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1.what is economics


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1.what is economics

  1. 1. An Introduction toEconomicsChapter 1
  2. 2. The Basic Problem inEconomicsSection 1
  3. 3. Learning Goals Explain how wants and needs differ. Explain how scarcity faces people at all times. Define the four factors of production.
  4. 4. What is Economics? Economics- the study of how individuals and societies make choices about ways to use scarce resources to fulfill their needs and wants. To economists, everything other than basic survival is considered a want. Want begins as a luxury, or want, becomes to many a necessity.
  5. 5. Choices
  6. 6. The Problem of Scarcity The need to make choicesarises because everything that exists is limited. Scarcity- condition of not being able to have all of thegoods and services one wants, because wants exceed what can be made from all available resources at any given time. Income can be considered a scarce resource.Scarcity always exists becauseof competing alternative uses for resources
  7. 7. Scarcity
  8. 8. Factors of Production
  9. 9. Factors Factors of production: Land- refers to natural resources without human intervention Labor- a human resource, including anyone who produces goods and services.  Goods- tangible objects that can satisfy people’s wants  Services- actions that can satisfy people’s wants Capital- previously manufactured goods used to make other goods and services Productivity- the amlunt of out-put [goods and services] that results from a given level of inputs [land, labor, capital]
  10. 10. Factors continued… Entrepreneurship- ability of risk taking individuals to develop new products and start new businesses in order to make profits  30% of new businesses fail  Of the 70% that survive, only a few become wildly successful: i.e. Apple, Netflix, Verizon Technology- advance in knowledge leading to new and improved goods and services and better ways to producing them  i.e. a computer is a technological advancement over a typewriter  Today technology describes the use of science to develop new products and new methods for distributing goods and services
  11. 11. Factors Continued
  12. 12. Review How do consumers satisfy  By making choices their seemingly unlimited wants?  scarcity What is the basic economic problem that makes choices necessary?
  13. 13. Section 2Trade-Offs
  14. 14. Learning Goals Explain how the concept of trade-offs is related to opportunity costs and the production possibilities curve.
  15. 15. Trade-Offs Trade-off: sacrificing one good or service to purchase or produce another. i.e.- if you choose to buy an iPod you are exchanging money for the right to own an iPod
  16. 16. The Costof Trade- Offs  Result of a trade-off is what you give up in order to get something else  i.e.- Time is a scarce resource, so you choose how to use it  Opportunity cost- value of the next best alternative given up for the alternative that was chosen  i.e.- studying instead of socializing with friends- you consider the single NEXT best alternative is the opportunity cost
  17. 17. Considering Opportunity Costs Being aware of trade-offs and their resulting opportunity costs is vital in economic decision @ all levels. i.e.- Congress votes $220 billion to finance needed highways, Congress could have voted for increased spending on new schools. The opportunity cost of building new highways is fewer schools.
  18. 18. Production Possibilities Curve Production possibilites curve- graph showing the maximum combinations of goods and services that can be produced from a fixed amount of resources in a given period of time. Curve can help people and businesses determine how much of each item to produce, thus revealing the trade-offs and opportunity costs involved in each decision.
  19. 19. Explanation of the Production Possibilities Curve The classic example illustrates the potential production possibilities between military defense and civilian goods. Point A on the graph represents all resources being used to produce guns, Point E for butter. The amount of military goods given up in the year is the opportunity cost for increasing civilian goods production. Members of the federal government determine where on the curve the nation will be.
  20. 20. Review How are trade-offs and opportunity costs related? Answer: Every trade-off involves an opportunity cost. CREATE YOUR OWN PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES CURVE:  Include: “Hours Spent Online” on the Horizontal Axis; “Hours Spent Studying” on the Vertical Axis  Write a caption explaining the opportunity cost of each activity
  21. 21. What do Economists do? Section 3
  22. 22. Describe & Explain theuse of economic modelsby economistsLearning Goal
  23. 23. The Division of Economics Microeconomics- the branch of economic theory that deals with behavior and decision making by small units such as individuals and firms Macroeconomics- the branch of economic theory dealing with the economy as a whole and decision making by large units such as government
  24. 24. Economic Models Economy- the production and distribution of goods and servicers in a society Economic model- a thoery or simplified representation that helps explain and predict economic behavior in the real world  Physicists, chemists, biologists and historians use models to understand the complex working of the world- economic models show visual representations of consumer, business, or other economic behavior
  25. 25. Economic Models
  26. 26. EconomicHypothesis
  27. 27. Example on a Graph
  28. 28. Hypothesis Some economists believe to stimulate the economy, taxes should be cut and government spending increased. Cutting taxes may put more money into consumers pockets which will increase personal spending and increase total production However some people fear that possible higher taxes in the future might cause them to save extra money rather then spend This illustrates how economists cannot take into account all of the factors that may influence people’s behavior
  29. 29. Schools of Economic Thought Economists deal with fact, their personal opinions and beliefs may nonetheless influence how they view those facts and fit them into theories The government under which an economist lives also shapes how he or she views the world As a result, all economists will not agree that a particulr thory offers the best solution to a problem Throughout American history, economists have stressed the importance of government maintaining a “hands off” in business and consumer affairs as a method of preventing increased unemployment and inflation
  30. 30. Values and Economics Learning about economics will help you predict what may happen if certain events occur or certain policies are follows. Values are the beliefs or characteristics that a person or group considers important, such as religious freedom, equal opportunity, individual initiative, freedom from want, and so on. Even having the same values does not mean that oeioke wukk agree about solutions to problems, strategies, or interpretations of data Economists only inform us as to likely short-term and long-term outcomes of these policies
  31. 31. Review Why are there  Create a diagram like the different schools of one below to show how economic thought? economists use models to study the real world Answer: economists’ personal opinions and beliefs may Idea Test Hypothesis influence how they view facts and fit them to theories. The government under which economists live also shapes how they view the world