Describe how Homer andGreek myths contributed toearly Greek Culture.Explain the contributions ofGreece to modern society.
What is a legacy?Traditions, skills and knowledge of a culture that get passed on to people in the futureSomething a culture is known for Babe Ruth’s legacy was homerun hitting. A gift from the past Next Slide
Democracy A government where the people have the right to make decisions about leaders and lawsGreek word meaning “power of Athens developed the first the people” democracy The U.S. government is based on Athenian democracy. Next Slide
Athens had the first democratic constitution (a set of rules for how the government should run) All men over 20 years old could participate in the Assembly (the lawmaking group) Each year 500 names of citizens were drawn to be on the Council of Five Hundred who ran the daily business of Athens Previous SlideMain Menu
Trial By Jury When a group of citizens decides if a person is innocent or guilty of a crime Serving on a jury was a citizen’s duty About 500 jurors for a trial Jurors were paid for serviceMain Menu
Epics Long poems written about gods, heroes, and history of a culture Homer most famous author of Greek epics. Wrote the Illiad about the Trojan War The Odyssey about a Trojan War hero, OdysseusMain Menu
Greek Mythology Myths are stories about gods & goddesses that were used to explain events in nature 12 Major Gods & Goddesses of Mt. Olympus Zeus Poseidon Hades Hermes Hera Apollo Artemis Hephaestu s Athena Demeter Aphrodite Ares Go to Mythman.com for more on Greek mythology!Main Menu
Theater Grew out of festivals dedicated to Dionysus and developed into stories that were acted outPlays were performed at festivals and became competitionsOnly male actors but women could watchActors wore masks to show gender, age & moodTheater was carved into a hillside Next Slide
Theater Greek theater in Miletus Previous SlideMain Menu
Tragedy & Comedy Types of plays first developed by the Greeks Tragedy: plays about suffering Aeschylus Comedy: plays with a happy ending that pokes fun at certain types of people AristophanesMain Menu
Olympic Games Festival held in Olympia to honor ZeusEvery four years-began 776B.C.Only men: women couldn’t watchOlympians swore not to cheatCalled a truce from war Won an olive wreath Winners were heroes Next Slide
Olympic Games Foot races Javelin Warrior’s Race Discus Boxing Pancratium Wrestling Pentathlon Messengers & Trumpeters Previous SlideMain Menu
Architecture The art and science of building Doric Ionic CorinthianGreeks well known for using threestyles of columns in their buildings Next Slide
ArchitectureThe Parthenon on the Acropolis in The Temple of Athena Nike locatedAthens was built in the Doric style. very close to the Parthenon was built in the Ionic style. Previous Slide Next Slide
Architecture The design of many buildings today has been influenced by the classical style of the Greeks. Why would many U.S. government buildings have been built using Greek architecture? Supreme Court Building in Wash. D.C. Previous SlideMain Menu
Philosophy Love of wisdom; trying to figure things out through learning and reasoning Socratic Method Socrates Political Science Plato Science & Logic AristotleMain Menu
Socratic Method Teaching through step-by-step questions that are designed to lead the student to the truth Socrates was a Greek philosopher who wanted Athenians were afraid and people to question and think threatened by his ideas, so for themselves he was tried and put to death.Main Menu
Classification of Living Things A system of grouping plants and animals that have similar characteristics Developed by Aristotle Helps scientists to handle a lot of info. Still used todayMain Menu
Scientific Method Process used by scientists to study something 1 2 3 Collect Form Test Info Hypothesis HypothesisMain Menu
Hippocratic Oath A list of rules about practicing medicine that doctors today still promise to follow 1. Honor their teachers Believed that Hippocrates was the “Father of disease came from Scientific 2. Do their best for the sick natural causes not Medicine” evil spirits 3. Never give poisons 4. Keep the secrets of patients ConclusionMain Menu
Legacies of Ancient Greece Now that you are aware of them, you will see the legacies of the ancient Greeks cropping up all over the place! Next SlideMain Menu
Between 500 and 400 B.C. the Greeksfought several wars.Two were against the powerful PersianEmpire to the east of Greece.Then a civil war broke out among the city-states of Greece.
In 519 B.C. the Persiansconquered a group of people wholived in Asia Minor called the AGH!Ionian Greeks. Those Greeks will pay for this In 499 B.C. the Ionian We’re on the way Help! Greeks asked the mainland Greeks to help them rebel against the Persians.Athens sent warships to helpthem, but they were not strongenough to defeat the Persianarmy. The made the Persian King, Darius, very angry with Greece.
In 490 B.C. Darius sent 600 ships and thousands of soldiers to invade Greece. He wanted to punish the Athenians for helping the rebels.The Persian army landed atMarathon, north of Athens,in 490 B.C.The Persians greatlyoutnumbered the Greeks. Persian EmpireThe Persians wereamazed at the strongwill of the small Athens MarathonAthenian force.They had no horses or Spartaarchers, only fiercefoot soldiers. After a few days, the Persians decided to While they were loading their ships, the attack Athens by sea. Athenians attacked and defeated them. The Persians Retreated.
The Greeks sent their fastest runner Pheidippidesto carry home news of the victory.He sprinted 26.2 miles from the battle site to thecity-state of Athens.He arrived and said, “Rejoice, we conquer,” anddied from exhaustionThe Marathon race is named after this event.
The Greek ruler Themistocles knew this was a temporary victory.He encouraged the Athenians to build up their fleet and prepare forbattle with the Persians. In 480 B.C. Darius’ son Xerxes sent a larger force to conquer Greece. He sent 200,000 soldiers and nearly 1,000 ships. By this time Athens had convinced Sparta to join them in battle. Twenty Greek city-states joined together to meet the Persian invaders.Sparta took charge of the army.
The Persian army had little trouble as it moved throughnorthern Greece.It came to a narrow mountain pass called Thermopylae,there 7,000 Greeks waited for the Persians.For several days they stopped the Persian army frommoving forwardSomeone led the Persians behind the Greek army, theSpartan soldier began to retreat to their ships as thePersians marched forward.
A Small Spartan force of about 300 men commanded by King Leonidas,guarded the mountain pass of Thermopylae.They held out heroically against he enormous Persian force for three days.They were betrayed when someone told the Persians how to get in behindthe army.They were defeated, but won valuable time for the rest of the Greeks.
The Persians marchedsouth after theirvictory atThermopylae anddestroyed the city ofAthens.The Athenians hadalready moved to ThermopylaeSalamis, a smallnearby island. Salamis Athens More than 800 Persian ships attacked the Athenian navy near the island. The large Persian ships could not maneuver in the water. The smaller Greek ships destroyed them.
The Greek sense of uniqueness was increased.Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state in Greece.Athens organized the Delian League, an alliance with other Greekcity-states.Athens used the league to assert power and build an AthenianEmpire.They moved the treasury to Athens, and forced people to stay inthe league against their will.
The wise and skillful leadership of Pericles brought about a Golden age in Athens. This was from about 460 to 429 B.C. and is often called the Age of Pericles. Pericles believed that all male citizens, regardless of wealth or social class, should take part in government. He paid salaries to men who held public office. This enabled the poor to serve in the government. The assembly met several times a month and needed at least 6,000 members present to take a vote. This was direct democracy, a large number of citizens took part in the day to day affairs of the government. Pericles stated, “We alone, regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs, not as harmless, but as a useless character.Pericles rebuilt the Acropolis and turned Athens into the cultural center of Greece.
Many Greeks resented the Athenian domination. The Greek world split into rival camps. To counter the Delian League, Sparta and other enemies of Athens formed the Peloponnesian League. Sparta encouraged an Oligarchy (government run by business) in the states of the Peloponnesian League, and Athens supported democracy.A 27 year war broke out in 431 B.C. engulfing all of Greece
Athens faced a serious geographic disadvantage from the start.Sparta was located inland, the Athenian navy was no good againstthem.When Sparta invaded Athens, Pericles allowed people from thecountryside to move inside the city.Overcrowding led to a plague that killed a third of the people.Internal struggles undermined the Democratic government of Athens.Sparta even allied with Persia, their old enemy, against the DelianLeague.Finally, in 404 B.C., with the help of the Persian navy, the Spartanscaptured Athens and stripped it of its fleet and empire.
The Peloponnesian war ended Athenian greatness.In Athens Democratic government suffered:Corruption and selfish interests replaced order.Fighting continued to disrupt the Greek world.Sparta itself suffered defeat at the hands ofThebes, another Greek city-state.Greece was left vulnerable to invasion.Cultural development was arrested.
In 338 B.C. King Phillip II of Macedonialed his army from the north andconquered Greece.After his death his son, Alexander theGreat, went on to conquer the entireGreek world.
Macedonia ◦ Macedonia—Kingdom of mountain villages north of Greece ◦ King Philip II—ruler, brilliant general; dreams of controlling Greece ◦ Macedonians call themselves Greek; rest of Greece does not Philip’s Army ◦ Philip creates well-trained professional army; plans to invade Greece
Conquest of Greece ◦ It was easy because “more than one Greek city felt ambivalent about fighting back.” ◦ Some Greek cities invited Philip to invade ◦ Athens asked Sparta for help against invasion, but Sparta declined ◦ At the Battle of Chaeronea one thousand Athenians were killed. ◦ 338 B.C. Macedonians defeat Greece
After the Battle of Chaeronea, Philip changes his strategy and treats Athens with great respect, releasing Athenian prisoners of war. As a result the Athenians then “chose to pretend that Philip was now a friend of Athens.” Philip makes a speech at Corinth suggesting Greek submission to his kingship would be good for Greece. The Corinthian League is formed, led by King Philip, with the intent of attacking the Persians.
Philip married again, for a fifth time, a Macedonian woman. His son Alexander was legitimate, but half Greek. This marriage gave Attalus, one of Philip’s generals, occasion to call into question the legitimacy of a half-Greek prince inheriting the Macedonian throne.
Greek historian Diodorus tells us that Philip was killed by his ex-lover Pausonius (who was one of his guards) because Philip rejected him. Some suspect, however, that Alexander was behind the murder. The 2004 film Alexander directed by Oliver Stone puts the lays the blame at the feet of Olympias, Alexander’s mother so that her own son would become king and there would be no full-blood Macedonian heir. The film depicts Alexander was an innocent bystander. This occurs in 336 B.C. His son named king of Macedonia and becomes Alexander the Great
Alexander’s Early Life ◦ Tutored by Aristotle ◦ Inspired by the Iliad ◦ Military training ◦ Becomes king when 20 years old ◦ Destroys Thebes to curb rebellion
Invasion of Persia ◦ 334 B.C. Alexander invades Persia with a quick victory at Granicus River. ◦ Darius III, King of Persia, assembles an army of 50,000-75,000 men. ◦ Alexander defeats Persians again, forces King of Persia to flee.
Conquering the Persian Empire ◦ Alexander marches into Egypt and is crowned Pharaoh in 332 B.C. ◦ At Gaugamela in Mesopotamia, Alexander defeats the Persians again. ◦ Alexander captures cities of Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis ◦ Persepolis, the Persian capitol is burned to the ground. ◦ Ashes of Persepolis signal total destruction of the Persian Empire
Alexander in India ◦ Alexander fights his way across the deserts of Central Asia to India ◦ Alexander conquers Indus Valley area in 326 B.C. ◦ Reluctantly returns to Babylon and dies in 323 B.C.
Alexander melds Greek and Persian cultures. He takes a Persian wife. Empire becomes three kingdoms ◦ Macedonia, Greek city-states ◦ Egypt ◦ Old Persia, also known as the Seleucid kingdom
Summarize the majorphilosophies and artistic stylesof the Hellenistic Period
From Macedonia Son of Philip II Conquered Greece and Persia Married a Persian princess, adapted Persian dress and customs Conquered Egypt Headed for India, caught malaria, and died there
Alexandria, Egypt: ◦ Became trading hub ◦ Had many elegant palaces ◦ Housed a giant museum and library (burned down)
Astronomy ◦ Aristarchus estimated: Sun 300x size of Earth Earth revolves around sun ◦ Eratosthenes estimated: Earth’s circumference between 28,000 and 29,000 miles
Mathematics and Physics ◦ Geometry (developed by Euclid) ◦ Value of pi, the lever, idea of small forces moving heavy objects (Archimedes)
Stoicism ◦ People should live in harmony with natural laws ◦ Human desire, wealth, and power are distractions Epicureanism ◦ Gods are not interested in humans ◦ Greatest good comes from virtuous conduct and the absence of pain ◦ Modern word epicurean