Social Psychology: Review


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A review of the previous nine undergraduate social psychology lectures.

Published in: Technology

Social Psychology: Review

  1. 1. Social Psychology <ul><ul><li>Lecture 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semester 2, 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecturer: James Neill </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Lecture topics <ul><li>01. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>02. The Social Self </li></ul><ul><li>03. Social Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>04. Aggression </li></ul><ul><li>05. Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>06. Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>07. Groups </li></ul><ul><li>08. Prosocial </li></ul><ul><li>09. Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>10. Review </li></ul><ul><li>} What? </li></ul><ul><li>} What can go wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>} What can go right? </li></ul><ul><li>} Where are we going? </li></ul>
  3. 3. 01. Introduction
  4. 4. <ul><li>Human behaviour... </li></ul><ul><li>in social context. </li></ul>What is social psychology?
  5. 5. <ul><li>How the </li></ul><ul><li>thoughts, feelings, and behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>are influenced by the... </li></ul><ul><li>actual, imagined, or implied </li></ul><ul><li>presence of others </li></ul><ul><li>(based on Allport, 1935) </li></ul>What is social psychology?
  6. 6. Population bottleneck Why does social psychology matter?
  7. 7. Sociology vs. Social Psychology
  8. 8. Culture <ul><li>Info-based system of common ways of doing things and ideas shared via language </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are social animals who need to manage tension between self-interest and collective interest. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Nature makes us selfish; Culture helps us to resist selfish impulses) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Culture <ul><li>Humans have evolved to participate in culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals generally need to work to gain social acceptance. </li></ul><ul><li>Inner emotional and cognitive states help us to connect to others . </li></ul><ul><li>People get most of what they need from other people. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Social brain theory <ul><li>Larger brain is linked to complex social systems (Dunbar, 1993, 1996) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social Relations
  12. 12. History <ul><li>Volkerpsychologie and Crowd Mind (mid-late 1800s) </li></ul><ul><li>Social facilitation (Triplett, 1898) </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes (early 20 th C) </li></ul><ul><li>Split from behaviourism and psychoanalysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Gestalt theorists (1930s-50s) </li></ul><ul><li>Post-WW2 studies e.g., </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian personality (Allport), Obedience (Milgram), Roles (Zimbardo). </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. History <ul><li>Attribution theory, cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1960s) </li></ul><ul><li>European developments e.g., </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tajfel (social identity theory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moscovici (minority influence) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crisis (Late 1960s - early 1970s) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of social cognitive perspectives (1970s to now) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., social constructionism </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 02. Social Self
  15. 15. Domains / Units of Analysis
  16. 16. Note: Fuzzy boundaries Self Groups Culture Environ-ment
  17. 17. What is the “self”? <ul><li>“ The self is an important tool with which the human organism makes its way through human society and thereby manages to satisfy its needs.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. What is the “self”? <ul><li>The psychological self includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitions </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Group Memberships (Social Identity) </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal / Imagined Selves </li></ul><ul><li>Memories </li></ul><ul><li>Possessions </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Beliefs, Self-Concepts, Self-Images </li></ul><ul><li>Social Roles </li></ul>
  19. 19. What is the self? <ul><li>Self-knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-concept – info about self </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public self </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agent self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-making, active responding </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. What is the “social self”? <ul><li>Humans are gregarious, group-based creatures. </li></ul><ul><li>A significant portion of our ‘self’ and its ‘behaviour’ is socially directed and influenced. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Purpose of the social self <ul><li>Gain social acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Play social roles </li></ul>
  22. 22. Self-constructs Self-Esteem Self-Concept Self-Efficacy Self-Congruence illustrate how social psychologists study people’s selves, in cognitive, affective, and behavioural terms.
  23. 23. Social Self <ul><li>Evolutionary & adaptational functions </li></ul><ul><li>Self-complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Social comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Social feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic self-presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul>
  24. 24. 03. Social Thinking
  25. 25. Social thinking <ul><li>Social psychology was initially influenced by behaviourism . (1930’s-1950’s) </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1970’s, cognitive psychology lead to greater investigation of social thinking and feeling . </li></ul>
  26. 26. Overview <ul><li>Social thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive dissonance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Influence & persuasion </li></ul>
  27. 27. Social perception <ul><li>Refers to how people: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>form impressions of, & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make inferences about </li></ul></ul><ul><li>other people. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Cognitive miser <ul><li>“ There is ample evidence that when people’s capacity for thinking is already preoccupied, they take even more shortcuts to reduce further need for thought” </li></ul><ul><li>Bushman & Baumeister, 2008, p. 148) – Brief Version </li></ul>
  29. 29. Knowledge structures <ul><li>“ Automatic thinking requires little effort because it relies on knowledge structures”, e.g., </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schemas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Framing <ul><li>Context influences interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the frame can change and even reverse interpretation. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Attribution Theory <ul><li>“… deals with how the social perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events” </li></ul>
  32. 32. Fundamental Attribution Error <ul><li>Tendency to attribute others’ behaviour to enduring dispositions because: </li></ul><ul><li>Underestimation of the influence of situational factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Overestimation of the influence of dispositional factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Extent of the FAE varies by culture. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Actor/Observer Bias <ul><li>“ there is a pervasive tendency for actors to attribute their actions to situational requirements, whereas observers tend to attribute the same actions to stable personal dispositions” </li></ul>
  34. 34. Self-serving bias <ul><li>Taking credit for success = Self-enhancing bias </li></ul><ul><li>Denying responsibility for failure = Self-protecting bias </li></ul>
  35. 35. Ultimate Attribution Error <ul><li>FAE applied to in- and out- groups, i.e., Bias towards </li></ul><ul><li>internal attributions for in-group success and external attributions for in-group failures </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite for out-groups </li></ul>
  36. 36. Why Have Attitudes? <ul><li>Help deal with complex world </li></ul><ul><li>Initial evaluations are immediate and unconscious - helpful in making choices </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit attitude : Automatic evaluative response </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit attitude : Conscious evaluative response </li></ul>
  37. 37. Mere-exposure effect <ul><li>Tendency for people to come to like things simply because they see or encounter them repeatedly </li></ul><ul><li>Exception - If you dislike something initially, repeated exposure will not change that attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are further influenced by classical and operant conditioning, social learning, and attitudinal polarisation </li></ul>
  38. 38. Cognitive Dissonance <ul><li>Unpleasant state when attitude and behaviour are inconsistent </li></ul><ul><ul><li> people desire consistency i.e., try to bring their attitude into line with their actions (or their actions into line with their attitudes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is an even stronger desire to be viewed as consistent by others </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Attitudes & Behaviour <ul><li>Predictions of behaviour based on attitudes is best when </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are specific </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviours are aggregated </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are conscious and come to mind easil y </li></ul>
  40. 40. Social Influence <ul><li>Normative vs. informational influence </li></ul><ul><li>Influence/persuastion techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Minority influence </li></ul><ul><li>Resisting persuasion </li></ul>
  41. 41. 04. Prejudice
  42. 42. Prejudice <ul><li>Categorisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural human tendency to group objects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social categorisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorting people into groups on common characteristics </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Why Prejudice Exists <ul><li>Tendency to hold stereotypes and prejudices may be innate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content of stereotypes is learned though socialisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People have to work to override stereotyes and prejudice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra effort leaves people less able to self regulate </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Why Prejudice Exists <ul><li>Minimal group effect </li></ul><ul><li>Ingroup favouritism </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalisation for oppression </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem (through social comparison) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Accuracy of Stereotypes <ul><li>Many stereotypes may be based on genuine difference, but then become overgeneralised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heuristics may be fairly accurate, but stereotypes become exaggerated with little factual basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to boost self-esteem, oppression, or rationalise status quo </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Overcoming Stereotypes, Reducing Prejudices <ul><li>Conscious override </li></ul><ul><li>Increase available information </li></ul><ul><li>Positive, equal contact </li></ul><ul><li>Superordinate goals </li></ul>
  47. 47. 05. Aggression
  48. 48. Aggression <ul><li>“ The intentional infliction of some form of harm on others” </li></ul><ul><li>(Baron & Byrne, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Expression of aggression is culturally influenced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Culture offers nonviolent ways of resolving conflicts and problems) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Types of aggression <ul><li>Hostile </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul>
  50. 50. Theories & Factors of Aggression <ul><li>Inner causes e.g., excitation-transfer, cognitive theories, testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal causes e.g., social-learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>External / situational causes e.g., frustration-aggression, relative deprivation, crowd behaviour, intergroup conflict </li></ul>
  51. 51. 06. Relationships
  52. 52. Relationships Overview <ul><li>Affiliation (the need to belong) </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection / exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining & ending </li></ul><ul><li>Sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Jealousy </li></ul>
  53. 53. The Need to Belong (Affiliation) <ul><li>Intrinsic need for affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Harlow’s experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation & stress/health (not belonging is bad for you) </li></ul>
  54. 54. Attraction <ul><li>Ingratiation </li></ul><ul><li>Social rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Playing hard to get </li></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Propinquity </li></ul><ul><li>Matching hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary perspectives </li></ul>
  55. 55. Love <ul><li>Types of love </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passionate vs companionate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sternberg’s triangle of love Passion, Intimacy, Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exchange vs. communal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attachment styles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schacter’s 2-factor theory (Arousal-Cognition) </li></ul><ul><li>Hatfield & Walster's 3-factor theory (Culture-Arousal-Cognition) </li></ul>
  56. 56. Ending relationships <ul><li>Levinger’s 4 factors (new life, alternative partners, expectation of failure, lack of comittment) </li></ul><ul><li>Rusult & Zembrodt – 4 stages to failing relationship (loyalty, neglect, voice behaviour, exit behaviour) </li></ul><ul><li>Duck’s relationship dissolution (intrapsychic, dyadic, social, grave-dressing) </li></ul>
  57. 57. 07. Groups & Leadership
  58. 58. Groups Overview <ul><li>What is a group? </li></ul><ul><li>Social facilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Social loafing </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of groups on individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Intergroup conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation between groups </li></ul>
  59. 59. Leadership Overview <ul><li>Leader? Follower? Power? </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great man theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational theory – Leadership styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task- vs. people-oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformational theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Bad bosses </li></ul>
  60. 60. 08. Prosocial Behaviour
  61. 61. Pro-social Behaviour Overview <ul><li>Pro-social / anti-social behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation - Dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Forgiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Who helps? When? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Bystander help </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of receiving help </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing helping </li></ul>
  62. 62. Pro-social Behaviour Theories <ul><li>Genetic/evolutionary e.g., survival, social exchange, egoism </li></ul><ul><li>Social norms e.g., altruism, principalism, collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>Learning theory e.g., social exchange, social learning </li></ul>
  63. 63. Bystander intervention <ul><li>Cognitive Model - 5 steps (Latane & Darley) </li></ul><ul><li>Bystander-Calculus Model - 3 stages (Pilliavin et al.) - weigh up costs of helping & not helping </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis (Batson) </li></ul>
  64. 64. Personal determinants of helping <ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Attributions </li></ul><ul><li>Personal norms </li></ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul>
  65. 65. Interpersonal determinants of helping <ul><li>Attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Closeness </li></ul><ul><li>Deservingness </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul>
  66. 66. 09. Environmental Psychology
  67. 67. Environmental Psychology <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Negative environmental influences </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental design </li></ul><ul><li>Natural environment </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Biophilia </li></ul><ul><li>Changing environmental attitudes and behaviour </li></ul>
  68. 68. Conclusion
  69. 69. Final thoughts <ul><li>What have we explored and learnt? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it worth knowing? </li></ul><ul><li>How have we been limited by theory and method? </li></ul><ul><li>How worthwhile has it been? Feedback </li></ul>