. African American men also died either fighting for the Union or in Confederate labor camps
Public Work Programs Republican governments built roads, bridges, rr, established orphanages and institutions for the care of mentally ill and disabled people Projects were expensive, few financial resources were available and N. capitalists were reluctant to invest in the region To raise money, S. state gov’t increased taxes of all kinds, draining existing resources and slowing the region’s recovery
Review- Identifying Problems What were the mainpostwar problems thatReconstructiongovernments in the Southhad to solve? Answer: Repairing physical damage; meeting social needs such as education; raising money.
Politics in the Postwar SouthScalawags- n. a white Southerner who Carpetbaggers- n. a Northerner who moved tojoined the Republican Party after the the South after the Civil War.Civil War. Name originated from the belief that N.Some hoped to gain political office with arrived w/ few belongings that everythingthe help of the African-American vote could fit in a carpetbagand then use those offices to enrichthemselves Most white S. believed that the carpetbaggers wanted to exploit the S.’s postwar turmoil forS. Democrats unfairly pointed to these profitfew as representative of all white S.Republicans Carpetbaggers had mixed motivesSome felt the Republican gov’t offered Some were Freedmen’s Bureauthe best chance for the S. to rebuild and agents, teachers, and ministers who felt aindustrialize moral duty to help former slavesMostly small farmers who wanted to Others wanted to buy land or hoped to startimprove their eco. & pol. position & new industries legitimatelyprevent the planters from regainingpowers Others lived up to the reputation
Review- Comparing What were some Answer: Somesimilarities in the goals of carpetbaggers andscalawags and scalawags shared the goalcarpetbaggers? Of of making a profit. Somecarpetbaggers and African African Americans andAmericans? some carpetbaggers shared the goal of improving African-American lives.
★Unwelcome Guest- 1872★ Thomas Nast [1840-1902] Cartoon from a S. Democratic newspaper depicts Carl Shurz, a liberal Republican who advocated legal equality for African Americans. Shurz is shown as a carpetbagger trudging down a dusty S. road as a crowd of people watch his arrival. 1. Is Shurz shown in a positive or negative light? How can you tell? 2. Why do you think the cartoonist portrays the S. people standing in a group, far away from Shurz?
African Americans as VotersGained rights as of 15thAmendment9:10 supported the RepublicanPartyRelatively few could read &write, but eager to exercise votingrightsAlmost 90% of the qualifiedAfrican-Americans voted1868- N. in AL observed that “indefiance offatigue, hardship, hunger, andthreats of employers”- African- Woodcut from a newspaper showing a freedmen votingAmericans still flocked to the polls. in D.C.- June 1867
Political DifferencesConflicting goals led to disunity in the Republican PartyFew scalawags shared the Republican commitment to civil rights & suffrage for AfricanAmericans, over time many returned to the Democratic partySome Republican governors began to appoint white Democrats to office to persuade morewhite voters to vote RepublicanPolicy backfired- convinced very few white Democrats to change parties and the blacks feltbetrayedNew states of African Americans required fundamental changes in the attitudes of most S.whitesSome whites supported the Republicans during Reconstruction & thought the end of slaverywould ultimately benefit the S.Some s. farmers & merchants though that investment by M. would help the S. recover from thewarMany white S. refused to accept blacks’ new status and resisted equal rightsWhite S. had to accept defeat and the day-to-day involvement of N. in their livesSeveral thousand planters emigrated to Europe, Mexico or Brazil after the war
Review- Analyzing Motives What do you think the Answer: They may have former Confederates who hoped to start a new life emigrated hoped to in a country where they accomplish? wouldn’t be reminded of their defeat.
Former Slaves Face Many Challenges Slaves had been forbidden to travel without permission, to marry legally, to attend school, and to live and work as they chose. After the war, 4 million former slaves gained the chance to take control of their lives
New-Won FreedomsAt first many former slaves werecautious about testing the limits oftheir freedomWithoutland, jobs, tools, money, and withfew skills besides those offarming, what could they do?Thousands were eager to leaveplantations they associated withoppression and moved to S. townsand cities to find jobs1865-1870: African Americanpopulation of the 10 largest S. citiesdoubled
Reunification of Families Slavery split many families apart Many freed African Americans took adv. of their new mobility to search for loves ones 1865- one man walked +600 mi. from GA to NC to find his wife/children Freedmen’s Bureau worked to reunite families African-American newspapers pointed to “Information Wanted” notices about missing relatives Many cases never found Now could legally marry and raise children w/out fear of them being sold Reconstructing families was important to est. an identity as freed people
EducationNearly 80% of freed African Americans over 20 wereilliterate in 1870 [due to being punished if they tried tolearn]Freed people of all ages sought educationAfrican Americans est. educational inst. Inc.Freedmen’s Bureau and African-American churchesHampton Institute in VA1870- $1mil. spent of Edu.Teachers were N whites, however some blacks becameteachers- 1869- black teachers outnumbered whitesSome white S. responded with violence- i.e.Washington Eager, murdered b/c he could read &write1877- 600,000 were enrolled in elementary schools
Churches & Volunteer Groups Resenting the preachers who urged slaves to obey their masters, slaves created “praise meetings” African Americans after the war founded Baptist or Methodist churches African-American ministers emerged as influential community leaders playing an important role in political life Thousands formed volunteers organizations like fire companies, trade associations, political organizations and drama groups Fostered independence & provided financial & emotional support for members Offered African Americans opportunities to gain leadership skills
Politics & African Americans1865-1877 saw growing African-Americans in pols.Held office in local, state and fed.Gov’tMinisters or teachers who had beenedu. in the N.Even though pop. in the same werenearly =, black officeholders were aminorityOnly SC had a black majority in statelegislatureOut of 125 S. elected to Congressduring congressionalReconstruction, only 16 were blacki.e.- Hiram Revels- the 1st AfricanAmerican Senator
Review- Summarizing How did freed African Answer: They searchedAmericans try to improve for missing familytheir lives? members, sought an education, formed churches and volunteer groups, and built up their political power.
Laws Against SegregationBy the end of 1866 most RepublicanS. states repealed black codesAfrican-American legis. Proposeddesegregation of public transportation1871- TX passed a law prohibiting rrfrom making distinctions b/wpassengersState orphanages, had separatefacilities for white and black childrenAfrican Americans focused more onbuilding up the black communitythan total integrationSchools, churches, political, socialorganizations that were separateallowed the focus on AfricanAmerican leadership & escape fromwhite interference
40 Acres + A MuleJan. 1865- Sherman had promised Many freedmen asserted they deservedthe freed slaves who followed his part of the planters’ landarmy 40 acres per family & the useof army mules AL black convention argued that the property was earned through black laborAfterward- 40,000 freed personssettled on 400,000 abandoned or Thaddeus Stevens called for governmentforfeited acres in coastal GA & SC confiscation and redistributionFarmed until Aug. 1865- Pres. Republicans considered it wrong to seizeJohnson ordered the original propertylandowners be allowed to reclaimtheir land & evict former slaves 1866- Homestead Act- set aside 44 million acres in the S. for freed blacks and loyal whites, land was swampy & unsuitable for farming + few homesteaders had resources- seed, tools, plows and horses to farm successfully
Southern Homestead Act of 1866Passed on July 21, 1866, theSouthern Homestead Act openedup 46 million acres of public landfor sale in 160-acreplots in the Southern states ofAlabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi.The primary beneficiaries for thefirst six months were freedmen whowere in desperate need of land totill.Before too much land wasdistributed, however, the law wasrepealed in June 1876
Review- Identifying Problems What caused land-reform Answer: Many proposals to fail? Republicans in Congress thought it was wrong to take citizens’ private property, land set aside was unsuitable for farming, and former slaves lacked farming supplies.
Restoration of PlantationsSome former slaves worked in Economic necessity forced many formermills or railroad-construction slaves to sign labor contracts w/ planterscrews In exchange for wages, housing, andOthers tried subsistence food, freedmen worked in the fieldsfarming- just enough for theirown families Freedmen’s Bureau promoted this wage- labor system, arrangement did not satisfyTo stop this, white planters freedmen or planterswere determined to keepformer slaves from getting Freedmen though the wages were too lowland that they could use tosupport themselves White employers had too much control over them Planters often lacked sufficient cash to pay workers Conditions led to an experiment: sharecropping and tenant farming
Sharecropping and Tenant Farmingsharecropping n. a system in tenant farming n. a systemwhich landowners give farm in which farm workersworkers land, seed, and tools supply their own tools andin return for a part of the rent farmland for cash.crops they raise. Possibility for moving upAnnual renewing of economic ladder to becomearrangement owners Most farmers bought their supplies on credit, and inflated prices Rarely harvested enough crops to pay for both past debts and future supplies
Cotton No Longer KingDuring the war demand for S. cotton had begun to drop, as other countries had their ownproduction meansPrices plummeted1869- 16.5 cents per pound, by 1870s- 8 cents per poundInstead of diversifying their crops, s. planters tried to make up for lower prices by growing more-leading to oversupply that drove prices down moreTextile mills sprang up, and tobacco-product planting took holdDiversification helped raise the average wage in the S. though it was still lower than N. workersState banks were saddled with Confederate debts- loans made to the Confederate governmentBanks awaited repayment, mostly never cameMany banks failed, credit only given by local merchantsRippled into 20th century lifeMany whites frustrated took anger out on African Americans- late 1860s and early 1870s, whitegroups embarked on terrorizing African Americans into giving up their political rights andeconomic improvement
Review- Analyzing Causes What factors contributed Answer: Confederateto the stagnation of the debts, declining demandSouthern economy? and falling prices for cotton, and the ongoing impact of Civil War devastation.
SummarizerIn a chart, list 5 problems facing the South after theCivil War and at least 1 attempted solution for each: Problem Attempted Solution
The Collapse of ReconstructionLearning Goal: Analyze the impact of the Civil War andthe 14th Amendment on the development of thecountry and on the relationship between the nationaland state governments.NJCCCS: 6.1.12.D.4.e
Warm Up-How would you react when you have a good idea, butdon’t have the money to implement it?If you were in the political arena, how would you dealwith opponents who had the money or power youlacked?
Institutional Racism1868- White GA legis.- maj. in bothhouses, expelled 27 black membersof the state senate and HoRNew state constitution gave AfricanAmericans the right to vote, but notto hold officeOutraged, Henry M. Turner, anAfrican-American legis. Became aleading proponent of African-American emigration to AfricaExpelled legis. petitioned the U.S.Congress, eventually werereinstatedBy the time they acted, more than ayear later, the terms of Turner andcolleagues were almost at an end
Opposition to Reconstruction W. Southerners who took Most W. S. swallowed direct action against resentment African-American participation in gov’t were Some bitter ones relied on the minority violence
Ku Klux KlanKu Klux Klan (KKK) n. a secretorganization that used terroristtactics in an attempt to restore whitesupremacy in Southern states afterthe Civil War.Founded as a social club forConfederate veteransBegan in TN in 18661868- existed in every S. stateGoals: Prevent African Americans from exercising their political rights b/w 1868-1871- killed thousands of men, women, and children & burned schools, churches and property
Klan Victims & Goals Majority of Klan victims were African-American, Whites who helped [edu., renting land, buying their crops] Klan obj: turn the Republicans out of power NC state senator, John Stephens- answered warning that his life was in danger by saying that 3,000 African American voters had supported him at the risk “of persecution and starvation” and that he would not abandon them. Stephens was assassinated in 1870.
Mississippi BurningKlan members tried to conceal their identifiesS. Democrats openly used violence to intimidate Republicans before the 1875 stateelection in MSDemocrats rioted & attacked Republican leaders & prominent African AmericansTerrorist campaign frightened the African-American majority away from the pollsW. Democratic candidates swept the electionDemocrats used similar tactics to win 1876 elections in FL, SC, LA
Review- Analyzing Motives What were the goals of Answer: To destroy the the KKK? Republican Party, oust the Reconstruction governments, help planters control African- American laborers, and prevent African Americans from exercising their political rights.
Economic PressureKlan & other secret groups tried toprevent African Americans frommaking economic [& political]progressAfrican Americans who owned theirown land or worked in occupationsother than agriculture were subjectto attacks & destruction or propertyEconomic necessity forced mostformer slaves to work for whites aswage laborers or share-croppersSome W. S. refused to hired or dobusiness with blacks revealed to havevoted RepublicanThis fear led to many former slavesrefusing to vote
Legislative ResponseTo curtail Klan violence & Democratic intimidation, Congresspassed a series of Enforcement Act in 1870 & 1871One provided for federal supervision of elections in S. statesAnother act gave the president the power to use federal troops inareas where the Klan was activeGrant was not aggressive in his use of the power given to him1882- Supreme Court ruled the 1871 Enforcement ActunconstitutionalFederal enforcement of anti-Klan legislation was limited, it didcontribute to a decrease in Klan activities in the late 1870sBy 1880, terrorist groups managed to restore white supremacythroughout the SouthKlan no longer needed such organized activity to limit the politicaland civil rights of most African Americans
Review- Identifying Problems Why was the government Answer: Grant chose not weak in its ability to to exercise the power confront the Klan? given to him by the Enforcement Acts, and the Supreme Court later struck down one of the acts.
Shifts in Political PowerCongress passed legis. that severelyweakened the Republican Party inthe SouthAmnesty Act- May 1872- Congressreturned the right to vote and theright to hold federal and stateoffices- revoked by the 14thAmendment- to about 150,000former ConfederatesCongress allowed the Freedmen’sBureau to expire, believing it hadfulfilled its purposeS. Democrats had an opportunityto shift the balance of politicalpowerAmnesty- a pardon granted by agovernment, especially for politicaloffenses
Scandals & Money Crises Hurt Republicans S. Republicans struggled to maintain their hold on Reconstruction governments Widespread political corruption in the federal government weakened their party During the 1870s, scandals plagued Grant’s administration Scandals diverted public attention away from conditions in the South.
Cartoon showing Ulysses S.Grant, as an acrobat, ontrapeze "third term," holdingon to "whiskey ring" and"Navy ring," with strap"corruption" in hismouth, holding up otheracrobats, Shepard, George M.Robeson, William W.Belknap, Murphy, Williams, and Orville E. Babcock.Illus. in: Puck, v. 6, 1880 Feb.4, pp. 782-783.
Fraud & BriberyGrant was considered an honestman, however he had nopolitical experienceFound it difficult to believe thatothers might use him for hisown political advantageAppointed friends andacquaintances, rather thanthose with abilitiesGrant’s appointees turned outto be dishonest
SCANDAL Beginning- 1872- long-simmering scandals associated with Grant’s admin. boiled over Newspaper exposed how the Crédit Mobilier, a construction company for Union Pacific Railroad, had skimmed off large profits from the railroad’s government contract Several top Republicans including VP Schuyler Colfax were implicated
“Depiction of Uncle Sam scolding party participants for eating his cake, which is labeled "Crédit Mobilier" in this 1873 political cartoon titled "Injured Innocents." Crédit Mobilier was a company created to underwrite the construction of the transcontinental Union Pacific Railroad. The company sold shares at low rates or gave away shares to influential congress members in return for political favors."A scheme that was eventually exposed in 1872. It was a scheme used by theUnion Pacific Railroad. They were overcharging construction costs to taxpayersand manipulating the share prices of Crédit Mobilier of America.IMPORTANCE: Another example of the gilded age and corruption. Thegovernment had little economic regulations over big businesses so scandalsor monopolies such as this were common.
Republican Unity SHATTEREDA group of Republicans, angered by Democrats also nominatedthe corruption formed the Liberal Greeley believing a unitedRepublican Party in 1872 effort was needed to oust Granthoped to oust Grant in thepresidential election Greeley lost in 1872 to Grant by a wide marginChose Horace Greeley, editor of theNew York Tribune and a vocal pre- Physically exhausted byCivil War abolitionist as their campaigning, Greeley died acandidate few weeks after the election- before the electoral collegeGreeley supported abolition & made his defeat official.14th, 15th Amendments Breakdown of RepublicanBroke with Radicals by calling for unity made it harder foruniversal amnesty for Confederates Radicals to continue to& an end to military rule in the impose their ReconstructionSouth plan on the SouthClaimed Reconstruction served itspurpose and former slaves shouldfend for themselves
Whiskey Ring Scandal1875- Whiskey Ring scandalexposed Internal-revenue collectors & other officials accepted bribes from whiskey distillers Distillers who wanted to avoid paying taxes on their product Conspiracy defrauded the federal government millions of dollars 1 of the 238 implicated officials was Grant’s private secretary: Gen. Orville E. Babcock Grant: “I hope I get to the bottom soon”
Trading Post Ring: 1876-More Scandal investigation revealed Sec. of War- William W. Belknap accepted bribes from merchants who wanted to keep their profitable trading concessions in Indian territory HoR- impeached Belknap, who resigned Cattelism: George Robeson, Sec. of the Navy took bribes from shipbuilders, Delano Affair: Columbus Delano,Sec. of the Interior, had shady deals with land speculators Increasing disgust and blatant corruption in the Grant administration let to him not seeking reelection in 1876.
Review- Summarizing Gives examples ofcorruption in the Grantadministration. Answer: Crédit Mobilier, The Whiskey Ring, the Delano Affair, Cattelism, accepta nce of bribes, dishonest dealings, etc.
The Panic of 1873Economy had been expanding Not enough investors bought sharessince the end of the Civil in Cooke’s RR lines to cover theWar, investors became convinced ballooning constructionthat business profits would costs, resulting in Cooke not beingcontinue to increase indefinitely able to pay his debtsN. & S. investors borrowed Sept. of 1873- Cooke’s bankingincreasing amounts of $$ to build firm, the nation’s largest dealer innew facilities in the South as government securities, wentquickly as possible to take bankrupt- seeing off a new financialadvantage of new business depressionopportunities. panic of 1873 n. a series ofUnfortunately, many took on more financial failures that triggered adebt than they could afford five-year depression in the United States.Philly banker named Jay Cookeinvested heavily in RRs w/in a yr.- 89 RR went broke, 1875- 18,000 companies had folded, 3 million workers were unemployed
BANK PANICCARTOON, 1873.Out of the Ruins.Thomas Nasts depiction ofPresident Ulysses S. Grantas the nations financialsavior following BlackFriday,’Date: September 19th, 1873.
Despite the ghastlyappearance of the figurerepresenting financialpanic,this New York Daily Graphiccover cartoon ofSeptember29, 1873, subscribed tothe belief that suchfinancial “busts” cleansedthe economy, weeding outinefficient businesses andallowing the strong tosurvive.
Review- Predicting Effects What effect do you think Answer: People may havethe panic of 1873 might blamed the Republicanshave had on the for the panic and lostRepublican Party? their faith in their ability to govern.
Currency DisputeEconomic depression following the In Contrast- S. & W. farmers &panic of 1873 fueled dispute over manufactures, wanted the gov’t tocurrency issue more greenbacksDuring Civil War, federal gov’t Believed that “easy $”- a lrg. $ supplybegan to issue greenbacks, paper would help pay off debtsmoney that was not backed by equalvalue in gold 1875- Congress passed the Specie Resumption Act, promised to put theWar ended, financial experts country back on the gold standardadvocated withdrawing thegreenbacks and returning to Act sparked debate over monetarycurrency backed by gold policiesAction would have reduced # of $ in Economy improved beginning incirculation 1878, controversy died down Debate over $ in the 1970s drew the attention of voters & politicians away from Reconstruction
Judicial & Popular Support Fades1874- S. Democratic senator:“Radicalism is dissolving- goingto pieces”W/ politicalscandals, economicproblems, & the restoration ofpolitical rights to formerConfederate Democratsseriously weakened the RadicalRepublicansSupreme Court began to undothe social & political changesthat the Radicals had made
Supreme Court DecisionsDuring 1870s- Court issued series of decisions that undermined both the 14th &15th AmendmentsSlaughterhouse cases of 1873- Court decided that the 14th Amendment protectedonly the rights people had by virtue of their citizenship in the U.S. Right of interstate travel Right to federal protection when traveling on the high seas & abroad Courts contended most of Americans’ basic civil rights were obtained through their citizenship in a state that the amendment did not protect those rightsU.S. v. Cruikshank 1876, Court ruled the 14th Amendment did not give the federalgovernment the right to punish individual whites who oppressed blacksU.S. v. Reese, Court ruled in favor of officials who had barred African Americansfrom voting, stating the 15th Amendment did not “confer the right of suffrage onanyone” but merely listed grounds on which states could not deny suffrageLate 1870s, Supreme Court’s restrictive rulings had narrowed the scope of theseamendments so much the fed. Gov’t no longer had much power to protect therights of African AmericansAlthough the Supreme Court would later overturn them, these decisions impededAfrican Americans’ efforts to gain equality for years to come
Review- Analyzing Effects How did the Answer: The decisionsSlaughterhouse and Reese hurt African Americans’decisions affect African pursuit of civil rights byAmericans’ pursuit of civil limiting the federalrights? government’s ability to protect those rights
Northern Support FadesAs Supreme Court rejected Both judicial and public supportReconstruction policies in the decreased, Republicans began to back1870s, N. voters grew indifferent to away from Reconstructionevents in the S. Impassioned Radicals- Charles SumnerWeary of “the Negro question” & sick & Thaddeus Stevens, were deadof “carpetbag gov’t”- N. Voters shiftedattention to Panic of 1873 & Business interests diverted the attentioncorruption in the Grant of both moderates and Radicalsadministration Scalawags and Carpetbaggers desertedDesire for reconciliation b/w the the Republican Partyregions spread throughout the N. Republicans gradually came to believePolitical violence continued in the S. that gov’t could not impose the moral& African Americans were denied and social changes needed for formercivil & political rights, the tide of slaves to make progress in the Southpublic opinion in the N. began toturn against Reconstruction policies. Republicans slowly retreated from Reconstruction
Review- Analyzing Effects Why did Northern Answer: Political scandal,attitudes toward the panic of 1873, a desireReconstruction change? for reconciliation, and Republicans’ faltering commitment to Reconstruction drew the North’s attention away from the problems of Reconstruction.
Democrats “Redeem” the Southb/w 1869 & 1875 Democrats Tiden helped clean up the graft thatrecaptured the state governments of flourished under the corrupt TweedAL, AR, GA, MS, NC, TN, TX, VA Ringredemption n. the Southern Tiden won the popular vote but fellDemocrats’ term for their return to one short of the electoral votes andpower in the South in the 1870s. 20 electoral votes were disputedCongressional Reconstruction Congress appointed a commissionofficially came to an end with to deal with the problemnational election of 1876 Omission, which had a Republican1876- Grant decided not to run for majority gave the election to thea 3rd term, Republicans chose Ohio Republican, Hayes, even though hegov. Rutherford B. Hayes, received a minority of the popularDemocrats chose Gov. Samuel J. voteTiden of NY
Election of 18761st time in U.S. history, acandidate who had lost thepopular election became thepresidentParty leaders made a dealRepublicans controlled theelectoralcommission, Democratscontrolled the HoR whichhad to approve the electionresultsS. Democrats were willing toaccept Hayes if they gotsomething in return
Compromise of 1870Compromise of 1877 n. a series ofcongressional measures underwhich the Democrats agreed toaccept the Republican candidateRutherford B. Hayes aspresident, even though he had lostthe popular vote. The measuresincluded the withdrawal of federaltroops from Southernstates, federal money for improvingSouthern infrastructure, and theappointment of a conservativeSouthern cabinet member.Acceptance of Compromise meantthe end of the Reconstruction
Home Rule in the SouthAfter Republicans & Democrats Democrats achieved: home rule n. adisputed the results in LA and SC’s state’s powers of governing itselections, both states ended up with citizens without federal government2 rival state gov’ts involvement.Hayes removed federal troops in So-called Redeemers set out tothose states, Democrats took over rescue the South from what they viewed as a decade ofFL had questionable election mismanagement byreturns, but state supreme court Northerners, Republicans &ruled in favor of the Democrats African AmericansRepublicans no longer controlled Passed laws that restricted the rightsthe government of any Southern of African Americans, wiped outstate. social programs, slashed taxes, and dismantled public schools
Review- Analyzing Causes How did the Compromise Answer: Theof 1877 bring about the compromiseend of Reconstruction? included the withdrawal of federal troops from the South. Without enforcement, Recon struction measures ended, and Democrats took over Southern governments.
Legacy of ReconstructionReconstruction ended w/out much real progress in the battle againstdiscriminationRadical Republicans made several serious mistakes1st- assumed that extending certain civil rights to freed persons wouldenable them to protect themselves through participation ingov’t, especially in lawmakingCongress did not adequately protect those rights, & the SupremeCourt undermined them2nd- Radicals balked at distributing land to former slaves, preventingthem from becoming economically independent of the landowningplanter classFinally- Radicals did not fully realize the extend to which deep-seatedracism in society would weaken the changes that Congress tried tomake
Not a Complete Failure13th Amendment permanently abolished slavery in all of the statesRadical Republicans succeeded in passing the 14th & 15thAmendments, and although the Supreme Court narrowed theinterpretation during they 1870s- they remained a part of theConstitution20th Century- amendments provided the necessary constitutionalfoundation for important civil rights legislationDuring Reconstruction, African Americans had founded manyblack colleges & volunteers organizations, and the % of literateAfrican Americans had gradually increasedMemory of this time of expanding opportunities lives in theAfrican-American community and inspire the fight to regain civilrights.