The Second Great Awakening1790s- Americanstook part in aChristian renewalcalled the SecondGreat Awakening.[New York throughthe frontier:Kentucky, Ohio,Tennessee, & SouthCarolina].By 1820s/1830s- newinterest spread inNew England, theAppalachians, and theSouth.
Charles Grandison Finney- 1821 left law after a dramatic religious conversion. Challenged Protestant beliefs Stated each individual was responsible for their own salvation Believed sin was avoidable Many converted to Christianity during these revivals. Told converts t0 demonstrate their faith through good deeds.
Finney’s preaching angered some 1st Amendment guaranteed freedom of religion & prevented local or state gov’s from passing laws banning new religious practices. Result = Church membership across country More women/African Americans involved Renewed Americans’ religious faith Forums for messages turned into large gatherings [20,000 people]. Gatherings known as revivals
Revival How did the Second GreatMeetings Awakening affect Americans? Religious revivals sweptthe United States in theearly 1800s. Somemeetings drew up to20,000 people at a timeto huge outdoor camps.James Finley, who laterbecame a Methodistpreacher, described onerevival as a “vast sea ofhuman beings [that]seemed to be agitatedas if by a storm.”Preachers traveled fromtown to town, urgingsinners to seeksalvation.
2nd GA- brought Christianity to enslaved African Americans Strong democratic impulse in the new churches and a belief that all people- black or white belonged to the same God New Baptist or Methodist churches open to Blacks and 19th Century tray depicting Lemuel Whites Haynes preaching in his Vermont Congressional Church
Slaves in rural South In the East- free African were segregated in pews Americans worshipped in of their own but separate black churches worshipped in the same like the African churches, heard the Methodist Episcopal same sermons/hymns as Church did slave owners Church became a Enslaved African political, cultural and Americans interpreted social center for African the Christian message as Americans providing a promise of freedom for schools and other their people. services denied by whites
The 1st black national convention occurred in Philly [Sept. 1830] Richard Allen convened and participants explored the possibility of settlement for free African Americans and fugitive slaves in Canada. Soon became an annual convention of free blacks in the north Church gave members: deep inner faith, strong sense of community and spiritual support to oppose slavery
transcendentalismIdea that people could rise above the material things in life; philosophyshared by some New England writers and thinkers in the mid-1800s.
Essay in 1841- “Self- Reliance” stated that people depend on too much institution and traditions. Wanted people to follow their own beliefs and use their own judgment
Fuller wrote Woman in the Nineteenth Century Wrote how women had the right to choose their own paths in life. Some saw her as a champion of women’s rights
Believed in Self-Reliance 2 years lived alone in a cabin in Walden Pond, Mass. “I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could learn what it had to teach, and not, when I cam to die, discover that I had not lived.”
In Walden , Thoreau advised readers to follow their inner voice believing in individual conscience Urged people not to obey laws they considered unjust Instead of protesting with violence, they should peacefully refuse to obey those laws. Protest known as civil disobedience [the refusal to obey those laws which are seen as unjust in an effort to bring about a change in governmental policy. Tactic promoted by MLK JR.]
In what way did Answer: Thoreau’s experience Transcendentalists at Walden reflect stressed self-reliance transcendentalist and the ability to be beliefs? close to nature. Thoreau showed both qualities when he lived alone for two years at Walden pond.
Rather than appealing to the emotions, Unitarians emphasized reason and appeals to conscience as the paths to perfection. Quickly attracted a wealthy and educated following. Believed conversion was a gradual process William Ellery Channing, prominent Unitarian leader- asserted that the purpose of Christianity was “the perfection of human nature, the elevation of men into nobler beings” Unitarians agreed with revivalists that individual and social reform were both possible and important
How did the Answer: the Unitarians Unitarians’ approach believed conversion to religious experience was achieved through a differ from the gradual process using revivalists? reason, rather than through an emotional moment in a revival
Utopian Communities How did transcendentalists believe people should live?In the 1840s sometranscendentalistsformed a community atBrook Farm,Massachusetts. BrookFarm did not last verylong, however. It was oneof many experiments withutopian communities thattook place in America.These communities triedto form a perfect societyon Earth. SomeAmericans foundedutopian communities asplaces to practice theirreligious beliefs.
Thomas Cole- Painter of American LandscapesNathaniel Hawthorne- author of the Scarlet Letter
Edgar Allan Poe “Once upon a midnight dreary,1 while I pondered,2 weak and weary, Over many a quaint3 and curious volume of forgotten lore4 — While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door—‘‘Tis some visiter,’ I muttered, ‘tapping at my chamber door—Only this and nothing more.’”
Emily What was the romantic movement, and who were some of the majorDickinson American artists and writers of this movement?Born in 1830, This is my letter to theEmily Dickinson World That never wrote to Me-led a quiet life The simple News thatin Amherst, Nature told-Massachusetts. With tender Majesty Her Message is committed To Hands, I cannot see- For love of Her- Sweet- countrymen Judge tenderly- of Me.
Explain how immigration intensified ethnic and cultural conflicts and complicated the forging of a national identity. NJCCCS 6.1.12.D.3.b
What factor shapes an immigrant’s experience?
<4mil. Immigrants U.S. b/w 1840-1860 Most from Europe <3mil. Of these- German or Irish Many fleeing economic or political troubles in native countries
Mid-1840s potato blight, disease causing rot- left Ireland w/ little food. “One business survives! That fortunate business… is the Irish coffin-maker” Most immigrants settled in Mass., NJ, NY, PA Worked building canals, RRs; women as domestic servants. Poor wages forced immigrants to live in poor housing.
1848- Germans revolted against harsh rule Educated Germans can to escape persecution or economic reasons While Irish were Catholic, Germans were Protestant, Catholic or Jews Moved to Michigan, Ohio & Wisconsin Chicago Daily Tribune: Germans: “fitted to do the cheap… labor of the country”
Industrialization + Immigrants = changed the American labor force. Chance of getting farmland in Midwest drew many immigrants to this area. Industrial jobs in N.E. drew immigrants to cheap labor in many towns/cities New jobs fueled local economies New jobs: clerks, merchants, supervisors, professional workers
Native-born citizens feared losing their jobs to immigrants who might work for lower wages. Felt threatened by the different cultures and religions of immigrant groups. Before Catholics, many Americans were protestants
1840s/1850s Nativists became politically active Main goal was to stir up anti-immigrant feeling “Look at the . . . thieves and vagabonds [tramps], roaming about our streets . . . monopolizing [taking] the business which properly belongs to our own native and true- born citizens.”
1849 Political Party founded by Nativists Named b/c when questioned replied “I know nothing” Wanted to keep Catholics/Immigrants out of public office Wanted immigrants to live in U.S. for >21 yrs before they could be citizens Some success, won state elections during 1850s Controlled Mass. Legis. For a short time
How did the Industrial Revolution and the Transportation Revolution affectlife in American cities?
Rise of industry & growth of cities changed American life. Business owners or skilled workers benefitted most New class grew, Middle class- social/economic level b/w wealthy & poor Cities were compact/crowded Many walked to work
Cities in early & mid 1800s faced challenges due to rapid growth Crowded conditions meant poor wage workers meant people lived by class Lack of safe housing/public services Immigrants lived in tenements
Did not have clean water, public health regulations or clean ways to get rid of garbage/human waste Diseases spread easily 1832-49- NYC- Cholera killed thousands of people Cities- criminal activities NYC, Boston, Philly had no permanent police force, but volunteer ones Fire protection meant hands pumps and buckets
What specific changesto policies and lawshave you noticed duringyour lifetime?
Discuss the role of women and blacks in significant social reform movements prior to the Civil War (including women’s suffrage, abolition, temperance, education and psychiatric care reform) Cristo Rey Network Benchmark: 9.11.3
Dorothea “I come to present the strong claims of suffering humanity . . . the miserable, the desolate [deserted], the outcast . . . to call your attention to the present state of insane personsDix confined within this Commonwealth, in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained, naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience.”In 1841 Dorothea Dixvisited a jail in Cambridge,Massachusetts, to teach aSunday school class. Whatshe saw there shocked her.Mentally ill women werejailed beside commoncriminals in dirty cells. Dixbecame angry at theconditions she found there These cages were used toand in other Massachusetts confine mentally illjails. As a result, she began people. Mentally illto work to improve the usually put in prisons withcare of mentally ill people criminalsacross the country. Shejoined many other women After Dix’s influence- more than 100reformers in the early and state hospital were built where mentallymid-1800s. ill received professional care.
ReformSchoolsChildren whocommitted crimes: •Begging •StealingTreated the same ascriminals.Boston mayor JosiahQuincy asked fordifferent punishments.1820s founded reformschools for children.Lived under strictrules, & receivedvocational training.
Prison How did reformers try to changeOvercrowding prisons in the early 1800s?Reformers tried toend over-crowdingin Prisons as well ascruel punishments.Efforts led to thecreation of housesof correction.Instead of onlypunishment,rehabilitationthrough educationbecame thepreferred method.
• believed Americans were drinking @ an alarming rate• 1830s- avg. alcohol consumption was 7gallons/yr• alcohol caused social problems: • family violence • Poverty • Criminal behavior• urged people to stop drinking hard liquor &limit beer &wine• People who drank were “neglecting the education of their families- and corrupting their morals”
Temperance What were the goals of theMovement temperance movement?[Lyman Beecher]•Maine law1846- illegal tosell alcohol•1855-dozenstates w/similar laws
Earl 1800s- poor public education Immigration reformers argued education would help Americans become good workers in citizens Most believed this/but did not expect children to receive a great deal of formal schools Many children worked in factories or farms to help support families Parents wanted children to read the Bible, write, and do simple math.
New England had the most schoolhouses South & West had the fewest Most teachers were untrained young men Taught before becoming farmers or practicing another trade
Textbooks in mid-1800s- McGuffey’s Readers put together by William McGuffey a Presbyterian Minister. Different backgrounds received education differently: Rich- private schools; hired tutors Poor- only public school Girls- could go, often kept home- fewer girls learned to read.
Common Why did Horace Mann want toSchool improve schools, and what did heMovement accomplish?•Wanted all children to beeducated in a commonground•1st Sec. of Edu. In Mass-1837•Former lawyer/legis.•Doubled state schoolbudget•Helped teachers earn bettersalaries•Made school year longer•Founded first teachertraining school•Ideas spread to LatinAmerica and Europe•Set standard for educationreform
Examine the implementation of public education in terms of access by race, gender and immigrant group in this period Cristo Rey Network Benchmark: 9.11.5
1800s TodayDraw a two column chart in your notebook School Resourceswith the headings 1800s and today. Complete # of students perit based on the following categories:classStudents’ attitudetowardseducationParents’ attitude:Importance ofeducation toemploymentClassorganization
Pre-1820s few women could attend class beyond grade school Catharine Beecher, reformer of Women’s edu. Early 1800s Believed women were better at teaching the moral lessons that made good citizens Wrote several essays i.e.: On the Education of Female Teachers
1821- Troy, NY- Emma Willard founded a college-level institute for Women Troy Female Seminary Studied diff. subj: Ranging from Math to Philosophy B/w 1821-1872, <12,000 women attended
Mt. Holyoke in Mass Oberlin College, Ohio Mary Lyon First co-educational “I am doing a great college in U.S. work, I cannot come down”
“School was kept occasionally. It was regarded a great favorto have it allowed at any time. Each pupil or scholar paid ondollar per month. Often there was no school because therewas no teacher” –James Thomas, From Slavery to Freedom
Went to separate schools than whites NY African Free school, NYC-1787 produced notable scholars/leaders Philly- 7 schools for black students 1820- elem. School/Boston 1855- allowed to go to white schools
What educational challenges did women and African Americans face in the 1800s? Rarely attended college, Black Colleges: only few institutions 1842- Institute for Colored avail. For higher learning Youth 1835- Oberlin- 1st College 1849- Avery College in for African Americans Philly Later Harvard joined South few able to attain edu. Laws prevented slaves from receiving edu., due to whites’ fears of potential slave rebellions
Pg. 406- this typewriter produced raised dots representing the alphabetcreated by Louis Braille for visually impaired people
Samuel Gridley Howe worked w/ visually impaired Prison reform Education reform Care if mentally ill 1831- Perkins Institution [Mass] for visually impaired Travelled to 17 other states to talk about teaching visually impaired Ran Perkins for 45 years
What kinds of schools werefounded for people withdisabilities? After Yale, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet Eur. 2yrs. Living with hearing impaired 1817- 1st free American school for hearing impaired- Hartford Conn. Principal till 1830 Prof. of Philosophy @ NYU Called for special schools to train teachers Wrote textbooks for children/people w/ hearing impairments Gallaudet University in Wash. Named after him.
All students with brown eyeswill take a pop quiz today, whilethe rest of the class will play agame.Write your feelings about this.
Analyze the moral arguments for and against the abolition of slavery Cristo Rey Network Benchmark: 9.11.1
In the years between 1810-1830- slavery doubled from 1.2 million to 2 million By 1830, the majority of slaves were born in America and spoke enough English to be able to communicate with other slaves On large plantations, men, women and even children toiled from dawn to dusk in the fields. The whip of the overseer or slave driver compelled them to work faster
By 1830s, the promise of cotton wealth had lured many Southern whites into farming, thus creating a shortage of white laborers for such industries as mining and lumber As a result, demand arose for slaves as workers in mills and on ships Slaves who had developed specialized skills on plantations were now in demand in Southern cities Slaves filled skilled occupations such as blacksmithing or carpentry resulting in a new class of skilled black laborers Enslaved blacks could hire themselves out as artisans in Southern cities, often more easily than free blacks in the North, where racial discrimination prevailed
Born into slavery in 1800 in Captured, tried and VA hanged; and in retaliation- Gifted preacher- believed whites killed as many as he was chosen to lead his 200 blacks, many innocent people out of bondage Rebellion strengthened the Aug. 1831- judged an resolve of Southern white eclipse of the sun to be a to defend slavery and to divine signal for action control their slaves Along with 80 followers, attacked four plantations and killed almost 60 whites until they were captured by state and federal troops
Some argued that the only way to prevent further slave revolts was through emancipation Others wanted tougher restrictions on slaves
VA Gov. John Floyd Many believed education wrote of his wish for a and privledge inspired “law gradually abolishing revolt slavery in this State” Many slave owners Jan. 1832- state pushed legislation to legislature hotly debated place further controls Resulted in a motion for These became known as abolition the slave codes Motion lost 73 to 58 in a vote Debate closed the issue of slavery in the antebellum period
1833- Alabama forbade free and enslaved blacks from preaching the gospel unless “respectable slaveholders were present” 1835- NC- last state in South to deny the vote to free blacks Blacks lost rights to own guns, purchase alcohol, assemble in public, and testify in court Some Southern cities barred African Americans from owning property, learn to read and write or work independently
Abolition•1830s Americans who hadbeen against slavery foryears began to takeorganized action.•formed a movement tosupport abolition•Some wantedimmediate emancipation.
Minority in U.S. but very vocal Different backgrounds/diff. reasons Quakers [religious grounds] Ministers of 2nd Great Awakening [morals] Political theorists [ideals of Declaration of Independence]
Abolitionists disagreed what ending slavery would mean Should be treated the same as whites Opposed full social and political equality for African Americans Send African Americans to Africa to prevent racial conflict
American Colonization Society•1817 founded byRobert Finley•5 yrs later-founded colony ofLiberia on Westcoast of Africa•12,000 AfricanAmericans settledthere•Many who oncefavoredcolonization,turned against
Speaking tours Wrote newspaper articles/pamphlets Poetry Literature William Lloyd Garrison The Liberator 1831 Founded the American Anti-Slavery Society
Stand your Liberator & Anti-Slavery Society relied on support ground! of Free African Americans•Spread lit. thru-out N. &Mid W.•Petitions to Congress•1840- split: •Immediate freedom for slaves •Women should be = to men in abolitionist movement •Other group: slower emancipation/limited role for women
Grimke How did the members of the Anti-Slavery SocietySisters fight slavery?2 southern women: Angelina Sarah•Well know activists•Family of S. Carolina slaveholders•Moved to Philly.•Wrote popular essay•Became 1st women to speak beforeMale/Female audience for Anti-Slavery SocietyAmerican Slavery As it Is – mostimportant anti-slavery writing of thetime.
One manuever to assist Nevertheless, abolition was to swamp abolitionists efforts Congress with petitions intensified during the to end slavery 1850s, some turned Southern represenatives violent. countered in 1836 by The nation was now securing a gag rule, divided. preventing debate on an issue Gag rule was repealed in 1844
Essential Question: Write down examples of how one can get their point across to another person.
In 1845 Frederick Douglass published the first of three autobiographies describing his life as a slave and his abolitionist efforts once he gained his freedom. In the following excerpt he explains the purpose of his autobiography.Sincerely and earnestly hoping that this littlebook may do something toward throwing lighton the American slave system, and hasteningthe glad day of deliverance to the millions of mybrethren in bonds—faithfully relying on thepower of truth, love, and justice, for success inmy humble efforts—and solemnly pledgingmyself anew to the sacred cause,—I subscribemyself, Frederick Douglass.
“The blessings in which you, this day, rejoice,Frederick are not enjoyed in common… This 4th of July isDouglas yours, not mine. You may rejoice, I must mourn.”•1841: Douglas begangiving regular lectures-Speaking @ a 4th ofJuly Celebration in 1852•Spoke in U.S./Eur.•Published the NorthStar•Others included:Sojourner Truth &Charles Remond
1830s- group helped slaves escape South Free African Americans Former Slaves Few White Abolitionists Arranged transportation/hiding for fugitives/escaped slaves Wore disguises @ night, followed N. Star Hid in Attics, barns, other secret locations
How did Free African Americans & former slaves try to end slavery? Most famous/daring conductor Escaped in 1849 Returned to South 19x Freed family and up to 300 slaves Never lost a fugitive Reward for Tubman @ $40,000 40,000 slaves used RR 1810-1850
Oppositionto AbolitionSoutherndefenders ofslavery usedimages to arguethat Americanslaves enjoyed abetter life thanBritish factoryworkers.
Many white N. did not Fed. Gov. stood in way believe in = treatment of Abolitionists for Afr. Am. 1836-1844- U.S. HoR Warned freed slaves used Gag Rule to would move N. & take prevent discussion of jobs 1000s of antislavery Some joined violent petitions mobs that attacked Violated 1st Afr. Am & burned anti- Amendment slavery lit.
Many thought slavery Some believed slavery vital to economy & protected African culture Americans Believed outsiders had Virginia lawyer- George no business interfering Fitzhugh: “freed slaves After Turner’s Rebellion- would freeze or starve in open talk of slavery north” question disappeared in Racism, fear, and South’s South economic dependence made emancipation unpopular in South
Northern Feared loss of jobs Believed slaverySouthern was central to economy & culture
Identify three famous women from the 1900s or 2000s. Rank their influence on culture.
Analyze how ideas found in key documents (i.e., the Declaration of Independence, the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolution) contributed to demanding equality for all. NJCCCS: 6.1.12.A.4.b
Grimké Sisters & Sojourner Truth were Abolitionists turned women’s rights advocates [mid 1800s] Felt they had to defend rights in public
Critics believedwomen shouldnot give public Everyone is a Criticspeeches andshould stay intraditionalfemale roles.Critics: [somemembers of]1. Press2. Clergy3. Male Abolitionists
Grimké sisters: women Sarah argued for equal had a moral duty to lead educational antislavery movement opportunities. “I ask no favors for my Pointed out laws that sex… All I ask our negatively affected brethren is, that they women will take their feet from Called for = rights/pay off our necks, and permit us to stand upright on that ground which God designed us to occupy”
Why did some people oppose women’s efforts in the abolitionist movement, and how did this opposition affect the women’s rights movement? Sojourner Truth- spoke for “That man over there says abolition & women’s rights that women need to be 6 ft. tall & confident helped into carriages and 1851- challenged audience lifted over ditches, and members not to think of not to have the best place women as the “weaker everywhere. Nobody ever sex” helps me into carriages or over mud puddles, or gives me any best place… Look at me! I have ploughed and planted and… no man could [outwork] me. And ain’t I a woman?”
Shortly after America Took adv. Of Rev. publications for educational W.R’s appeared opportunities Did not become a Learned how to national movement for organize more yrs. effectively by working Social changes like in reform groups abolition movement Some men assisted in led to the rise of women’s rights women’s movement
Not having the right to vote Married women in many states had little or no control over their own property Claims that: Women “did not have the physical or mental strength to survive w/out men’s protection” Most people believed men should control her property
Some women said they were not unequal to men, just different and did not need new rights. Some critics believed women should not try to work for social changes in public but in their own homes.
1840- attended World’s Anti-Slavery Convention in London while on honeymoon Had to watch separately from husband All women were hidden from men’s view by a curtain William Lloyd Garrison in protest, sat with them
This treatment Planned to “form a angered Stanton and society to advance the Lucretia Mott. rights of women” “[they] resolved to 8 years passed hold a conversation as announced: The soon as we returned Seneca Falls home” Convention Stanton+Mott – 1st public meeting “resolved to hold a about women’s rights convention as soon as to be held in the U.S. we returned home”
Convention organizers wrote based on language of Dec. of Ind. Detailed beliefs about social injustice towards women 100 people signed 240 attended Convention inc. Frederick Douglas
Lucy Stone Susan B. Anthony Powerful speaker Turned movement political Anti-Slavery Society Single Woman, Supported Self Argued for = pay Allowed to go into law Property Rights 1860- NYC gave women ownership of wages/property Soon trickled to N.E. and Midwest