REGIONAL ECONOMIES CREATE DIFFERENCES In front of Pres. John Adams in 1801 - inventor Eli Whitney demonstrated the first musket made of interchangeable parts, assembling a musket from pieces chosen at random from crates full of parts… his ef forts would start the idea of making items with uniform parts
ANOTHER REVOLUTION AFFECTS AMERICA w/ interchangeable parts, industry was taken from the households and into factories Factories led to mass production This led to the Industrial Revolution- social and economic reorganization as machines replaced hand tools
GREAT BRITAIN STARTS A REVOLUTION The Industrial Revolution actually began in G.B. During the 18 th century, inventors came up with ways to generate power via flowing streams and coal Power-driven machinery was developed for mass production of textiles British merchants build 1 st factories Led to more money, more favtories, and the invention of more labor-saving machines
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN THE U.S. Primary source of income in the U.S. post -Ind. was trade Farms and plantations produced agricultural products Grain, tobacco G.B., S. Europe, West Indies Embargo Act  and War of 1812 led to development of domestic industries thanks to many shipping centers in NE shutting down 1793- British immigrant named Samuel Slater came to RI with the 1 st mechanized textile factory [he stole plans out of G.B.] 1813- three Bostonians revolutionized the industry from an English Mill: Francis Cabot Lowell, Nathan Appleton, Patrick Tracy Jackson built a weaving machine in Waltham, MA 1822- Appleton and Jackson had enough money to build factories in Lowell- thousands of women‟s came to work in the factories thanks to the Lowell System
ANALYZING EFFECTS REVIEW What effects did the Answer: Shipping Embargo Act of and Foreign trade 1807 and the War of came to a standstill, 1812 have on causing people who Americans involved worked in these in shipping and interests to seek foreign trade other work and invest in other businesses
LOWELL FACTORIES The Lowell Mill Girls were female workers in early 19th century America, young women employed in an innovative system of labor in textile mills centered in Lowell, Massachusetts. The employment of women in a factory was widely admired because the young women were housed in an environment which was not only safe but widely known to be culturally advantageous. Working at a job and earning wages was an innovation in the early decades of the 19th century, when many Americans still worked on family farms or at small family businesses And for young women at the time it was considered a great adventure to be able to assert some independence from their families. Working conditions were awful however, and pay was minimal on a piece rate
CONDITIONS OF THE LOWELL SYSTEM Girls usually hired for 1 Boarding houses near year contracts [avg. mills stay 4 years] Curfew of 10pm Hours: 5am-7pm [73 25 women per house, 6 hrs./wk] per room Each room had 80 Worked and ate women working at together machines, w/ 2 male Moral clauses overseers stipulated church Rooms were hot, attendance and windows kept closed morality workshops Air filled with particles Most worked to support of thread and cloth a male relative‟s education
THE POWER OF STEAM 1807- Robert Fulton‟s steam engine boat - Clermont cruised 150 mi. up the Hudson from NYC to Albany in 32 hours Marked the beginning of the steamboat era Boats were luxurious with a wood -paneled dining room and private bedrooms Carried freight and passengers - spreading quickly to the Ohio and Mississippi river
MONOPOLY MAN? Fulton and Robert Livingston received a charter from the NY legislature giving exclusive rights to run steamboats on rivers in the states Granted a monopoly [executive legal control of a commercial activity] Charged steamboat operators for licenses to operate on various rivers
AGRICULTURE IN THE NORTH Growth of factories led to farms being smaller in the North Predominantly in the Old N.W. near Ohio River encompassing Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan Sold livestock and crops at city markets Crops like cor did not require much labor - nor were they in high demand so there was little demand for slave labor By the late 1700s slavery in the N. was dying out By 1804- almost all of the N. states had voluntarily abolished slavery invoking religious and political opposition to the system
KING COTTON IN THE SOUTH Eli Whitney‟s invention of the cotton gin  led to a different system in the south Short-staple cotton was easier to grow but harder to clean Cotton gin allowed the separation of seeds to be easier and profits soared The area between the Appalachians and the Mississippi began cultivating 1820- the plantation system had heavily transformed Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama accelerating the expansion of slavery
SLAVERY BECOMES ENTRENCHED Even though slave importation had declined during the American Revolution- by the 1820s, the demand for slaves began to grow Increases in cotton production and increases in slaves in the South leapt from 3,000 bales a year to 178,000 bales a year and slaves jumped from 700,000 to 1 ,200,000 By 1808 slave traders had bought 250,000 additional Africans to the United States, as many as had been brough to the mainland between 1619 and 1776.
ANALYZING CAUSES REVIEW Why was slavery Answer: Farmers abolished in the didn‟t need slaves to North? run their farms which were serviced in the immediate areas. Many Northerners voirced opposition to slavery due to religious and political sentiments
COMPARING- REVIEW How were the Answer: Small farms agricultural systems developed in the of the North and North, ending the South different? demand for slaves. Large plantations developed in the South, leading to the expansion of slavery with cotton as the staple crop
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE NORTH AND SOUTH Different points of view • In the North, urban dwellers were exposed to many different types of people and tended to view change as progress. • In the South, where the landscape was less prone to change and where the population was less diverse, people tended to place a higher value on tradition. Physical distance • Relatively few southerners had the means or motivation to travel extensively in the North, and relatively few northerners had ever visited the South.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE NORTH AND SOUTH South North Slavery was legal Slavery was illegal It was viewed by many Ever-Increasing white people as an numbers of people absolutely vital part of viewed it as evil the economy Few realized the To many, it was a differences would lead practiced sanctioned by to war their Christian religion
NATIONALISM, AND THE LearningERA OF GOOD FEELINGS Goal: Asses how states‟ rights [i.e., Warm Up: Nullification] Decide if these statements are by the Nor th or the South: and sectional 1 . “ We are slave states” interests 2. “ We have a warm climate influenced and a long growing season ” party politics 3. “We have a cold climate and shaped and a shor t growing season” 4. “ We are free states” national 5. “ We have an economy policies. [i.e. based on farming” the Missouri 6. “ We have a economy based Compromise] on industr y” 7. “We don‟t want Missouri to [6.1 .12.D.3.c be a slave state ” NJCCCS] 8. “We want the west to be open to slaver y”
NASCENT NATIONALISM The heightened nationalism from the War of 1812 - The Americans fought the war not as one, but in the end became one nation National literature was born with authors such as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper reaching national recognition in the 1820s utilizing American scenes and themes School textbooks [previously British] were not being written by Americans Magazines like the intellectual Nor th American Review began in 1815 American painters increasingly celebrated native landscapes
FINANCIAL RISE A revived National Bank of the United States was voted by Congress in 1816 A new national capital rose from the ashes of Washington Army was expanded to 10,000 men 1815- Navy won in a series of battles with North African pirates Stephen Decatur on his return from the Barbary Coast exclaimed: “Our country! In her intercourse with foreign nations may she always be in the right, but our country, right or wrong”
WAR BABY AMERICA British tried to stop American factories from succeeding by cutting their prices below cost to strangle the new economic system of war-baby America A nationalist Congress, out -Federalizing the old Federalists passed the Tariff of 1816 – the first tarif f in American history instituted primarily for protection, not revenue Its rates – roughly 20 – 25% on the value of dutiable imports - were not high enough to provide completely adequate safeguards, but proved to be a bold beginning towards a trend that stimulated the appetites of the protected for more protection
FUNDING WOES Attempts to secure federal funding for roads and canals stumbled on Republican constitutional issues Congress voted in 1817 to distributed $1 .5 mil. to the states for internal improvements, but President Madison vetoed this as unconstitutional Individual states thus had to pay of f these ventures themselves, including the Erie Canal [completed in NY 1825] Jef fersonians choked on the idea of loose construction for direct federal support for interstate internal improvements New England states were against such plans because new outlets and competing states beyond the mountains would drain more population and money from the area
ELECTION OF 1816 James Monroe [6ft, well-mannered] nominated by the Republicans crushed the Federalists nominee [183 votes to 34] Vanquished federalists dying breaths left the field to the Republicans and a 1 party rule
A NEW PRESIDENT FOR NEW TIMES Monroe straddled 2 generations: the bygone age of the founding fathers, and the emergent age of nationalism Less distinguished in intellect and and personal force of the first 8 presidents Was level-headed, with an ear to the ground talent for interpreting popular rumblings Undertook a good will tour in 1817 deep into New England and west to Detroit stopping at Niagara Falls Monroe received heart -warming welcomes and soon a Boston newspaper announced “ An Era of Good Feelings” had been ushered in- a phrase used to describe the administrations of Monroe The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery and the national bank
THE PANIC OF 1819 AND THE CURSE OF HARD TIMES Panic of 1819- a paralyzing economic panic descended in America turning the “Era into Good Feeling” into something of a joke Brought about deflation, depression, bankruptcies, bank failures, unemployment, soup kitchens and overcrowded pesthouses known as debtor‟s prison 1 st National Financial Panic since Washington took of fice Over speculation on western lands and banks involved in outdoor gambling was a major cause Speculators buy land in the west, and resell to settlers Banks exchanged gold and silver for script money but the national bank rejected that form of currency and banks could not pay people back who wanted their money Inflation was brought on by the debt following the war of 1812 Trade weakened by European agricultural growth post Napoleonic wars
PANIC OF 1819 West was hit hard, countless mortgaged forms were foreclosed on by the National Bank Bank seen as a financial devil Poor classes strapped Inhumanity of imprisoning debtors Mothers torn from infants for owing a few dollars Imprisonment led to remedial legislation in states
GROWING PAINS OF THE WEST 9 frontier states joined the union between 1791 and 1819 To preserve sectional balance, most of these commonwealths had been admitted alternatively free or slave “Ohio Fever” of cheap land had an appeal to European Immigrants Eager newcomers were coming in droves post boycotts Land exhaustion in tobacco fields led people westward Crushing of Indians by Gen. Harrison and Jackson pacified the frontier Building of highways improved the land routes to the Valley Cumberland Road [began in 1811] ran from western Maryland to Illinois West however was still weak in influence and population Land Act of 1820 - authorized buyers to purchase $1 .25/acre in cash Fought for cheap transportation and money by its own wildcat banks over the National Bank
SLAVERY & SECTIONAL BALANCE Missouri applied for statehood in Congress  for admission as a slave state HoR stymied the plans by passing the Tallmadge Amendment No more slaves shall be brought to Missouri & provided for the eventual emancipation born to slave parents already there Roar of uproar between the South with the North who wanted to break the “Virginia Dynasty” South managed to defeat the amendment in the Senate With the North becoming wealthier each decade, they received a majority in the House - however the Senate still provided equal voting power They did not want to lose veto power so the Tallmadge Amendment was seen as a possible precedent in the new Louisiana territory [Missouri - 1 st state carved from the land]
MADISON‟S PROPHECY COMES TRUE Peculiar Institution- widely used term for the institution of Slavery in the south- used in the 1 st half of the 19 th century reflecting the division with the North. The wounds of the Constitutional convention opened as Congress tried to stop the spread of slavery in the Louisiana territory Burning moral questions protruded - antislavery agitators in the North seized the occasion to raise an outcry against slavery They believed the plague of human bondage should not spread further into untainted territories
THE UNEASY MISSOURI COMPROMISE Deadlock in Washington was broken in 1820 by the time - honored American solution of compromise - in actuality a bundle of 3 Henry Clay of Kentucky provided a leading role Congress admitted Missouri as a slave state, however Maine [part of MA] would come in as a free state Future states would adhere to the 36 ° 30‟ line [except Missouri], anything above is a free state, below would be a slave state Majority of southerners still voted against this compromise and neither side was happy The Missouri Compromise lasted for 34 years- only ducking the question an not answering it Jef ferson predicted it would “burst on us like a tornado”
ELECTION OF 1820 Even though the Era of Good Feelings was a farce, Monroe was so popular and the Federalists so weak, he won reelection and received every electoral vote accept 1. Monroe was the only president in history to be reelected after a term with major financial panic
SUMMARIZERDescribe how the “Era of Good Feelings” was a fallacy.
Warm Up:EXPANSION OF POWER Write down 4 facts about AND THE MONROE James Monroe and share DOCTRINE them with a par tner. Learning Goal: Describe how the Supreme Cour t increased the power of the national government and promoted national economic growth during this era. [6.1 .1 2.A .3.d NJCCCS]
JOHN MARSHALL AND JUDICIAL NATIONALISM McCulloch v. Mar yland-  Supreme Court case that strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States by establishing that the State of Maryland did not have the power to tax the bank Maryland had tried to destroy a branch of the Bank of the U.S. by imposing a tax on its notes John Marshall used implied powers and strengthened the federal authority by stating “the power to tax involves the power to destroy” and that “a power to create implies a power to preserve” This case legitimized loose construction of the Constitution arguing that the Constitution was intended to “endure for ages to come, and consequently, to be adapted to the various crises of human affairs”
COHENS V. VIRGINIA 1821 Cohen bros. were found guilty in VA of illegally selling lottery tickets; bros. lost in appeal in VA - however Marshall asserted the right to review decisions of state supreme courts Cohens v. Virginia-  reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal government.
GIBBONS V. OGDEN 1824 NY attempted to grant to a private concern a monopoly of waterborne commerce between NY & NJ Aaron Ogden sued Thomas Gibbons who was running a similar service in the same area, claiming he was entitled to according to federal law Marshall cited Article 1 , Section VIII, para. 3 Gibbons v. Ogden-  Suit over whether NY could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. Ruling reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce Both these cases diminished even more of states powers
JUDICIAL WALLS AGAINST DEMOCRATIC EXCESSES Fletcher v. Peck  – established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the federal Constitution Arose when a GA legis., swayed by bribery, granted 35 mil. acres to private speculators; public outcry cancelled the crooked transaction However Marshal presided that the grant was a contract [albeit fraudulently secured] and the Constitution forbids state laws “impairing” contracts Dar tmouth College v. Woodward  - Supreme Court case that sustained Dartmouth University‟s original charter against changes proposed by the NH state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments Safeguarded business enterprises from domination from state government buts unfor tunately created a precedent that enabled char tered corporations, in later years, to escape public control
SUMMARIZING REVIEW- In what ways did the Answer: In a series Supreme Court of decisions, the boost federal power Supreme Court strengthened federal economic power and limited state powers
FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND NATIONALISM Secretary of State- John Quincy Adams, the son of ex president- proved to be one of the great secretaries of state Monroe administration negotiated the Anglo- American Convention 1818 [signed by Britain and the U.S., pact allowed New England fishermen access to Newfoundland fisheries, est. the n. border of Louisiana territory & provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country for 10 years .
SPANISH AMERICA Chile , Venezuela  and Argentina  broke out in revolutions These upheavals forced Spain to strip Florida of troops to quell Latin American rebellions Gen Andrew Jackson took this as an opportunity, under the pretense of hostile Seminole Indians and fugitive slaves using Florida to escape, Jackson secured permission to punish them and recapture runaways under the condition he respected posts under the Spanish flag 1818- hanged 2Indian chiefs without ceremony, executed 2 British subjects, and seized St. Marks and Pensacola- deposing the Spanish governor
“OLD HICKORY” Jackson clearly exceeded his orders from Washington Alarmed, Monroe contacted his cabinet Everyone wanted to disavow or discipline Jackson except JQA JQA demanded huge concessions fromAndrew Jackso by Jean François de Vallée, 1815 Spain
FLORIDA PURCHASE TREAT Y 1819Aka Adams-OnÍs Treaty- under the agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the U.S. [& claims to Oregon] which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas
THE MENACE OF MONARCHY IN AMERICA Post-Napoleon, the rethroned autocrats of Europe banded together in a protective association Decided the world must be safe from democracy Smothered rebellions in Italy  and Spain  Russia, Austria and Prussia would send armies to revolting Spanish colonies to restore the Spanish King This alarmed Americans who cheered Latin American republics The physical security of the U.S. the mother of democracy would be endangered by the proximity of anti -democratic governments The southward push of Russia in Alaska provided a menace to N. America Russians est. trading posts [Ft. Ross] in San Francisco bay Americans feared they were trying to cut off American expansion in California
THE QUESTION OF LATIN AMERICA August 1823- British foreign secretary, George Canning approached American minister in London- U.S. + G.B renouncing interest in acquiring Latin American territory & warning European despots to keep their hands off Scheme referred back to Washington
PRESIDENT MONROE THINKING GLOBALLY Monroe Sec. of War- Doctrine Sec. of John C.State, JQA Calhoun
MONROE‟S FOREIGN POLICY A self-denying alliance with Britain would hamper American expansion and it was unnecessary JQA believed Britain was afraid on American expansion in Cuba and the Caribbean He felt the British navy would prevent approach of hostile fleets because the South American markets had to be kept open for British
THE MONROE DOCTRINE Using this knowledge America set the stage for a diplomatic coup Monroe Doctrine [12/2/1823] statement delivered by President James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The U.S. largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets. 2 features: Noncolonization Nonintervention 1 st directed @ Russian bear in NW 2 nd stay out of Latin America‟s independence and keep monarchies out of the hemisphere In return U.S. would not assist in the war that the Greeks fought for their independence from the Turks
LATIN AMERICA IS WITHIN U.S. SPHERE OF INFLUENCE
SYNTHESIZING REVIEW- How did the foreign Answer: Their policies of John policies expanded Quincy Adams and the nation‟s James Monroe serve territory, settled its national interests? boundaries and warned European powers against intervening in the Western Hemisphere
MONROE‟S DOCTRINE APPRAISED Monarchs of Europe angered by Monroe Doctrine Of fended by the gall of America considering its puny military strength In Latin America the doctrine was seen as America primarily concerned about its own defense Americans applauded then forgot about it until 1845 when President Polk reviewed it, and then during the midcentury when it became an important national dogma Even before the doctrine, the Tsar of Russia decided to retreat Russo- American Treaty - fixed the line 0f 54 °40‟ as the new southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America- the present southern tip of Alaska Monroe Doctrine merely a self -defense doctrine and expression of post 1812 nationalism and isolationism from Europe
CRITICAL THINKING- HYPOTHESIZING REVIEW What short and long- Answer: Protect term goals might American trade; President Monroe diminish the power of have had in mind Spain, Portugal, when he formulated France and Russia in the Monroe Doctrine the Western in 1823? Hemisphere; provide for national security; encourage continuing U.S. territorial expansion in the Western Hemisphere
HENRY CLAY‟S PLAN FOR A PROFITABLE HOME MARKET
THE AMERICAN SYSTEM- 1824 Henr y Clay‟s 3 -pronged system to promote A merican Industr y Clay advocated: A strong banking system – provide easy and abundant credit A protective tariff – so eastern manufacturing would flourish Revenues from this would fund the third part of the American System: And a federally funded transportation network - roads and canals, especially in the Ohio Valley Flow foodstuffs & raw materials from the South and West to the North and East with manufactured goods going in the opposite direction The hope was to knit the country together both politically and economically
SUMMARIZER- TAKING NOTESInfluence of Nationalism
Influence of Nationalism McCulloch v. Maryland- legitimizes loose construction; Gibbons v. Ogden- fed. Gov‟t regulates interstate commerce; Cohens v. Virginia- Supreme Court can review state decisions U.S. & Canada demilitarize their common border [Rush- Bagot], Adams-OnÍs Treaty; Monroe Doctrine U.S. territories expand; Settlers push into NW
Warm Up: After the so-called Era of Good Feelings, what type of president would you want forTHE RISE OF MASS the country? DEMOCRACY- Learning JACKSONIAN Goal: Describe how DEMOCRACY Jacksonian Democracy was a sign of change in American politics. [6.11 .12; 6.11 .4]
THE “CORRUPT BARGAIN” OF 1824 Corrupt Bargain  - Alleged deal between presidential candidates John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to throw the election, to be decided by the House of Representatives, in Adams‟ favor. Though never proven, the accusation became the rallying cr y for supporters of Andrew Jackson, who had actually garnered a plurality of the popular vote in 1824. Candidates Electoral Popular Popular % Vote Vote Jackson 99 153,544 42.16% Adams 84 108,740 31.89% Crawford 41 46,618 12.95 Clay 37 47,316 12.99
SO… WHAT HAPPENED? Jackson polled almost as many popular votes as his next to rivals combined, but failed to win a majority of the electoral vote In such a deadlock, the HoR as directed by the 12 th Amendment must chose among the top 3 candidates Clay was eliminated but as Speaker of the House, presided over the vote and influenced them to pick Quincy Adams Was against Jackson due to the Gen.‟s allegiance to the West Both Clay and Quincy Adams were fervid nationalists and advocates of the American system Decision came in 1825 - HoR met with tense excitement, 6 members carried in on stretchers Quincy Adams won and Clay became the new Secretary of State
WOULD YOU LIKE SOME SUN? CAUSE- YOU‟RE SHADY AS…
SEVERED TIESJacksonians or followers of Jackson left the Republican party to create the Democratic partyStates eased voting requirements enlarging the voting population however Free Blacks and Women still ignored
A YANKEE MISFIT IN THE WHITE HOUSE Quincy Adams was known to be honest and not given to patronage however he was frigid and shunned many people Often he went early morning swimming starkers in the pure Potomac River Thinker who was irritable, sarcastic and tactless Ranks as one of the most successful sec. of state but one of the least successful presidents Was the first minority elected president
QUINCY ADAMS AS A LEADER Enemies accused him of striking a corrupt bargain, allies wished he would strike a few more Adams declined to oust efficient officeholders in order to create vacancies for his supporters Supporters decided since he did not reward their party they wouldn‟t labor to keep him in office Nationalism backfired as post-Ghent nationalism turned toward states‟ rights and sectionalism Urged upon the construction of roads and canals Public reaction was prompt and unfavorable they believed it was a waste of public funds If the federal government funded it, it would have to continue the hated tariff duties
FORESHADOWING Adam‟s land policy antagonized the westerners Clamored for wide -open expansion Resented QA‟s attempt to curb speculation Fate of the Cherokees threatened with eviction from their holdings in GA brought additional bitterness GA wanted Cherokees out, QA dealt fairly with them GA governor threatened to resort to arms, resisting ef forts of the gov‟t to interpose federal authority on behalf of the Cherokees Nullification of the national will put another nail in QA‟s political cof fin
GOING “WHOLE HOG” FOR JACKSON IN 1828 Election of 1828 had a split in the temporarily united Republicans during the “Era of Good Feelings” QA- National Republicans, Jackson- Democratic- Republicans Jackson rallies: “ Bargain and Corruption” [Anti-QA] “Huzzah for Jackson” “All Hail old Hickory” Hickory became the symbol for Jackson; Oak for QA Jackson presented as a rough-hewn frontiersman, champion for the common man Jackson was actually a wealthy planter with many slaves
GOOD OL‟ MUDSLINGING- 1828 ELECTION Quincy Adams didn‟t Jackson‟s camp portrayed stoop to gutter politics QA as an aristocratic but supporters did monarch at the Described Jackson‟s presidential palace after mother as a prostitute QA purchased billiards and his wife as an tables and chess sets adulteress with his own money Recounted Jackson‟s Called them gambling numerous duels and furniture brawls Criticized QA‟s large sum of federal money he received in salaries Accused QA of giving a service girl to a Russian tsar like a pimp
JACKSON‟S FAMILY LIFE/CAMPAIGN Rachel Jackson- devoted wife, died a month after the election of 1828 Jackson convinced enemies‟ accusations of her being a bigamist and adulteress killed her Married Rachel confident her divorce was granted, when they discovered it had not they quickly corrected it
ELECTION OF 1828 Old Hickory won by an electoral count of 178 to 83 Much of his success came from emerging states across the mts.
PREDICTING EFFECTS- REVIEW How might reducing Answer: Reducing property property requirements for requirements would voting affect give political political campaigns? campaigns a larger political constituency
“OLD HICKORY” AS PRESIDENT Tall, lean an emaciated at times from long term bouts with dysentery, malaria, tuberculosis and lead poisoning from two bullets that he carried in his body from near fatal duels Born in the Carolinas and early orphaned, “Mischievous Andy” grew up brawling and cockfighting Grammar was rough and was a bad speller Moved to Tennessee, became a judge and member of Congress Violent temper in manner duels, stabbings and bloody frays 1 st president from the west, 2 nd without a college education Inauguration symbolized the ascendancy of the masses
“INAUGURAL BRAWL” Nobodies mingled with nobles Party in the White House allegedly wrecking the china and furniture, many joked to break Jackson‟s ribs Party cleared out when the much spiked punch was rumored to be placed on he lawns Known as the “inaugural brawl”
THE SPOILS SYSTEM Jackson used the Spoils Rationale for system: System- policy of Govt‟ remains rewarding political responsive to the supporters with public people office, 1 st widely Assured loyalty to the employed at the federal President level by Andrew Jackson. The practice Increases party support was widely abused by unscrupulous office seekers, but it also helped cement party loyalty in the emerging 2-party political system
TO THE VICTOR GO THE SPOILS What is the spoils system? Answer: a system of government in which leaders of the incoming government throw out the appointees of the previous government and replace them with their own appointees
SCANDAL Washington was due for house cleaning Many of ficeholders from Washington were lingering well into their 80s collecting salaries but doing nothing With the spoils system, however, men were openly buying their posts with campaign contributions Illiterates, incompetents, and plain crooks were given positions of public trust Samuel Swartwout was appointed collector of customs in NU, 9 years later he fled to England leaving his accounts more than a million dollars short Spoils system became an important element of the 2 -party system
THE TRICKY “TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS” 1824- Congress increased the general tarif f, but wool manufactures bleated for still higher barriers Jacksonites promoted a high-tariff bill expecting it to be defeated [to gain NE support] To their surprise the Tarif f passed in 1828 Southerners as heavy consumers of manufactured goods were hostile to tarif fs Branded it the black tarif f or Tariff of Abominations - noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties on imports. Southerners vehemently opposed the Tariff, arguing that it hurt Southern farmers, who did not enjoy the protection of tarif fs, but were forced to pay higher prices for manufactures
WHY WAS THE SOUTH SO ANGRY? NE experiencing a boom in manufacturing Developing West prospering from rising property values and multiplying population Energetic SW expanding into the virgin cotton lands South was on hard times, tariffs became a scapegoat S. sold their cotton and other farm produce in a world market Protectionism protected middle-state manufactures, Old South felt they were stuck with the bill
THREATS John C. Calhoun leader of S. Carolina‟s offensive to nullify the Tariff of 1832 to prevent secession During the crisis, medals were made for Calhoun- “First President of the Southern Confederacy”
PROTEST IN SOUTH CAROLINA Tariff of Abominations of 1828 drove many people to SC “Palmetto State” flirting with secession Anti-tariff protestors wore palmetto blossoms to symbolize defiance towards the law Blue cockade indicated support for nullification
MUCH DEEPER ISSUES S. grew anxious with a possibility of federal interference on slavery Congressional debate on the Missouri Compromise ignited the fury An aborted slave rebellion in Charleston  by Denmark Vesey and news of the British West Indies feeling pressure from Britain for abolition fanned the flames
SHOWDOWN Nullies in SC tried to Nullification Crisis- get 2/3 vote for [1832-1833] Showdown nullification between Andrew Blocked by Unionists Jackson and SC Congress tipped the legislature, which balance by passing the declared the 1832 new Tariff of 1832 Tariff null and void in the state and Pared away worst of the threatened secession if abomination tariff, it the federal government was not enough for tried to collect duties. It southern demands was resolved by a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in 1833
PRESIDENTIAL REPLY QA may have been intimidated by not Andrew Jackson While he wasn‟t a die hard supporter of the tarif f, he did not permit defiance or disunion He threatened to invade the state and have the nullifiers hanged Dispatched naval and military reinforcements to the Palmetto State, while quietly preparing a sizable army Issued a ringing proclamation against nullification Gov. Robert Y. Hayne, responded with a counter -proclamation Lines were drawn- to prevent Civil War one side had to surrender or both needed to compromise.
SUMMARIZING- What was Calhoun‟s Answer: Calhoun nullification theory? argued that since the U.S. Constitution was based on a compact among sovereign states, that the states must still be sovereign and had the right to determine whether an act of Congress was unconstitutional and, if it was, to declare it illegal within its borders.
HENRY CLAY [KY] & THE COMPROMISE Compromise Tariff of 1833- passed as a measure to resolve the nullification crisis, it provided that tariffs be lowered gradually, over a period of 10 years to 1816 levels
CONGRESSIONAL COUNTERCongress passed the Force Bill-  Passed by Congress alongside Compromise Tariff, it authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff dutiesKnown in SC as the “Bloody Bill”
ANALYZING POLITICAL CARTOONS 1832 cartoon uses the theme of Jackson as a king, trampling on the constitution- later garnered support for the opposing Whig Party, but did little to thwart Jackson‟s desire to increase the power of the President
A CLEAR WINNER SC welcomed this opportunity to get out of a tight corner Were upset that no other southern states supported them Unionists in SC were gathering guns, organizing militias and nailing Stars and Stripes to flagpoles Calhounites repealed the ordinance of nullification and nullified the Force Bill Henry Clay emerged as the victor hailed in Charleston and Boston for saving the country… When next the “nullies” and the Union clashed… compromise would prove harder to attain
CONTRASTING SUMMARIZER What was Jackson‟s Answer: Jackson and Calhoun‟s thought the federal differing opinions on authority was states‟ rights versus supreme, while federal authority Calhoun thought the states‟ right were supreme
Warm Up: In a Learningcountry of liberty, Goal: Judgehow could the the fairnessremoval of Native ofAmericans be governmentjustified? treaties, policies, andTHE TRAIL OF TEARS actions that resulted in Native American migration and removal. [6.1 .12.A.3. e NJCCCS; 10.11 .4; 10.11 .5]
THE GREAT FATHER Anonymous cartoonist satirized Jackson‟s “compassion” for Native Americans. Jackson made ruthless war on the Creeks as a soldier, but adopted a Creek Indian son. Motives for pursuing Indian removal stemmed from his concerns that if they were not removed from white settlers they would face annihilation
TRYING TO “CIVILIZE” “SAVAGES” Jackson‟s Democrats were committed to western expansion, but expansion meant confrontation with the inhabitants of the land- 125,000 Native Americans in the forests and prairies east of the Mississippi in the 1820s Washington agreed to acquire lands through formal treaties, but the Natives were resistant and stubborn, especially when Americans routinely erased and redrew treaty lines and settlement pushed West Many believed Indians could be assimilated into white society “civilizing” and Christianizing Native Americans through the Society for Propagating the Gospel Among Indians was founded in 1787 1793 Congress appropriated $20,000 for the promotion of literacy and agricultural and vocational instruction among Indians
RESISTANCE AND CONFORMIT Y Many tribes violently resisted conversion Others followed the path to accommodation Cherokees of GA made especially remarkable ef forts to learn the ways of whites Sequoyah devised a Cherokee alphabet 1808- Cherokee National Council registered a written legal code 1827- adopted a written constitution with an executive, legislative and judicial branches Some became prosperous cotton planters and slaveholders 1 ,300 slaves toiled for Cherokee masters Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws and Seminoles were known to whites as the “Five Civilized Tribes”
NATIVE AMERICANS AND EMBRACING WHITE CIVILIZATION
“WHO‟S BEEN SLEEPING IN MY BED?” When the Sauk Black Hawk began to returned from winter fight against Lt. hunt in 1830, they Jefferson Davis of found white settlers Mississippi and living in their village Captain Abraham Black Hawk refused to Lincoln of Illinois be pushed out However by Aug. Although Indian 1832- Sauk ran out of forces were waving a food and supplies white flag, U.S. troops fired on them
BLACK HAWK WAR Black Hawk War  Series of clashes in Illinois and Wisconsin between American forces and Indian chief Black Haw of the Sauk and Fox tribes, who unsuccessfully tried to reclaim territory lost under the 1830 Removal Act
AFTERMATH Black Hawk surrendered leadership of the Sauk By 1850, U.S. removed the Native Americans living within the old Northwest Territory.
REVIEW- What was the outcome of the Black Hawk War?
CHOCTAW INDIANS The Choctaws were the first to be sent Treaty of Dancing Rabbit  gave more than 7.5 million acres of Choctaw land to Mississippi Journey to territory started during the winter of 1831-1832 Lack of supplies/food provided by Fed. Gov‟t led to ¼ of the Choctaw dying of disease, cold and starvation
RESISTANCE News of U.S. treatment reached other tribes Some Creek decided to stay on their lands in Alabama however state officials ordered their removal 1836- federal troops led 14,500 Creeks in chains to the Territory Chickasaws from Mississippi were moved West from 1837-1838 w/ a promise of better supplies, still many lost their loves.
EMIGRATION Feeling obligated to rescue “this much injured race”; Jackson proposed a bodily removal of the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles - beyond the Mississippi Emigration was supposed to be voluntary b/c it was “cruel and unjust to compel the aborigines to abandon the graves of their fathers” Jackson rationalized the removal by believing that the Indians could preserve their native cultures in the wide -open West. Jackson‟s policy led to the forced uprooting of more than 100,000 Indians. Indian Removal Act -  Ordered the removal of Indian Tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri. Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles.
REVIEW- MAIN IDEAS What was the Indian Removal Act and how did it affect the Choctaw, Creek and Chickasaw?
GEORGIA ON MY MIND In 1828 the Georgia legislature declared the Cherokee tribal council illegal and asserted its own jurisdiction over Indian affairs and lands. Cherokees appealed this move to the Supreme Court, which upheld the rights of the Indians 3x President Jackson, clearly wanting to open Indian lands to white settlement, refused to recognize the court‟s decisions Callously, Jackson declared “John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it. ”
“THERE‟S GOLD IN „DEM HILLS” Once gold was discovered on all Cherokee land, all treaties became voided When Cherokees refused to move, Georgia militias began to attack villages
CHEROKEE RESPONSE Cherokees sued the state claiming they were an independent nation and Georgia had no legal power in their territory
WORCESTER V. GEORGIAJohn Marshall decreed: “[the Cherokee nation” is a distinct community, occupying its own territory… in which the laws of Georgia can have no force.”
ANALYSIS-SUMMARIZING REVIEW- What did John Marshall decide in Worcester v. Virginia and how did Jackson‟s response affect the Cherokee?
CHEROKEE REMOVAL Spring 1838- troops 800 mi. march from began removing 1838-1839 Cherokees to Indian ¼ or 18,000 Territory Cherokees died during Few escaped and hid the March in the mountains of North Carolina After removal, Georgians took over their businesses, farms and property
TRAIL OF TEARS In the ensuing decade, countless Indians died of forced marches- notably the Cherokees. The Trail of Tears- [1838-1839] Forced march of 15,000 Cherokee Indians from their Georgia and Alabama homes to Indian Territory. Some 4,000 Cherokee died on the arduous journey. Indians were to be “permanently free” from white encroachment The Bureau of Indian Affairs was established in 1836 to administer relations with America‟s original inhabitants. Governments security went up in smoke as more white settlers pushed west, the “permanent” frontier lasted about 15 years.
SEMINOLE RESISTANCESeminoles fought removal w/ armed resistance1832- Seminole leaders forced to sign treaty to leave Florida w/in 3 yrs. & any Seminole of African descent would be considered a runaway slave
HECK NO, WE WON‟T GO Seminoles ignored the Treaty and refused to leave. Osceola called upon to resist removal by force The Second Seminole Wars begin
KNOCK DOWN DRAG OUT Seminoles won many battles @ 1 st 1837 U.S. captured Osceola, who died in prison 1842- U.S. army captured/removed 4,000 and killed hundreds 1,500 U.S. soldiers died After spending millions, U.S. quit, Seminoles resisted and many live in Florida today
IDENTIFYING CAUSE AND EFFECT REVIEW- Why did the 2 nd Seminole War begin, and what was the result of the war?
SUMMARIZERIn a country of liberty, how could the removal of Native Americans be justified?
Learning Goal: Determine how expansionWarm Up: Why createdwas the Bank of opportunitiesthe United States for some andcreated; and whodid it help? THE BANK WAR hardships for others by considering multiple perspectives. [6.1 .12.D.3.a NJCCCS; 7.11 .12]
“MONEYED MONSTER” Jackson distrusted monopolistic banking and overbig businesses, as did his followers Shared the prejudices of the West against the “moneyed monster” The bank was issuing gold and silver coins in the mid 19 th century but not paper money Paper notes were printed by private banks. Their value fluctuated with the health of the bank and the amount printed, giving private bankers considerable power of the economy.
IT‟S ALL ABOUT THE BENJAMINS No bank in the U.S. had more power than the Bank of the U.S. Acted similar to a branch of government Principal depository for the federal government and controlled much of the nation‟s gold and silver, its notes, unlike smaller banks, were stable in value A source of credit and stability Bank was private, not accountable to people but to its elite circle of rich investors its president, Nicholas Biddle held an immense and to some unconstitutional amount of power over the federal financial affairs Enemies dubbed him Tsar Nicholas
IT‟S A SIN! Some believed the bank went against American democracy Foreclosed many western farms draining “tribute” to easterners Profit, not public service, was its 1 st priority. The Bank War - Battle between President Andrew Jackson and Congressional supporters of the Bank of the United States over the bank‟s renewal in 1832. Jackson vetoed the Bank Bill, arguing that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers. The charter was not set to expire until 1836 - however Clay pushed for renewal for years early to make it an election issue of 1832
SNEAKY CLAY Clay‟s scheme was to ram a recharter bill through Congress and then send it to the White House If Jackson signed it, he would alienate his western followers If he vetoed it, Clay believed he would lose the presidency by alienating the wealthy in the East Clay failed to realize the rich were a minority who feared Jackson
NO WAY, CLAY Jackson strongly vetoed the recharter declaring the monopolistic bank unconstitutional Even though the Supreme Court expressed its constitutionality in McCulloch v. Maryland, Jackson acted as if the executive branch was superior “The Bank… is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!”
INCREASED POWERS This act amplified the power of the presidency Jackson vetoed the bill not because of constitutionality but because he personally found it harmful to the nation He claimed his power was equivalent to ⅔ the vote in Congress
JACKSON‟S ISSUES WITH THE BANK It concentrated the nations financial strength in a single institution, It exposed the government to control by foreign interests, It served mainly to make the rich richer, It exercised too much control over members of Congress, It favored northeastern states over southern and western states, Banks are controlled by a few select families.
BLIND CLAYHenry Clay assumed Jackson‟s veto would secure Clay the presidency in 1832The common people were pleased with Jackson and the bank issue became part of the election of 1832
ANALYZING MOTIVES- REVIEW What were some of Answer: Jackson was Jackson‟s reasons suspicious of big for opposing the 2 nd banks; he thought Bank of the United the national bank States? was a symbol of big business; he saw the bank as a tool of the upper classes and a threat to democracy
JACKSON VS. CLAY “Jackson forever: go the whole hog!” “Freedom and Clay” For the 1 st time, a third party entered the fray Anti-Masonic Party- [est. 1826] 1 st founded in NY, gained considerable influence in NE and the mid - Atlantic during the 1832 election, campaigning against the politically influentially Masonic order, a secret society. Anti -Masons opposed Andrew Jackson, a Mason, and drew much of their support from evangelical Protestants. Energized by the mysterious disappearance and probable murder in 1826 of a NY-er who was threatening to expose the secret rituals of the Masons Appealed to Americans suspicious of secret societies plagued as citadels of privilege and monopoly
OVERCONFIDENT NATIONAL REPUBLICANSClay had ample funds including $50,000 in life insurance granted from the Bank of the U.S.Many newspaper editors “bought” with Biddle‟s bank loans wrote against Jackson
“OLD HICKORY” WALLOPS CLAY IN 1832 Jackson, massively popular with commoners, easily defeated the Kentuckian West and South surged into PA and NY and NE Popular vote stood at 687,502 to 530,189 Electoral count was 219 to 49
ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT Jan.. 30 th , 1835- just outside the Capitol, after the funeral of SC Rep, Warren R. Davis, Richard Lawrence, an unemployed housepainter from England aimed 2 pistols, misfiring. Lawrence was restrained and Jackson attacked him with his cane Blamed Jackson for the loss of his job and killing the bank Deemed insane after stating he was a deposed English King and Jackson was his clerk
BANK WARS II w/ the charter denied, Proposed depositing no Jackson would not let it more funds with Biddle, die in peace and gradually shrinking Convinced he had a existing deposits by mandate from the using them to defray voters for its the day-to-day expenses extermination, and of the government fearing Biddle would By siphoning off funds manipulate the bank to he would bleed the force its recharter, bank dry to ensure its Jackson buried it in demise 1833 by removing federal deposits from its vaults
NAST Y CONSEQUENCES President‟s closest advisors opposed this unnecessary possibly unconstitutional mandate Jackson reshuf fled his cabinet twice under je could find a secretary of Treasury willing to do the job A desperate Biddle called in his bank loans to produce a minor financial crisis Many banks driving by “Biddle‟s panic”, in a way justifying Jackson‟s claims The death of the Bank left a vacuum in the American economy Kicked of f a cycle of booms and busts Pet Banks- popular term for pro-Jackson state banks that received the bulk of federal deposits when Andrew Jackson moved to dismantle the Bank of the United States in 1833. Without a national bank the country was flooded with paper money and a runaway economy in 1836
“WILDCAT” CURRENCY Had become so unreliable especially in the West, Jackson authorized the Treasury to issue a Specie Circular Specie Circular-  U.S. Treasury decree requiring that all public lands be purchased with “hard” or metallic, currency. Issued after small state banks flooded the market with unreliable paper currency, fueling land speculation in the West A neck snapping change of direction that led to the panic and crash of 1837
ADIEU, “OLD HICKORY” By then Jackson had retired to his Nashville home, hailed as the hero of his age. On the last day of the presidency, Jackson admitted that he had but two regrets, that he "had been unable to shoot Henry Clay or to hang John C. Calhoun."
ENTER: THE WHIGS Jackson‟s tactics and policies angered many, including some members of his Democratic Party 1834- Henry Clay, JQA and Daniel Webster formed the Whig Party Whigs backed the American System, and wanted to federally fund roads and canals Backed federal control of the banking system and a nationally accepted currency
ANALYZING CAUSES- REVIEW Why was this a good Answer: The Whig time for the formation Party was formed by of the Whig Party? people who were angry with Andrew Jackson and were in opposition to a too powerful president. Because Jackson‟s policies were growing in unpopularity, this was a good time for the Whigs.
NEW ELECTION, NEW FIGHTS Smooth-tongued and Election neared, the keen-witted VP- Whigs showed their Martin Van Buren of inability to nominate NY was Jackson‟s a single candidate choice for successor Deadlock led to the in 1836 HoR choosing Gen. Jackson rigged the William Henry nominating Harrison, elbowing convention and Clay out rammed Van Buren down the delegates‟ throats
ELECTION OF 1836Van Buren- “Little Magician” won a close vote of 765,483 to 739,795170 to 124 electoral votes
BIG WOES FOR THE “LITTLE MAGICIAN” Van Buren- 1 st to be born Short-lived rebellions in under the American flag Canada in 1837 over Labored under severe political reform handicaps aggravated by Machine-made candidate, unregulated immigration incurred resentment of from the U.S. stirred up many Democrats ugly incidents threatened to trigger a war with Deemed “bastard Britain politician” smuggled into Played neutrality leading office to “Woe to Martin Van Inherited Jackson‟s Buren” slogans enemies 4 years overflowed with toil and trouble
CONDEMNING VAN BUREN North cried about antislavery Condemnation over the prospective annexation of Texas Jackson gave Van Buren the makings of a severe depression Hard times blight his reputation
DEPRESSION DOLDRUMS AND THE INDEPENDENT TREASURY Panic of 1837- Economic crisis triggered by bank failures, elevated grain prices, and Andrew Jackson‟s efforts to curb overspeculation on western lands and transportation improvements. In response, President Martin Van Buren proposed the “Divorce Bill”, which pulled treasury funds out of the banking system altogether, contracting the credit supply. American banks collapsed by the 100s including “pet banks” Commodity prices dropped, sales of public lands fell off, customs revenues dried up, factories closed their doors, unemployed workers milled in the streets
ANALYZING CAUSES- REVIEW- How did Andrew Answer: Jackson had Jackson‟s actions funds deposited in hurt the economy? pet banks, which were often wildcat banls, and made specie the only acceptable form of payment for public lands, which contributed to the panic of 1837
WHIGS TO THE RESCUE? Whigs came up with remedies calling for expansion of bank credit, higher tarif fs, & subsidies for internal improvements Subsidies- a grant by a government to a private person or company to assist an enterprise deemed advantageous to the public Van Buren, shackled by Jacksonian democracy of government‟s hands of f the economy spurned such ideas Van Buren tried to use the “Divorce Bill” to help the problems - concluded that by “divorcing” the government from banking altogether would establish and independent treasury so the government could lock its surplus money in vaults of larger cities Shriveled bank credit
REACTIONS TO THE “DIVORCE BILL” Democrats supported it lukewarmly Whigs condemned it, because it squelched the hopes of a revived Bank of the United States Independent Treasury Bill passed in Congress in 1840, but was repealed the next year by the Whigs, then reenacted by the Democrats in 1846 and continued until the Republicans instituted a network of national banks during the Civil War
1840ELECTION Martin “Van Ruin” went against Whig Party candidate William Henry Harrison Whig advantage as Harrison was a war hero vs the Van Buren pampered aristocrat Actually Van Buren was a common man, and Harrison came from a wealthy family with a 16 room mansion
HARRISON‟S APPEAL Displayed with symbols of Hard Cider [alcoholic beverage] and a log cabin meant to show that Harrison was a man of the people
HARRISON‟S SHORT LIVED PRESIDENCY Harrison won immediately and was going to enact Whig programs to revitalized the economy However he died a month after his inauguration of pneumonia John Tyler, Harrison‟s VP opposed many Whig programs- was only picked as VP for Southern votes, the next 4 years was referred to by the Whigs as “His Accidency”
SUMMARIZER What were Answer: this term reflects the widespread the tenets of movement for egalitarianism in the Jacksonian 1820s and 1830s and was named after Democracy? president Andrew Jackson, who served in office between 1829 and 1837. Jackson symbolized the new democratic partys general abhorrence of privilege and elitism. at this time, a general widening of political participation for white males across the country occurred. this resulted in the election of leaders like jackson and growing interest in a series of reform movements, many of which championed greater egalitarianism in American society.