Territorial Expansion• Expansion dominated American diplomacy and politics in the 1840s.• Settlers swarmed the Oregon County aggravating relations with G.B.• A desire to annex Texas increased tensions with Mexico. [Mexico felt Texas was their province in revolt]• Covetous eyes were cast on California as well erupted in warfare• Victory over Mexico and expansion increased the tension between slave owners and abolitionists leading to the Civil War in 1860
President Harrison• Newly elected president Harrison was shocked by the amount of hard-ciderites descending upon the White House in 1841 demanding Whig spoilsmen• The real leaders of the Whigs referred to “Old Tippecanoe” as an impressive figure head• Cabinet consisted of: • Daniel Webster- Secretary of State• Also had Henry Clay, the Whig party leader, as the most powerful presence in the Senate. Both tried to usurp the presidency• President Harrison was forced to rebuke Clay, pointedly telling him that he was the president of the United States
Schemers• The schemes of Webster and Clay hit a fatal snag as Harrison contract pneumonia• Wearied by official functions and plagued by office seekers- Harrison died only 4 weeks into office• John Tyler- Vice President to Henry Harrison; successor as President following Harrisons death
The Accession of “Tyler Too”• 6 ft tall, slender, blue-eyed, and fair-haired with classical features• Tyler was from VA and old school• Gracious, kind yet stubborn• Earlier resigned from the Senate rather than accept distasteful instruction from the VA legislature Taylor’s enemies portrayed• A lone-wolf who abandoned him as a Democrat, but Jacksonian democracy for Whig Taler was more of a Whig principles, he did not tolerate minority who valued dictatorial policies Jeffersonian states rights
Policies of Tyler• vetoed Banks of United States• lowered tariff.• Instituted financial reform • The independent treasury system was ended • A bill for a "Fiscal Bank," which would establish a new Bank of the United States went through Congress, but President Tyler vetoed it • The Whigs presented a "Fiscal Corporation" but the president again vetoed it. • President Tyler was rejected by his former Whig Party.• Referred to as “His Accidency” and “Executive Ass”• Tyler signed the Tariff of 1842 which was a protective Whig tariff • Raised tariffs to pre-Compromise of 1833 rates
A War of Words with Britain• During the 19th Century, there was much hatred of Britain.• Anti-British protests came from the two Anglo-American wars, and Jacksonian Democrats• British travelers wrote of American tobacco spitting, slave auctioneering, lynching, eye gouging and other unsavory features of America• This sparked the "Third War with England."• This war was only fought with paper broadsides.• In 1837, there was a small rebellion in Canada.• It failed because it was supported by few Canadians and it could not enforce unpopular laws in the face of popular opposition.
Yankee Doodle did What?!• Britain lent America money to pay for canals and railroads however when the Panic of 1837 hit- several states defaulted on their loans.• Englishmen then added a new stanza to Yankee Doodle: • Yankee Doodle borrows cash, • Yankee Doodle spends it, • And then he snaps his fingers at • The jolly flat [simpleton] who lends it
The Land ofLiberty, 1847. Britishcartoonreflected thecontemptuous view ofAmericanculture, politics, anddiplomacythat wascommon inearly 19thcenturyBritain
The times get physical • In 1837, the American ship, the Caroline, was sunk by a British force. • Washington officials made ineffective protests against the attack. • In 1841, British officials in the Bahamas offered asylum to 130 Virginia slaves who had rebelled and captured the American ship Creole. • Britain had abolished slavery within its empire in 1833, raising southern fears that its Caribbean possessions would become Canada-like havens for escaped
Manipulating the Maine Maps• In 1842, the British wanted to build a road westward from the seaport of Halifax to Quebec, running through disputed territory.• Aroostook War [began 1839] Series of clashes between American and Canadian lumberjacks in the disputed territory of Maine, resolved when a permanent boundary was agreed upon in 1842.• The London Foreign Office sent Lord Ashburton to Washington to settle the dispute• He and Daniel Webster negotiated and gave the Americans 7,000mi2 of the 12,000mi2 of land in dispute.
I am- Iron ORE!• British got less land but won the desired Halifax-Québec route.• The Caroline affair was also patched up• As a bonus, the British, in adjusting to the U.S.- Canadian boundary farther west, surrendered 6,500 sq. miles.• Area contained priceless Mesabi iron ore in Minnesota
The Lone Star of Texas Shines Alone• In the 8 years since 1836, Mexico considered Texas as a province in revolt and refused to recognize Texass independence.• Mexico threatened war if the America protected Texas.• Texas made treaties with France, Holland, and Belgium.• Britain wanted to have relations with Texas because Britain could try to make Texas tear America apart.• Britain wanted Texas as an independent ally.
Covert Ops • Britain used Texas as a puppet as a smokescreen diversion • The purpose was for foreign powers to move into the Americas and challenge the insolent Monroe Doctrine • French schemers were also attracted to this divide and conquer stratagem • British abolitionists were trying to influence Texas to inflame the South • Texas land was one of the great cotton-producing areas of the future • An independent Texas would relieve British looms of their dependence on American fiber- a supply that could be cut off in time of crisis because of embargo and war
Texas or Disunion!• Texas became a leading issue in the presidential campaign of 1844.• The foes of expansion assailed annexation, while southern hotheads cried: “Texas or Disunion!”• Pro-expansion Democrats under James K. Polk finally triumphed over the Whigs under Henry Clay, the hardy perennial candidate.• Lame duck president Tyler thereupon interpreted the narrow Democratic victory, with dubious accuracy, as a “mandate” to acquire Texas
The Belated Texas Nuptials• Tyler wanted to shepherd Texas into the Union to end his troubled administration on a high note.• Whigs worried that Texas in the Union would be exactly what the South wanted to increase “slave power”• Tyler despaired of securing the needed ⅔’s Senate vote for a treaty.• Therefore he arranged for annexation by a joint resolution.
Highway to the Danger Zone • Mexico angrily charged that the Americans had despoiled it of Texas • While true in 1836, not in 1845- since Texas was not Mexico’s • 1845 the Lone Star Republic became a danger zone, inviting foreign intrigue that menaced Americans
Uncle Sam’s Song to Miss Texas• If Mexy back’d by secret foes,• Still talks of getting you, gal;• Why we can lick ‘em all you know• And then annex ‘em too, gal. President Tyler signed a resolution in 1845 that invited Texas to become the 28th state in America.
Oregon Fever Populates Oregon• Four nations claimed Oregon Country at one time: • Spain • Russia • Britain • U.S.A• Spain dropped out of America with the Florida Treaty of 1819• Russia dropped out with the treaties of 1824 and 1825.• Britain controlled the portion north of the Columbia River.• By 1846, about 5,000 Americans settled south of the Columbia River.• The British had a lesser population but it did not want to give up its claims to the Columbia River.• The disputed territory in Oregon Country became an issue in the election of 1844.
Manifest DestinyJohn L. O’Sullivan influential columnist remembered for his use of the phrase- “Manifest Destiny” to advocate the annexation of Texas and Oregon
A Mandate for Manifest Destiny• In the election of 1844, the Whig party chose Henry Clay, and the Democrats chose James K. Polk.• James K. Polk was the Speaker of the House of Representatives for four years and governor of Tennessee for two terms.• Campaign of 1844 was in part an expression of Manifest Destiny- [1840s & 1850s] Belief that the United States was destined by God to spread its “empire of liberty” across North America. Served as a justification for mid- 19th century expansion• Expansionist democrats were swayed by Manifest Destiny and their platforms included: “Reannexation of Texas” and “Reoccupation of Oregon”
The Slogans• Fifty-four forty or fight-  slogan adopted by mid-19th century expansionists who advocated the occupation of the Oregon territory, jointly held by Britain and the United States. Though President Polk had pledged to seize all of Oregon to 54°40’, he settled on the 49th parallel as a compromise with the British• Condemned Clay as a “corrupt bargainer”- a dissolute character and slave owner [even though Polk owned slaves]• Whigs: “Polk, Slavery, and Texas or Clay, Union and Liberty”• Also spread a lie that a gang of Tennessee slaves had been seen on their way to a southern market branded with J.K.P• Clay wrote confusing letters personally favoring annexing slaveholding Texas and postponement- straddling both sides to get votes
Election of 1844• “Dark Horse” Polk beat Clay 170 Votes to 105 in the Electoral College• Liberty Party- [1844-1848] Antislavery party that ran candidates in the 1840 and 1844 elections before merging with the Free Soil party. Supporters of the Liberty Party sought the eventual abolition of slavery, but in the short term hoped to halt the expansion of slavery into the territories and abolish the domestic slave trade. [gained 16,000 votes]
“Young Hickory" • said he would protect Texas • he avoided the issue of slavery. • Polk had four main goals for his presidency – • 1. A lower tariff. • Robert J. Walker- Secretary of Treasury to James Polk; devised the Walker Tariff of 1846, a tariff-for-revenue bill that reduced the rates of the Tariff of 1842 from 32% to 25%. • 2. The second goal of Polk was to restore the independent treasury, which the Whigs dropped in 1841 because the Whigs won the presidency. • 3./4. The third and fourth goals of Polk were the acquisition of California and the settlement of the Oregon dispute without violence.
Oregon Dispute • Reoccupation of the whole of Oregon had changed to a compromise settling on the 49th parallel • The British minister in Washington spurned this olive branch even though Britain came up with the line of 49° • Polk then threw the decision to the Senate • Antislavery groups complained: “Why all of Texas but not all of Oregon?” • Expansionist Sen. Benton of Missouri’s reply: “Great Britain is powerful and Mexico is weak”
Misunderstandings with Mexico• Polk and the U.S. due to Manifest • Mexico had defaulted on most of Destiny began to covet California its payments• The population of California in • Mexico also recalled its minister 1845 consisted of Spanish- from Washington after Texas’ Mexicans and Indians annexation• Polk wanted to buy California • Texas and Mexico also argued (The Bear Flag Republic) from about boundaries, Mexico Mexico believing Texas ended at the Nueces River, but Texas stating it• relations with Mexico were poor ended at the Rio Grande due to the annexation of Texas. • Polk felt a moral obligation to• U.S. had claims against Mexico defend Texas for $3 million in damages to American citizens and their property
California on my mind• Ill-founded rumors of Britain wanting to buy or seize California became a thorn in the side of the Monroe Doctrine• Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico City in 1845 to buy California for $25 million• the offer was rejected.• The proud Mexican people would not even allow Slidwell to present his “insulting” proposition
American Blood on American Soil• On January 13, 1846, Polk ordered 4,000 men under General Zachary Taylor to the Rio Grande.• On May 9, 1846, Polk asked Congress to declare war on Mexico of the basis of unpaid claims and Slidells rejection of the purchasing of California• 2 cabinet members stated they would feel better if Mexico opened fire first• As fate would have it- on April 23rd, 1846- Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked General Taylor’s command with 16 being killed or wounded
This means war!• Polk sent a war message to Congress declaring despite “all our efforts” to avoid a clash- hostilities erupted and the shedding of “American blood upon the American soil” must be avenged• A patriotic Congress declared war• Volunteers yelled: “Ho for the halls of the Montezumas” and “Mexico or death!”• Whigs even joined in, however turned against it calling it “Jimmy Polk’s war”
Spot Resolutions• Polk felt justified in bending • Spot resolutions–  the truth if it pushed a Measures introduced by reluctant public into war Illinois congressman Abraham• Polk neglected to mention Lincoln, questioning that the spilled American President James K. Polk’s blood had been on soil that justification for war with Mexico had good reason to Mexico. Lincoln requested believe was theirs that Polk clarify precisely where Mexican forces had• Whig attacked American troops Congressmen, Abraham Lincoln from Illinois • “spotty Lincoln” and his introduced resolutions that antislavery supporters, many requested information as to Whigs, branded the the precise “spot” where president a liar- “Polk the blood was shed. Mendacious”
The Truth of the matter• Did Polk provoke war? • California was imperative to Polk’s program • Mexico would not sell it at any price • Only options: force or wait for internal American revolt• Grievances against Mexico were tolerable • America endured worse, but in 1846 patience was thin • Polk pushed the quarrel into a bloody showdown• Both sides were spoiling for a fight • Expansionists and South wanted to teach Mexico a lesson • Mexicans wanted to humiliate “the bullies of the North” • Boasted of invading U.S., freeing the black slaves and lassoing whole regiments of Americans • Hoped to get British involved due to the Oregon disputes• Both sides viewed each other as the aggressor
The Mastering of Mexico Generals in Mexican-American War:General Stephen W. Kearny- led1,700 troops to Santa Fe. General ZacharyTaylor- won many victoriesincluding a great victory over alarge Mexican force at BuenaVista ; future President General Winfield Scott-succeeded in battling his way upto Mexico City by September1847; 1st choice of PresidentAbraham Lincoln to lead theUnion army in the Civil War.
Let the games begin:• Polk wanted California, not war. But when the war came, he hoped that America could pull out with California.• The dethroned Mexican dictator Santa Anna, then exiled with his teenage Bride in Cuba stated if the American blockade squadron let him into Mexico he would sell out his country• Polk agreed, however Santa Anna double- crossed America and rallied his countrymen to a desperate defense of their soil
Battle of Buena Vista• Battle of Buena Vista  Key American victory against Mexican forces in the Mexican- American War. Elevated Gen. Zachary Taylor to national prominence and helped secure his success in the 1848 presidential election• Taylor’s force was weakened [5,000 men] however he repulsed Santa Anna’s 20,000 march-weary troops.
Fighting Mexico for Peace• Polk was anxious to end the war as soon as he could secure his territorial goals• He sent the chief clerk of the State Dept., Nicholas P. Trist, along with Gen. Scott’s invading army.• Trist and Scott arranged an armistice with Santa Anna at a cost of $10,000.• Santa Anna pocketed the money and used the time to bolster his defenses• A disgusted Polk recalled Trist• Trist replied with a 65 page letter explaining why he was not coming home infuriating Polk more
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo• Trist signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848• Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo- ended the war with Mexico. Mexico agreed to cede territory reaching north-west from Texas to Oregon in exchange for $18.25 million in cash and assumed debts• Included California; Treaty approved by Senate 38 to 14• Southerners realized that the South would do well not to want all of Mexico because Mexico was anti-slavery.• The treaty was opposed by those who wanted all of Mexico and those who wanted none of it.
Profit and Loss in Mexico• The Mexican War provided field experience for the officers destined to become generals in the Civil War, • Captain Robert E. Lee • Lieutenant Ulysses S. Grant.• The Mexican War brought about the conflict of slavery between the states.• David Wilmot- proposed the amendment that stated that the territory from Mexico should remain slave-free.• This Wilmot Amendment never passed the Senate because the Southern members did not want to be robbed of possible slave states to arise in the future from the land gain in the Treaty of Guadalupe.
Wilmot Proviso• Wilmot Proviso - Amendment that sought to prohibit slavery from territories acquired from Mexico, introduced by Pennsylvania congressman David Wilmot, the failed amendment ratcheted up tensions between North and South over the issue of slavery.• The opening shots of the Mexican War were the opening shots of the Civil War• President Polk left the nation the splendid physical heritage of California and the Southwest, but also the ugly moral heritage of the slavery dispute• Ralph Waldo Emerson: “Mexico will poison us”• John C. Calhoun- “Mexico is to us the forbidden fruit… the penalty of eating it would be to subject our institutions to political death”• Mexico would later take satisfaction in knowing their territory would be a venomous apple of discord called Santa Anna’s revenge
A mandate for Manifest destinyCartoon lampoons proslavery Democratic presidential candidate Lewis Cass as a veritable war machine, bent on the conquest of territory ranging from New Mexico to Cuba and even Peru