Hitlers Belligerency• On August 23, 1939, the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression treaty with Hitler.• The Hitler-Stalin pact meant that Germany could make war on Poland and the Western democracies without fear of retaliation from the Soviet Union.
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The Invasion of Poland• Hitler demanded from Poland a return of the areas taken from Germany after WWI.• After Poland failed to meet his demands, Hitler militarily invaded Poland on September 1, 1939.
Adolf Hitler ReviewingTroops, 1939. Egging hispeople on with theatricaldisplays of pomp andceremony, Hitler hadcreated a vast militarymachine by 1939, when hestarted World War II with abrutal attack againstPoland.
Poland Falls tothe NaziJuggernaut,1939. AfterswallowingAustria andCzechoslovakiain 1938, Hitlerlaunched all-outwar on Polandin September1939, and theNazi warmachineseemedunstoppable.
The Start of the War• Britain and France, • Although Americans honoring their were strongly anti- commitments to Nazi, they were Poland, declared desperately war on Germany; determined to stay World War II had out of the war. started.
American Neutrality Heeding to the need of France andBritain of war materials from America,Congress passed the Neutrality Actof 1939. It stated that the Europeandemocracies could buy American warmaterials as long as they wouldtransport the munitions on their ownships after paying for them in cash. America thus avoided loans, wardebts, and the torpedoing ofAmerican arms-carriers. Overseas demand for war goodsbrought a sharp upswing from therecession of 1937-1938 andultimately solved the decade-longunemployment crisis.
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The Fall of France• The months following the collapse of Poland were known as the "phony war."• The Soviet Union took over Finland despite Congress loaning $30 million to Finland.• Hitler overran Denmark and Norway in April 1940, ending the "phony war." Hitler then moved on to the Netherlands and Belgium.• By late June 1940, France was forced to surrender.
Hitler Swaggers intoParis, 1940. The fallof France to Germanforces in June 1940was a galling blow toFrench pride andconvinced manyAmericans that theircountry must mobilizeto defeat the Nazimenace.
France- Surrendered• When France surrendered, Americans realized that England was all that stood between Hitler controlling all of Europe.• Roosevelt moved with tremendous speed to call upon the nation to build huge airfleets and a two-ocean navy.• Congress approved a spending of $37 billion.• On September 6, 1940, Congress passed a conscription law; under this measure, Americas first peacetime draft was initiated-provision was made for training 1.2 million troops and 800,000 reserves each year.
Havana Conference of 1940• With the Netherlands, Denmark, and France all fallen to German control, it was unsure what would happen to the colonies of Latin America (the New World).• At the Havana Conference of 1940, the United States agreed to share with its 20 New World neighbors the responsibility of upholding the Monroe Doctrine.
Bolstering Britain with the Destroyer Deal (1940)• After France fell to Germany in the Battle of France (June), Hitler launched a series of air attacks against Britain in August 1940.• The Battle of Britain raged in the air over the British Isles for months.• During the Battle of Britain, radio broadcasts brought the drama from London air raids directly to America homes.• Sympathy for Britain grew, but it was not yet sufficient to push the United States into war.• President Roosevelt faced a historic decision: whether to hunker down in the Western Hemisphere and let the rest of the world go it alone; or to bolster Britain by all means short of war itself.
To Aid, or not to Aid?• Learning Goal: NJCCCS: 6.1.12.D.11.b• Compare and contrast different perspectives about how the United States should respond to aggressive policies and actions taken by other nations at this time.
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For or Against• The most powerful group of those who supported aid for Britain was the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies.• Isolationists organized the America First Committee, contending that America should concentrate what strength it had to defend its own shores.• On September 2, 1940, President Roosevelt agreed to transfer to 50 destroyers left over from WWI to Britain.• In return, Britain agreed to hand over to the United States 8 valuable defensive base sites. Shifting warships from a neutral United States to Britain was a flagrant violation of the neutrality obligations.
Albert Einstein Arriving in America, 1933.Sadly, the United States admitted only a trickle ofJewish refugees, while the Holocaust engulfedEuropean Jewry.
FDR Shatters the Two-Term Tradition (1940)• The Republicans chose Wendell L. Willkie to run against President Roosevelt.• Willkies great appeal lay in his personality.• The Republican platform condemned FDRs alleged dictatorship, as well as the New Deal.• Willkie was opposed not so much to the New Deal as to its extravagances and inefficiencies.• Roosevelt challenged the sacred two-term tradition when he decided that in such a grave crisis he owed his experienced hand to the service of his country.
The Election of 1940• Both presidential nominees promised to stay out of the war, and both promised to strengthen the nations defenses.• FDR won the election of 1940; voters generally felt that should war come, the experience of FDR was needed.
Congress Passes the Landmark Lend-Lease Law• Fearing the collapse of Britain, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Bill in 1941.• Nicknamed "An Act Further to Promote the Defense of the United States," it allowed for American arms to be lent or leased to the democracies of the world that needed them.• When the war was over, the guns and tanks could be returned. Key opponents of the bill, such as Senator Taft, criticized it, reporting that the arms would be destroyed and unable to be returned after the war.
No to Lend-Lease. Members of the Massachusetts Woman’s Political Clubpresented President Roosevelt with a petition protesting adoption of the Lend-Lease Bill and picketed the White House. They feared that America’sincreasing involvement with the Allied cause would eventually draw their sonsinto battle- as it did, despite the president’s assurances to the contrary.
Praise for Lend-Lease• It was praised by the FDR administration as a device that would keep the nation out of the war rather than dragging it in.• America would send a limitless supply of arms to victims of aggression, who would in turn finish the war and keep it on their side of the Atlantic.• Lend-lease was a challenge thrown at the Axis dictators; America pledged itself to bolster those nations that were indirectly fighting it by fighting aggression.• The bill marked the abandonment of any pretense of neutrality.
Hitler’s Response• Hitler recognized the Lend-Lease Bill as an unofficial declaration of war. Until then, Germany had avoided attacking U.S. ships.• On May 21, 1941, the Robin Moor, an unarmed American merchantman, was destroyed by a German submarine in the South Atlantic, outside the war zone.
Hitlers Assault on the SovietUnion Spawns the Atlantic Charter• Two events marked the course of WWII before the assault on Pearl Harbor: the fall of France in June 1940, and Hitlers invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.• Even though the two nations were bound to peace under the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939, neither Hitler nor Stalin trusted one another. Hitler decided to crush the Soviet Union, seize the oil and other resources of the Soviet Union, and then have two free hands to battle Britain.• On June 22, 1941, Hitler launched an attack on the Soviet Union. President Roosevelt immediately promised assistance and backed up his words by making some military supplies available.
An Unexpected Ally• With the surrender of the Soviet Union a very real possibility, the Atlantic Conference was held in August 1941.• Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met and discussed common problems of the world.• The two men came up with the eight-point Atlantic Charter, outlining the aspirations of the democracies for a better world at the wars end.
The Atlantic Charter• The Atlantic Charter promised that there would be no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants; it affirmed the right of a people to choose their own form of government and to regain the governments abolished by the dictators; and it declared for disarmament and a peace of security, pending a new League of Nations.
U.S. Destroyers and Hitler’s U-boats Clash• FDR made the decision to escort the shipments of arms to Britain by U.S. warships in July 1941.• In September 1941, the U.S. destroyer Greer was attacked by a U-boat, without suffering damage.• Roosevelt then proclaimed a shoot-on-sight policy.• On October 17 the destroyer Kearny was crippled by a U- boat.• Two weeks later, the destroyer Reuben James was sunk off southwestern Iceland.• Congress voted in November 1941 to repeal the Neutrality Act of 1939, enabling merchant ships to be legally armed and enter the combat zones with munitions for Britain.
“Surprise” Assault of Pearl Harbor• Since September 1940, Japan had been allied with Germany. In late 1940, Washington imposed the first of its embargoes on Japan-bound supplies.• The State Department insisted that the Japanese clear out of China, offering to renew trade relations on a limited basis. Forced with the choice of succumbing to the Americans or continued conquest, the Japanese chose to fight.• On "Black Sunday" December 7, 1941, Japanese bombers attacked Pearl Harbor, killing 2,348 people.• On December 11, 1941, Congress declared war.
America’s Transformation from Bystander to Belligerent• Pearl Harbor was not the full answer to the question of why the United States went to war.• Following the fall of France, Americans were confronted with a devils dilemma. They desired to stay out of the conflict, yet they did not want Britain to be knocked out.• To keep Britain from collapsing, the Roosevelt administration felt compelled to extend the unneutral aid that invited attacks from German submarines.• Americans wished to stop Japans conquests in the Far East.• To keep Japan from expanding, Washington undertook to cut off vital Japanese supplies with embargoes that invited possible retaliation.• Rather than let democracy die and dictatorship rule, most Americans were determined to support a policy that might lead to war.
The War in Europe and North Africa The Main Idea After entering World War II, the United States focused first on the war in Europe. Reading Focus• How and why did the Allies fight the Battle of the Atlantic?• What were the key events of the war in the Soviet Union?• What did American forces accomplish in North Africa and Italy?• What were the events and significance of the Allies’ D- Day invasion of France?
How and why did the Allies fight the Battle of the Atlantic? Defeating the Axis Powers depended on control of the seas. The Atlantic needed to be kept safe for shipping so that soldiers and goods could be transported from the United States to the other Allied nations.Germany had a very powerful navy including withnew surface ships (including the giant Bismarck)and U-boats.German used new tactics to increase U-boateffectiveness such as the so-called wolf pack. U-boats sent hundreds of ships and tons of suppliesto the bottom of the sea. At the same time, theGerman navy lost few of their boats. The entry of the United States into the war would help turn the tide in the Battle of the Atlantic.
The Allies Fight the Battle of the AtlanticAllied ships and aircraft• American shipyards began producing new ships at an amazing rate.• The new ships were used to form larger, better- equipped convoys, which cut down on the effectiveness of U-boat attacks.• Allied aircraft protected convoys from the air.Cracking the Enigma• The Allies broke the German code system, which was called the Enigma.• The Allies began to gain vital information about the locations and plans of U-boat formations.• Finally, the Allies had an advantage over the Germans.
World War II in the Soviet Union1. Hitler broke his nonaggression pack with Stalin and invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. – The Soviets then joined the Allies as enemies of the Axis Powers. – At first the Soviets seemed unable to stop the German blitzkrieg; however, the bitterly cold Russian winter proved a great ally. – Still, the Germans held a vast portion of the western Soviet Union and besieged the city of Leningrad.1. The Germans attacked Stalingrad in August 1942. – The Soviets refused to let Stalingrad fall, and Hitler suffered a stunning defeat in early 1943.1. Stalingrad marked the beginning of Germany’s collapse in the Soviet Union. – Soviet forces pushed Germany out of Russia, but lost 12 million soldiers and millions of civilians.
American Forces in North Africa and Italy Why was North Africa important? By controlling North Africa, the British could protect shipping on the Mediterranean Sea. They needed the ability to ship oil from the Middle East through the Suez Canal.What was the result of fighting in North Africa? Italy could not drive the British from Egypt. Hitler sent troops under the direction of Erwin Rommel – nicknamed the Desert Fox. After a back-and-forth battle for North Africa, the Allied forces handed the Germans a major defeat at the battle of El Alamein. What happened in Italy? British and American forces invaded Italy in 1943. The Italian people forced Mussolini from power, but Hitler rushed into Italy to stop the Allies.
D-Day: The Invasion of FranceTo end the war as quickly as possible, the Alliesplanned Operation Overlord—a large invasion ofmainland France.The Allies landed at Normandy on June 6, 1944—called D-Day—and began to march on France.The Battle of the Bulge became a symbol ofAmerican strength and determination.
D-Day: The Invasion of FranceOperation Overlord D-Day Battle of the Bulge• Planned invasion • June 6, 1944 • Surprise of France from • Allied force of offensive by the beaches of 3.5 million Germans Normandy soldiers • Key moment• General Omar • Germans were came at the Bradley led the slow to respond Belgium city of American troops. Bastogne. • Estimated• Good planning 10,000 Allied • Lieutenant and speed were casualties, General George S. vital. including 6,600 Patton provided• Americans were Americans relief for the concerned about • The Allies soldiers at the V1 flying landed almost 1 Bastogne. bomb and the V2 million soldiers rocket. • Symbol of and 180,000 American vehicles. strength and determination
The Holocaust The Main Idea During the Holocaust, Germany’s Nazi government systematically murdered some 6 million Jews and 5 million others in Europe. Reading Focus• What was the history of the Nazi anti-Semitism?• What was the Nazi government’s Final Solution?• How did the United States respond to the Holocaust?
The History of Nazi Anti-Semitism Anti- • Hostility toward or prejudice againstSemitism Jews • Told Germans that they came from a superior race – the AryansHitler’s • Used the Jews as a scapegoat – someone Views to blame for Germany’s woes after World War I • Jews lived in Germany for 1,600 years. History • Hostility toward Jews existed since the of Jews Middle Ages. in • Anti-Jewish Nazi laws mirrored medievalGermany efforts to humiliate Jews. • Anti-Semitism changed from prejudice based on religion to hatred based on ancestry.
Nazi Anti-Semitism Fleeing Germany Hitler in Power Attacks on Jews • Over 100,000• Began campaign • Many Germans managed to leave against Jews soon supported Hitler’s Germany after after becoming anti-Semitic Kristallnacht. chancellor ideas. • Others found it• Established a • Discrimination difficult to leave the series of anti- and violent country as Nazi Semitic laws attacks against laws had left many intended to drive Jews continued. without money or Jews from • Anti-Jewish riots property. Germany broke out in an • Many countries• Laws stripped attack called were unwilling to Jews of their Kristallnacht. take in poor citizenship and • Jews were sent to immigrants. took away most concentration civil and economic • The United States camps, killed, and limited the number rights. fined for the of Germans• Laws defined who attack. immigrants. was a Jew.
The Nazi Government’s Final SolutionWorld War II brought many of Europe’s 9 million Jews under the control of theNazi SS.•Concentration camps were built in Germany and in other countries that theGermans occupied. – The camps were prisons for Jews and others considered enemies of Hitler’s regime. – Conditions in the camps were horrific.•The Nazis also established ghettos to control and punish Jews. – Ghettos are neighborhoods in a city to which a group of people are confined. – Life in the Jewish ghettos was desperate. – The worst ghetto was in Warsaw, Poland.•In 1941 Hitler called for the total destruction of all of Europe’s Jews. – At first mobile killing units—Einsatzgruppen—massacred Jews. – Then, Nazi officials adopted a plan known as the Final Solution.
Concentration Camps, Ghettos, and the Final Solution Camps Ghettos The Final• Prisons for Jews, • Walls or fences kept Solution prisoners-of-war, the Jews inside and and enemies of those trying to • Genocide – the the Nazi regime leave were shot. killing of an entire people• Inmates received • Food was scarce; little food and starvation was • Involved building 6 were forced to rampant. new extermination labor. camps for Jews • Diseases spread• The combination rapidly. • Inmates were of overwork and exposed to poison • The worst ghetto starvation was gas in specially built was in Warsaw, intended to kill. chambers. Poland.• Punishment for • 3 million Jews died • Some Jews in the minor offenses in extermination Warsaw ghetto—the was swift, sure, camps. Jewish Fighting and deadly. Organization— • 3 million Jews and 5 fought back. million others were killed by the Nazi using other means.
The American response to the Holocaust• Despite knowing about Hitler’s policies toward the Jews and events such as Kristallnacht, American immigration limited the number of Jews who could move to the United States.• In 1942, Americans officials began to hear about what was happening to the Jews in Europe and specifically about Hitler’s Final Solution. – The Americans were doubtful at first and thought the reports might just be war rumors.• Finally in 1944, Roosevelt created the War Refugee Board. – Through this board, the United States was able to help 200,000 Jews.
The American Response Liberating the Nazi Camps The Nuremberg trials• In 1944, Soviet troops began to • Many Nazis faced trial for their discover some of the Nazi death roles in the Holocaust. camps. By 1945 they reached the • The court was located at huge extermination camp at Auschwitz. Nuremberg, Germany.• Their reports gave proof of Hitler’s • The court was called the terrible plan. International Military Tribunal.• Also in 1945, American soldiers • Twenty two Nazis were tried for came upon concentration camps. war crimes, including Hermann Göering.• Many camp inmates died after • Since Nuremberg, several Nazis being rescued, but some were still strong enough to survive. have been captured and tried in different courts, including Israel.
THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR II AMERICA TURNS THE TIDE
SECTION 1: MOBILIZING FOR DEFENSE• After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, they thought America would avoid further conflict with them• The Japan Times newspaper said America was “trembling in their shoes”• But if America was trembling, it was with rage, not fear• “Remember Pearl Harbor” was the rallying cry as America entered WWII
AMERICANS RUSH TO ENLIST • After Pearl Harbor five million Americans enlisted to fight in the war • The Selective Service expanded the draft and eventually provided an additional 10 million soldiers
WOMEN JOIN THE FIGHT• Army Chief of Staff General George Marshall pushed for the formation of the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)• Under this program women worked in non-combat roles such as nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, and pilots
ALL AMERICANS FOUGHT Despite discrimination at home, minority populations contributed to the war effort • 1,000,000 African Americans served in the military • 300,000 Mexican-Americans • 33,000 Japanese Americans • 25,000 Native Americans • 13,000 Chinese AmericansThese “Golden 13” Great Lakes officers scored the highest marks ever on the Officers exam in 1944
A PRODUCTION MIRACLE• Americans converted their auto industry into a war industry• The nation’s automobile plants began to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars• Many other industries also converted to war- related supplies
LABOR’S CONTRIBUTION • By 1944, nearly 18 million workers were laboring in war industries (3x the # in 1941) • More than 6 million of these were women and nearly 2 million were minorities
MOBILIZATION OF SCIENTISTS• In 1941, FDR created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) to bring scientists into the war effort• Focus was on radar and sonar to locate submarines• Also the scientists worked on penicillin and pesticides like DDT
MANHATTAN PROJECT • The most important achievement of the OSRD was the secret development of the atomic bomb • Einstein wrote to FDR warning him that the Germans were attempting to develop such a weapon • The code used to describe American efforts to build the bomb was the “Manhattan Project”
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TAKES CONTROL OF INFLATION• With prices of goods threatening to rise out of control, FDR responded by creating the Office of Price Administration (OPA)• The OPA froze prices on most goods and encouraged the purchase of war bonds to fight inflation
WAR PRODUCTION BOARD • To ensure the troops had ample resources, FDR created the WPB • The WPB decided which companies would convert to wartime production and how to best allocate raw materials to those industries
COLLECTION DRIVES• The WPB also organized nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags and cooking fat for recycling• Additionally, the OPA set up a system of rationing• Households had set allocations of scarce goods – gas, meat, shoes, sugar, coffee
SECTION 2: THE WAR FOR EUROPE AND NORTH AFRICA• Days after Pearl Harbor, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived at the White House and spent three weeks working out war plans with FDR• They decided to focus on defeating Hitler first and then turn their attention to Japan
THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC • After America’s entry into the war, Hitler was determined to prevent foods and war supplies from reaching Britain and the USSR from America’s east coast • He ordered submarine raids on U.S. ships on the Atlantic • During the first fourThe power of the German submarines wasgreat, and in two months time almost two months of 1942 Germanymillion tons of Allied ships were resting sank 87 U.S. shipson the ocean floor. Efforts were soonmade to restrict German subs activities.
• In the first seven months of ALLIES 1942, German U-boats sank 681 Allied ships in the Atlantic CONTROL• Something had to be done or the war at sea would be U-BOATS lost• First, Allies used convoys of ships & airplanes to transport supplies• Destroyers used sonar to track U-boats• Airplanes were used to track the U-boats ocean surfaces• With this improved tracking, U-426 sinks after attack from the air, January 1944. Almost two- Allies inflicted huge losses thirds of all U-boat sailors died on German U-boats during the Battle of the Atlantic.
THE EASTERN FRONT & MEDITERRANEAN • Hitler wanted to wipe out Stalingrad – a major industrial center • In the summer of 1942, the Germans took the offensive in the southern Soviet Union • By the winter of 1943, the Allies began to see victories on land as well as sea • The first great turningBattle of Stalingrad was a huge point was the Battle of Allied victory Stalingrad
BATTLE OF STALINGRAD • For weeks the Germans pressed in on Stalingrad • Then winter set in and the Germans were wearing summer uniforms • The Germans surrendered in January of 1943 • The Soviets lost more than 1 million men in the battle (more Wounded in the than twice the number of deaths the U.S.Battle of Stalingrad suffered in all the war)
THE NORTH AFRICAN FRONT• “Operation Torch” – an invasion of Axis -controlled North Africa --was launched by American General Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1942• Allied troops landed in Casablanca, Oran and the Algiers in Algeria• They sped eastward chasing the Afrika Korps American tanks roll in the deserts of Africa and defeat led by German General German and Axis forces Edwin Rommel
CASABLANCA MEETING • FDR and Churchill met in Casablanca and decided their next moves • 1) Plan amphibious invasions of France and Italy • 2) Only unconditional surrender would be FDR and Churchill in accepted Casablanca
ITALIAN CAMPAIGN –ANOTHER ALLIED VICTORY• The Italian Campaign got off to a good start as the Allies easily took Sicily• At that point King Emmanuel III stripped Mussolini of his power and had him arrested• However, Hitler’s forces continued to resist the Allies in Italy• Heated battles ensued and it wasn’t until 1945 that Italy was secured by the Allies
TUSKEGEE AIRMEN • Among the brave men who fought in Italy were pilots of the all- black 99th squadron – the Tuskegee Airmen • The pilots made numerous effective strikes against Germany and won two distinguished Unit Citations
On May 31, 1943, the 99th Squadron, the first group of African-American pilots trained at the Tuskegee Institute, arrived in North Africa
ALLIES LIBERATE EUROPE Allies sent fake coded messages indicating they would attack here• Even as the Allies were battling for Italy, they began plans on a dramatic invasion of France• It was known as “Operation Overlord” and the commander was American General Dwight D. Eisenhower• Also called “D-Day,” the operation involved 3 million U.S. & British troops and was set for June 6, 1944
D-DAY JUNE • D-Day was the largest land-sea-air 6, 1944 operation in military history • Despite air support, German retaliation was brutal – especially at Omaha Beach • Within a month, the Allies had landed 1 million troops, 567,000 tons of supplies andD-Day was an amphibious landing – soldiers going from sea to land 170,000 vehicles
FRANCE• By September 1944, FREED the Allies had freed France, Belgium and Luxembourg• That good news – and the American’s people’s desire not to “change horses in midstream” – helped elect FDR to an General George Patton (right) unprecedented 4th term was instrumental in Allies freeing France
FDR: The Fourth-Termite of 1944• For the election of 1944, the Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey for the presidency and isolationist Senator, John W. Bricker for the vice presidency.• The Democrats nominated Roosevelt for the presidency and, after dispute of trust with current vice president Henry A. Wallace, Senator Harry S Truman was chosen for the vice presidency.
BATTLE OF THE BULGE• In October 1944, Americans captured their first German town (Aachen)– the Allies were closing in• Hitler responded with one last ditch massive offensive• Hitler hoped breaking through the Allied line would break up Allied supply lines
BATTLE OF THE BULGE • The battle raged for a month – the Germans had been pushed back • Little seemed to have changed, but in fact the Germans had sustained heavy losses • Germany lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks and 1,600 planes • From that point on the Nazis could do little butThe Battle of the Bulge was retreat Germany’s last gasp
LIBERATION OF DEATH• While the British and CAMPS Americans moved westward into Germany, the Soviets moved eastward into German-controlled Poland• The Soviets discovered many death camps that the Germans had set up within Poland• The Americans also liberated Nazi death camps within Germany
America andSovietSoldiers Meetin Germany,1945. Suchfriendly sightssoon becamerare as mutualsuspiciondeepened.
ALLIES TAKE BERLIN; HITLER COMMITS SUICIDE • By April 25, 1945, the Soviet army had stormed Berlin • In his underground headquarters in Berlin, Hitler prepared for the end • On April 29, he married his longtime girlfriend Eva Braun then wrote a last note in which he blamed the Jews for starting the war and his generals for losing it • The next day he gave poison to his wife and shot himself
V-E DAY• General Eisenhower accepted the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich• On May 8, 1945, the Allies celebrated V-E Day – victory in Europe Day• The war in Europe was finally over
Famouspicture ofanAmericansoldiercelebratingthe end ofthe war
FDR DIES; TRUMAN PRESIDENT• PresidentRoosevelt didnot live to seeV-E Day• On April 12,1945, he suffereda stroke anddied– his VPHarry S Trumanbecame thenation’s 33rdpresident
A Reluctant Truman• On April 12, 1945, President Roosevelt died suddenly from a brain hemorrhage. Harry S Truman took over the presidency.• The first president without a college education in many years, President Harry S Truman was known as "average mans average man."• He had down-home authenticity, few pretensions, rock-solid probity, and the political ability called "moxie" - the ability to face difficulty with courage.
SECTION 3: THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC • The Americans did not celebrate long, as Japan was busy conquering an empire that dwarfed Hitler’s Third Reich • Japan had conquered much of southeast Asia including the Dutch East Indies, Guam, and most of China
BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA• The main Allied forces in the Pacific were Americans and Australians• In May 1942 they succeeded in stopping the Japanese drive toward Australia in the five-day Battle of the Coral Sea
THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY• Japan’s next thrust was toward Midway Island – a strategic Island northwest of Hawaii• Admiral Chester Nimitz, the Commander of American Naval forces in the Pacific, moved to defend the Island• The Americans won a decisive victory as their planes destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and 250 planes
•The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the war – soon the Allies were island hopping toward Japan
KAMIKAZE PILOTS ATTACK ALLIES • The Americans continued leapfrogging across the Pacific toward Japan • Japanese countered by employing a new tactic – Kamikaze (divine wind) attacks • Pilots in small bomb-In the Battle for the Philippines, 424 laden planes would Kamikaze pilots sank 16 ships and crash into Allied ships damaged 80 more
• General MacArthur and IWO JIMA the Allies next turned to the Island of Iwo Jima• The island was critical to the Allies as a base for an attack on Japan• It was called the most heavily defended spot on earth• Allied and Japanese forces American soldiers plant the flag on suffered heavy the Island of Iwo Jima after their casualties victory
THE BATTLE FOR OKINAWA • In April 1945, U.S. marines invaded Okinawa • The Japanese unleashed 1,900 Kamikaze attacks sinking 30 ships and killing 5,000 seamen • Okinawa cost the Americans 7,600 marines and the Japanese 110,000 soldiers
INVADE JAPAN?• After Okinawa, MacArthur Okinawa predicted that a Normandy type amphibious invasion of Japan would result in 1,500,000 Allied deaths• President Truman saw only one way to avoid an The loss of life at Iwo Jima and Okinawa invasion of convinced Allied leaders that an invasion Japan . . . of Japan was not the best idea
No Going Back• Learning Goal: NJCCCS: 6.1.12.A.11.d• Analyze the decision to use the atomic bomb and the consequences of doing so.
ATOMIC BOMB DEVELOPED • Japan had a huge army that would defend every inch of the Japanese mainland • So Truman decided to use a powerful new weapon developed by scientists working on the Manhattan Project – the Atomic Bomb
U.S. DROPS TWO ATOMIC BOMBS ON JAPAN• Truman warned Japan in late July 1945 that without a immediate Japanese surrender, it faced “prompt and utter destruction”• On August 6 (Hiroshima) and August The plane and crew that dropped 9 (Nagasaki) a B-29 an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, bomber dropped Atomic Japan
JAPAN SURRENDERS • Japan surrendered days after the second atomic bomb was dropped • General MacArthur said, “Today the guns are silent. The skies no longer rain death . . .the entire world is quietly at peace.”At the White House, President Harry Truman announces the Japanese surrender, August 14, 1945
• In February 1945, as the Allies THE YALTA pushed toward victory in Europe, CONFERENCE an ailing FDR met with Churchill and Stalin at the Black Sea resort of Yalta in the USSR• A series of compromises were worked out concerning (L to R) Churchill, FDR and Stalin postwar Europe at Yalta
YALTA AGREEMENTS• 1) They agreed to divide Germany into 4 occupied zones after the war• 2) Stalin agreed to free elections in Eastern Europe• 3) Stalin agreed to help the U.S. in the war against Japan and to join the United Nations
NUREMBERG WAR TRIALS Herman Goering, Hitlers right-hand man and chief architect of the German war effort, testifies at his trial. He was found guilty of war crimes but avoided execution by swallowing potassium cyanide.• The discovery of Hitler’s death camps led the Allies to put 24 surviving Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against the peace, and war crimes• The trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany• “I was only following orders” was not an acceptable defense as 12 of the 24 were sentenced to death and the others to life in prison
THE OCCUPATION OF JAPAN• Japan was occupied by U.S. forces under the command of General MacArthur• During the seven- year occupation, MacArthur reshaped Japan’s economy by introducing free-market practices that led to a remarkable economic recovery• Additionally, he introduced a liberal constitution that to this day is called the MacArthur Constitution
Challenges after the War United Nations Potsdam Conference Rebuilding• Representatives • Allied leaders met • MacArthur led from 50 in the German city efforts to help countries met of Potsdam to Japan rebuild its to form a new discuss the spread organization, of communism and government and the United Soviet influence in economy. Nations. the postwar world. • Seven Japanese• The UN was • Truman hoped to leaders were meant to get Stalin to live tried for war encourage up to his promises crimes. cooperation from Yalta. among nations • Rebuilding • Stalin did not do and to prevent Europe caused this. wars. tensions between the U.S and the Soviet Union.
SECTION 4: THE HOME FRONT • The war provided a lift to the U.S. economy • Jobs were abundant and despite rationing and shortages, people had money to spend • By the end of the war, America was the world’s dominant economic and military power
On the Home Front• Learning Goal: NJCCCS: 6.1.12.C.11.a• Apply opportunity cost and trade-offs to evaluate the shift in economic resources from the production of domestic to military goods during World War II, and analyze the impact of the post-war shift back to domestic production.
ECONOMIC GAINS• Unemployment fell to only 1.2% by 1944 and wages rose 35%• Farmers too benefited as production doubled and income tripled
WOMEN MAKE GAINS • Women enjoyed economic gains during the war, although many lost their jobs after the war • Over 6 million women entered the work force for the first time • Over 1/3 were in the defense industry
Women at Women atWar. Members War. Membersof the of theWomen’s Army Women’s ArmyCorps Corpsdisembark in disembark inNorth Africa in North Africa in1944. (Note: 1944. (Note:“Auxiliary” was “Auxiliary” wasdropped from dropped fromthe name in the name in1943. 1943.
POPULATION SHIFTS• The war triggered the greatest mass migration in American history• More than a million newcomers poured into California between 1941-1944• African Americans again shifted from south to north
GI BILL HELPS RETURNING VETS • To help returning servicemen ease back into civilian life, Congress passed the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights) • The act provided education for 7.8 million vets
Japanese Internment• NJCCCS 6.1.12.A.11.c• Determine if American policies regarding Japanese internment and actions against other minority groups were a denial of civil rights.
INTERNMENT OF JAPANESE AMERICANS• When the war began, 120,000 Japanese Americans lived in the U.S. – mostly on the West Coast• After Pearl Harbor, many people were suspicious of possible spy activity by Japanese Americans• In 1942, FDR ordered Japanese Americans felt the Japanese Americans sting of discrimination during into 10 relocation WWII centers
U.S. PAYS REPARATIONS TO JAPANESE • In the late 1980s, President Reagan signed into law a bill that provided $20,000 to every Japanese American sent to a relocation camp • The checks were sent out in 1990 along with a note from President Bush saying, “We can never fully right the wrongs of the past . . . we now recognize that serious Today the U.S. is home to wrongs were done tomore than 1,000,000 Japanese- Japanese Americans Americans during WWII.”
Nearly 59 years after the end of World War II, the National World War II Memorial wasdedicated in Washington, D.C., on Saturday,May 29, 2004 to honor the 408,680 Americans who died in the conflict
Geography and WWII• NJCCCS: 6.1.12.B.11.a• Explain the role that geography played in the development of military strategies and weaponry in World War II.