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1
Motivation & Emotion
Dr James Neill
Centre for Applied Psychology
University of Canberra
2016
Unconscious motivation
Ima...
2
Unconscious
motivation
Reading:
Reeve (2015)
Ch 16
(pp. 466-495)
Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Al...
3
Outline – Unconscious motivation
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 466)
 Psychodynamic
perspective
 Psychoanalytic →
psychodyna...
4
Psychoanalytic → psychodynamic
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 468-470)
 Psychoanalytic: Refers to the traditional
Freudian a...
5
Freudian psychodynamic
structural model
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Structural-Iceberg.svg
6
Freud's dual-instinct theory
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 470-471)
Eros
Instinct for life
Thanatos
Instincts for death
inst...
7
Freud's drive theory
Source of drive Impetus of drive Object of drive Aim of drive
Bodily deficit
(unconscious)
Intensit...
8
Drive → wish
Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 394-395)
 However, unlike hunger and thirst, neither sex
nor aggression conform ...
9
Contemporary psychodynamic perspective
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 471-472)
1. The unconscious
Much of mental life is unco...
10
Contemporary views on the unconscious
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 472-477)
Adaptive
unconscious
Implicit
motivation
Freud...
11
Priming
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 477-478)
 Procedure that invokes an implicit
response following exposure
outside con...
12
Psychological priming –
Bang goes the theory
Video: (~6 mins)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRAKt0GakJM
13
How your unconscious mind rules
your behaviour
Leonard Mlodinow at TEDxReset 2013
Video: (~15 mins)
https://youtu.be/vc...
14
Psychodynamics
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 479)
The clashing of psychological forces
“The mind is an arena,
a sort of tumb...
15
Psychodynamics
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 479)
The clashing of psychological forces
Idea
Desire
Excitation
Cathexis
(sexu...
16
Illustration of psychodynamics:
Repression
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 479-480)
 Repression is the central concept of
ps...
17
Illustration of psychodynamics:
Suppression
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 480-482)
 Thought can't be stopped per se, but i...
18
Do the Id and the Ego actually exist?
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 482)
• Hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala, nucleus accumbe...
19
Ego psychology
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 482-483)
Ego development
Symbiotic Impulsive
Self-
protective
Conformist Consc...
20
Motivational importance of
ego development
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 483-484)
The Ego develops to
empower the person
to...
21
Ego defense
Based on Figure 14.1, Reeve (2015, pp. 484-487)
Ego Defenses
Reality
anxiety
Moral
anxiety
Id
demands
Envir...
Mature defense mechanisms → better life adjustment
Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 16.3, p. 487). Source: From Adaptation to ...
Adaptive defense mechanisms
→ less depression as a result of life stress
Based on Figure 16.4, Reeve (2015, p. 488)
24
Ego effectance
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 487-488)
Effectance
motivation
Willingness to exercise
emerging and existing
s...
25
Object relations theory
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 488-492)
 People relate to objects (others) to satisfy their
emotion...
One woman’s representation of her
relationships with men
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 491); Source: From “Social Cognition and...
27
Criticisms of the psychodynamic perspective
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 492-493)
Many of Freud’s concepts are not scienti...
28
Summary
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 493-495)
 Freud: Biologically-based motivation model based on
two instinctual drives...
29
 Individual differences
Growth psychology (Ch 15)
 Summary & conclusion (Ch 17)
Upcoming lectures
30
References
 Freud, S. (1917 [Original work published
1905]). Wit and its relation to the
unconscious. Retrieved from
h...
31
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Unconscious motivation

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Unconscious motivation

  1. 1. 1 Motivation & Emotion Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2016 Unconscious motivation Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Why_books_are_always_better_than_movies.jpg Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Why_books_are_always_better_than_movies.jpg
  2. 2. 2 Unconscious motivation Reading: Reeve (2015) Ch 16 (pp. 466-495) Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alma-Tadema_Unconscious_Rivals_1893.jpg
  3. 3. 3 Outline – Unconscious motivation Based on Reeve (2015, p. 466)  Psychodynamic perspective  Psychoanalytic → psychodynamic  Dual-instinct theory  Drive → wish?  Contemporary psychodynamic theory  The unconscious  Freudian unconscious  Adaptive unconscious  Implicit motivation  Priming  Psychodynamic perspective  Psychoanalytic → psychodynamic  Dual-instinct theory  Drive → wish?  Contemporary psychodynamic theory  The unconscious  Freudian unconscious  Adaptive unconscious  Implicit motivation  Priming  Psychodynamics  Repression  Suppression  Do the Id & Ego actually exist?  Ego psychology  Ego development  Ego defense  Ego strength  Object relations theory  Criticisms  Psychodynamics  Repression  Suppression  Do the Id & Ego actually exist?  Ego psychology  Ego development  Ego defense  Ego strength  Object relations theory  Criticisms Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg
  4. 4. 4 Psychoanalytic → psychodynamic Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 468-470)  Psychoanalytic: Refers to the traditional Freudian approach to unconscious which includes Dual-instinct theory (Eros and Thanatos)  Psychodynamic: More general study of unconscious psychological processes (e.g., prejudice, depression, thought suppression, defense mechanisms), without necessarily subscribing to Freudian tradition  This lecture is about psychodynamic unconscious motivation, but starts with a historical perspective.  Psychoanalytic: Refers to the traditional Freudian approach to unconscious which includes Dual-instinct theory (Eros and Thanatos)  Psychodynamic: More general study of unconscious psychological processes (e.g., prejudice, depression, thought suppression, defense mechanisms), without necessarily subscribing to Freudian tradition  This lecture is about psychodynamic unconscious motivation, but starts with a historical perspective.
  5. 5. 5 Freudian psychodynamic structural model Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Structural-Iceberg.svg
  6. 6. 6 Freud's dual-instinct theory Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 470-471) Eros Instinct for life Thanatos Instincts for death instincts for: ● sex ● nurturance ● affiliation ● etc. instincts for: ● aggression toward self (self-criticism, depression) ● aggression toward others (anger, prejudice) etc. Psychoanalysis c. 1930 Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eros_bobbin_Louvre_CA1798.jpg
  7. 7. 7 Freud's drive theory Source of drive Impetus of drive Object of drive Aim of drive Bodily deficit (unconscious) Intensity of psychological discomfort increases and creates anxiety Seek object in environment capable of satisfying bodily deficit Satisfaction by removing the bodily deficit Based on Reeve (2015, Ch 2: Motivation in historical and contemporary perspectives pp. 33-34) Image sources: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thermometer_0.svg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ASample_page_from_AAC_communication_book.png
  8. 8. 8 Drive → wish Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 394-395)  However, unlike hunger and thirst, neither sex nor aggression conform to a such a physiological model of drive  Drive theory evolved into a “wish model” - a discrepancy theory - i.e., motivation arises from a mismatch between “present state” and “ideal state”  Contemporary psychoanalysts:  propose that psychological wishes, not instinctual drives, regulate and direct behaviour  focus on helping people recognise, improve upon, or avoid problematic interpersonal relationships  However, unlike hunger and thirst, neither sex nor aggression conform to a such a physiological model of drive  Drive theory evolved into a “wish model” - a discrepancy theory - i.e., motivation arises from a mismatch between “present state” and “ideal state”  Contemporary psychoanalysts:  propose that psychological wishes, not instinctual drives, regulate and direct behaviour  focus on helping people recognise, improve upon, or avoid problematic interpersonal relationships
  9. 9. 9 Contemporary psychodynamic perspective Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 471-472) 1. The unconscious Much of mental life is unconscious. 2. Psychodynamics Mental processes operate in parallel with one another. 3. Ego development Healthy development involves moving from an immature, socially dependent personality to one that is more mature and interdependent with others. 4. Object Relations Theory Mental representations of self and other form in childhood that guide the person’s later social motivations and relationships.
  10. 10. 10 Contemporary views on the unconscious Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 472-477) Adaptive unconscious Implicit motivation Freudian unconscious Sets goals, makes judgements, and initiates action. Automatically appraises the environment. Automatically attends to emotionally linked environmental events.
  11. 11. 11 Priming Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 477-478)  Procedure that invokes an implicit response following exposure outside conscious awareness  Activate mental representation of a behaviour outside of awareness, preparing a person to enact behaviour consistent with that mental representation.  Procedure that invokes an implicit response following exposure outside conscious awareness  Activate mental representation of a behaviour outside of awareness, preparing a person to enact behaviour consistent with that mental representation.
  12. 12. 12 Psychological priming – Bang goes the theory Video: (~6 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRAKt0GakJM
  13. 13. 13 How your unconscious mind rules your behaviour Leonard Mlodinow at TEDxReset 2013 Video: (~15 mins) https://youtu.be/vcJm-y7UnLY?t=165
  14. 14. 14 Psychodynamics Based on Reeve (2015, p. 479) The clashing of psychological forces “The mind is an arena, a sort of tumbling- ground for the struggle of antagonistic impulses.” - Freud, 1917 “The mind is an arena, a sort of tumbling- ground for the struggle of antagonistic impulses.” - Freud, 1917 Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sigmund_Freud_Bobble_Head_Wackelkopf.JPG
  15. 15. 15 Psychodynamics Based on Reeve (2015, p. 479) The clashing of psychological forces Idea Desire Excitation Cathexis (sexual desire) Counter-idea Repression Inhibition Anti-cathexis (guilt) Ego Id Unconscious counter-will Conscious volition (Will)
  16. 16. 16 Illustration of psychodynamics: Repression Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 479-480)  Repression is the central concept of psychodynamics (Freud, 1917).  The unconscious is seen as an overcrowded apartment where motivations reside, wanting to come into the public world.  But repression is the security guard turning down most motivations' requests to enter the public world.  Repression is the process of forgetting by ways that are unconscious, unintentional, and automatic.  Repression is Ego’s counterforce to the Id’s demanding desires.  Repression is the central concept of psychodynamics (Freud, 1917).  The unconscious is seen as an overcrowded apartment where motivations reside, wanting to come into the public world.  But repression is the security guard turning down most motivations' requests to enter the public world.  Repression is the process of forgetting by ways that are unconscious, unintentional, and automatic.  Repression is Ego’s counterforce to the Id’s demanding desires.
  17. 17. 17 Illustration of psychodynamics: Suppression Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 480-482)  Thought can't be stopped per se, but it can be suppressed.  Suppression is process of removing a thought from attention by ways that are conscious, intentional, and deliberate.  However, suppression tends to produce rebound effects – i.e., even greater occurrence of the unwanted thought (unconscious processes tend to push the thought back into consciousness).  Therefore, it makes more sense, as a suppression strategy, to accept the thought into consciousness.  Thought can't be stopped per se, but it can be suppressed.  Suppression is process of removing a thought from attention by ways that are conscious, intentional, and deliberate.  However, suppression tends to produce rebound effects – i.e., even greater occurrence of the unwanted thought (unconscious processes tend to push the thought back into consciousness).  Therefore, it makes more sense, as a suppression strategy, to accept the thought into consciousness.
  18. 18. 18 Do the Id and the Ego actually exist? Based on Reeve (2015, p. 482) • Hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, … • Pleasure-unpleasure brain centers. The limbic system makes for a pretty fair Id: • Learning, memory, decision-making, intellectual problem-solving • Executive control center that perceived the world and learns to adapt to it. The neocortex makes for a pretty fair Ego: • Interrelationships show how one structure affects another (e.g., how the amygdala excites and inhibits the neocortex). Intricately interrelated neural pathways and structures of the limbic system and neocortex
  19. 19. 19 Ego psychology Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 482-483) Ego development Symbiotic Impulsive Self- protective Conformist Conscientious Autonomous (Loevinger, 1976)  Id provides instinctual psychic energy from birth  Ego develops over time through experimentation and learning about what actually works in the real world.  Id provides instinctual psychic energy from birth  Ego develops over time through experimentation and learning about what actually works in the real world.
  20. 20. 20 Motivational importance of ego development Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 483-484) The Ego develops to empower the person to interact more effectively and proactively with its surroundings. The Ego develops to defend against anxiety.
  21. 21. 21 Ego defense Based on Figure 14.1, Reeve (2015, pp. 484-487) Ego Defenses Reality anxiety Moral anxiety Id demands Environmental demands Superego demands Extent of anxiety Extent of ego development Ego Neurotic anxiety
  22. 22. Mature defense mechanisms → better life adjustment Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 16.3, p. 487). Source: From Adaptation to Life (p. 87, by Vaillant, 1977: Little, Brown & Company. Copyright 1977 by George E. Vaillant.
  23. 23. Adaptive defense mechanisms → less depression as a result of life stress Based on Figure 16.4, Reeve (2015, p. 488)
  24. 24. 24 Ego effectance Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 487-488) Effectance motivation Willingness to exercise emerging and existing skills and capabilities Inevitable effects on or changes in the environment Voluntary attempts to produce intentional, goal-directed changes in the environment When successful, sense of competence increases White’s model of effectance motivation  Individual's competence in dealing with environmental challenges, demands, and opportunities.  Individual's competence in dealing with environmental challenges, demands, and opportunities.
  25. 25. 25 Object relations theory Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 488-492)  People relate to objects (others) to satisfy their emotional and psychological need for relatedness.  Early representations of relations with caregivers influence subsequent relations with others.  The quality of anyone’s mental representation of relationships can be characterised by:  Unconscious tone: Benevolent vs malevolent  Capacity for emotional involvement: Selfishness/narcissism vs. mutual concern  Mutuality of autonomy with others: Objects perceived as autonomous present no risk to the integrity and autonomy of perceiver  People relate to objects (others) to satisfy their emotional and psychological need for relatedness.  Early representations of relations with caregivers influence subsequent relations with others.  The quality of anyone’s mental representation of relationships can be characterised by:  Unconscious tone: Benevolent vs malevolent  Capacity for emotional involvement: Selfishness/narcissism vs. mutual concern  Mutuality of autonomy with others: Objects perceived as autonomous present no risk to the integrity and autonomy of perceiver
  26. 26. One woman’s representation of her relationships with men Based on Reeve (2015, p. 491); Source: From “Social Cognition and Object Relations,” by D. Westen, 1991, Psychological Bulletin, 109, pp. 429-455. Copyright 1991 by American Psychological Corporation.
  27. 27. 27 Criticisms of the psychodynamic perspective Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 492-493) Many of Freud’s concepts are not scientifically testable. Motivational concepts arose from case studies of disturbed individuals. Many points about human motivation and emotion was simply wrong. (e.g., Freud’s theory of superego formation; Fisher & Greenberg, 1977) Methods of data collection. Psychoanalytic theory is woeful as a predictive device. Many of Freud’s concepts are not scientifically testable. Motivational concepts arose from case studies of disturbed individuals. Many points about human motivation and emotion was simply wrong. (e.g., Freud’s theory of superego formation; Fisher & Greenberg, 1977) Methods of data collection. Psychoanalytic theory is woeful as a predictive device.
  28. 28. 28 Summary Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 493-495)  Freud: Biologically-based motivation model based on two instinctual drives – sex and aggression – which supply the body with its physical and mental energy  Contemporary psychoanalysts emphasise psychological wishes (rather than biological drives) and cognitive information processing  Four postulates:  Much of mental life is unconscious  Mental processes operate in parallel  Ego development → ego maturity  Mental representations in childhood → guide adult social motivations  Freud: Biologically-based motivation model based on two instinctual drives – sex and aggression – which supply the body with its physical and mental energy  Contemporary psychoanalysts emphasise psychological wishes (rather than biological drives) and cognitive information processing  Four postulates:  Much of mental life is unconscious  Mental processes operate in parallel  Ego development → ego maturity  Mental representations in childhood → guide adult social motivations
  29. 29. 29  Individual differences Growth psychology (Ch 15)  Summary & conclusion (Ch 17) Upcoming lectures
  30. 30. 30 References  Freud, S. (1917 [Original work published 1905]). Wit and its relation to the unconscious. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/279/  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Freud, S. (1917 [Original work published 1905]). Wit and its relation to the unconscious. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/279/  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Note: Image credits are in the slide notes
  31. 31. 31 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html

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