Chapter 18.3:MughalEmpire
Learning Goal• Describe the Rise of the Mughal Empire• Analyze the achievements of Akbar
Mughal Empire• Descendent of Ghegis Khan established  the Mughal Empire in India• Mughal Empire lasted from 1526-mid-  170...
I. Origins  A. Located in India  B. Muslims and Hindus clashed  C. Turkish warlords (descendents of Mongols)     establish...
Babur or Babar• Founded the Mughal  dynasty• Took power by force  after he was taken  away from him at age  11• Overthrow ...
II. Babur – Established the Mughal Empire  A. Conquered part of India     1. used elephants, guns, artillery     2. unsucc...
III. Akbar – 1556-1605   A. India’s greatest ruler;     Grandson of Babur   B. Muslim       1. Religious tolerance        ...
C. Military commanderD. Bureaucracy w/ Muslims and non-MuslimsE. Finance   1. eliminated the non-Muslim tax   2. eliminate...
Salim• Took the title of Jahingir  or “grasper of the world”• Married a strong  princess, Nur Jahan,  who made up for  Jah...
Salim continued• His wife was the strongest female ruler  in India history prior to modern times  (she liked tiger hunting...
End of religious tolerance:        SHAH JAHAN• Gained power by assassinating all his  rivals• His lavish spending on lovel...
Continued…• Ordered the destruction of Hindu  temples, taxed non-Muslims more  heavily than Muslims, removed Hindus  from ...
Creation of the Taj Mahal             • Shah Jahan, Jahangir’s               grandson, built the Taj               Mahal a...
Aurangzeb• When Shah Jahan gets sick in  1657, his third son, Aurangzeb,  executes his eldest brother and  puts dad in jai...
Why rulers should be nice:   Aurangzeb and his troubles• Brutally oppresses his people• He is a devout Muslim• Enforces st...
Continued…• Hindu Rajputs rebel along with the  Sikhs• To pay for the military to put down these  revolts he taxed the Hin...
Europeans arrive• 1498: Vasco deGama arrives in Calicuta• Mughal emperors did not see the arrival of  Europeans as a threa...
Mughals lose power to the         Europeans• By mid-1700’s Mughal empire was too weak  to survive• English and French trad...
IV. Art   A. Supported by Sultans   B. Library   C. Taj Mahal - tomb   D. Peacock Throne   V. Empire fell b/c of religious...
Taj Mahal   Peacock Throne
18.3 the mughal empire in india
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18.3 the mughal empire in india

  1. 1. Chapter 18.3:MughalEmpire
  2. 2. Learning Goal• Describe the Rise of the Mughal Empire• Analyze the achievements of Akbar
  3. 3. Mughal Empire• Descendent of Ghegis Khan established the Mughal Empire in India• Mughal Empire lasted from 1526-mid- 1700’s• Great rulers included Babur, Akbar, Salim, who took the title of Jahangir, or “Grasper of the World”
  4. 4. I. Origins A. Located in India B. Muslims and Hindus clashed C. Turkish warlords (descendents of Mongols) established Delhi Sultanate 1. Delhi capital
  5. 5. Babur or Babar• Founded the Mughal dynasty• Took power by force after he was taken away from him at age 11• Overthrow the Sultan of Delhi• Sunni Muslim
  6. 6. II. Babur – Established the Mughal Empire A. Conquered part of India 1. used elephants, guns, artillery 2. unsuccessful at unifying India B. Traded guns along silk road C. Advocate of arts D. Wrote history of India
  7. 7. III. Akbar – 1556-1605 A. India’s greatest ruler; Grandson of Babur B. Muslim 1. Religious tolerance toward all religions, esp. Hindus 2. Married women of various faiths, even Christian and allowed them to practice their faiths
  8. 8. C. Military commanderD. Bureaucracy w/ Muslims and non-MuslimsE. Finance 1. eliminated the non-Muslim tax 2. eliminated Hindu pilgrim tax 3. established a graduated income taxF.Had a personal library of 24,000 books 1. could not read
  9. 9. Salim• Took the title of Jahingir or “grasper of the world”• Married a strong princess, Nur Jahan, who made up for Jahingir’s shortcomings as an emperor• Was a very weak ruler: his wife ruled in his name.
  10. 10. Salim continued• His wife was the strongest female ruler in India history prior to modern times (she liked tiger hunting)• They rejected religious tolerance.• Islam was the only religion that should be practiced• The Sikhs, a blending of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism were one of their targets
  11. 11. End of religious tolerance: SHAH JAHAN• Gained power by assassinating all his rivals• His lavish spending on lovely things the people in his empire were burdened by taxes, war and famine• Shah Jahan tried to turn his empire into an Islamic state
  12. 12. Continued…• Ordered the destruction of Hindu temples, taxed non-Muslims more heavily than Muslims, removed Hindus from high gov’t offices• Mughal empire reached its peak, but the religious intolerance weakened the government
  13. 13. Creation of the Taj Mahal • Shah Jahan, Jahangir’s grandson, built the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal • Tomb as to be “as beautiful as she was beautiful” • Took 22 years and 20,000 workers to build • Made of marble, sapphires, bloodstones, rubies, and lapis lazuli
  14. 14. Aurangzeb• When Shah Jahan gets sick in 1657, his third son, Aurangzeb, executes his eldest brother and puts dad in jail until he dies several years later.• He becomes ruler in 1658• Military genius• Expands the Mughal empire to the greatest size but the power of the empire is weakened during his reign
  15. 15. Why rulers should be nice: Aurangzeb and his troubles• Brutally oppresses his people• He is a devout Muslim• Enforces strict Islamic Law-no drinking, gambling, or any other vice• Brought back tax on Hindus stopped by Ackbar.• Removed them from government positions.• Destroyed their monuments
  16. 16. Continued…• Hindu Rajputs rebel along with the Sikhs• To pay for the military to put down these revolts he taxed the Hindus even more, which ticked them off even more and that led to rebellion• After Aurangzeb dies the empire falls apart. Emperors are now are just a wealthy figurehead that rule a divided patchwork of independent states
  17. 17. Europeans arrive• 1498: Vasco deGama arrives in Calicuta• Mughal emperors did not see the arrival of Europeans as a threat to their existence• Aurangzeb gives the Portuguese control over Bombay in 1661• The key to controlling Indian trade was controlling the seas around India – Mughal navy was too weak to control the seas• Portuguese dominated trade with India during 1500’s. Then the Dutch, the French, then the English.• The English don’t leave until the 20th century
  18. 18. Mughals lose power to the Europeans• By mid-1700’s Mughal empire was too weak to survive• English and French traders played rival princes off of each other• British form the British East India Company and the French form their own• British and French rule different regions by forming alliances with local officials and the independent rajas
  19. 19. IV. Art A. Supported by Sultans B. Library C. Taj Mahal - tomb D. Peacock Throne V. Empire fell b/c of religious tensions with later rulers, famine and increasing taxes
  20. 20. Taj Mahal Peacock Throne

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