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Introduction to motivation and emotion 2013


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Introduction to motivation and emotion 2013

  1. 1. 1 Motivation & Emotion Introduction Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2013 Image source
  2. 2. 2 1. Unit outline 2. Introduction (Ch 1) 3. History (Ch 2) Lecture 1: Overview
  3. 3. 3 Unit outline
  4. 4. 4 Teaching staff Dr. James Neill (convener, lecturer & tutor) Courtney Reis (tutor)
  5. 5. 5 Contacting James Neill  Face to face: Before or after tutorials and lectures or by appointment.  Office hours: 14.30-16.30 Wed (after lectures) in lecture weeks (12D12)  Open discussion: Moodle discussion forum, Wikiversity talk page (jtneill), Twitter (jtneill) #motem13  Private message: Moodle message or email  Phone: 6201 2536
  6. 6. 6 Be able to: integrateintegrate theories and current researchresearch towards explaining the role of motivationmotivation and emotionemotion in human behaviour. Learning outcomes
  7. 7. 7 1. Drives and instincts 2. Theories of motivation, consciousness and volitional behaviour 3. Self-control and self-regulation 4. Structure and function of emotions 5. Relationships between emotion and cognition 6. Regulation of emotions Syllabus
  8. 8. 8 1. Lectures: Wednesdays 12.30-14.30 12B2 Weeks 1-6, 9-14 2. Tutorials: Thursdays 12.30 16.30 18.30 (virtual) Fortnightly – either: Weeks 1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13 or Weeks 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14 Timetable Tutorial 1 is in a computer lab.
  9. 9. 9 Textbook Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  10. 10. 10 Equipment and materials 1. Computer + internet 2. Audio headset (Microphone + earphones) 3. Webcam/video camera (optional)
  11. 11. 11 Unit websites 1. Moodle: 2. Wikiversity: These sites are open access – i.e., freely and openly available without financial or other barriers. Note: What you share is public.
  12. 12. 12  12 x 2 hour weekly lectures based on Reeve (2009) textbook chapters 1st half about motivation 2nd half about emotion  Lecture video and audio will be recorded and downloadable. Access via:  Calendar tool on Moodle site or  Moodle Announcements or  Lecture web pages (Wikiversity) Lectures
  13. 13. 13 1. Introduction 2. Assessment task skills 3. Brain & physiological needs 4. Personal & social needs 5. I-E motivation and goal setting 6. Personal control & the self Lectures - Topics
  14. 14. 14 7. Nature of emotion 8. Aspects of emotion 9. Personality, motivation & emotion 10. Unconscious motivation 11. Growth psychology 12. Summary and conclusion Lectures - Overview
  15. 15. 15 1. 6 x 2hr x fortnightly tutorials 2. Follows and extends lecture and textbook chapter topics 3. Structure 1. ~20% content review 2. ~50% activities 3. ~30% assessment skills Tutorials
  16. 16. 16 1. Introduction + Wiki editing 2. Needs 3. Self & goals 4. Emotion 5. Personality 6. Growth psychology Tutorials - Topics
  17. 17. 17 Tutorial attendance 1. Tutorial attendance is strongly recommended but not compulsory. 2.Tutorials provide hands-on skills and activities which are directly related to the assessment exercises. 3.Tutorial non-attendance will make successful completion of the assessment exercises more difficult.
  18. 18. 18 1. Book chapter (50%): Due 9am Mon Week 13 2. Multimedia (20%) Due 9am Mon Week 14 3. Quizzes (30%) Due 9am Mon Week 15 Assessment - Overview
  19. 19. 19 Workload Task Expected time involved Textbook chapter (50%) 50 hours: 8 hours to learn "how", 20 hours research, 22 hours preparation. (With 100 students, this is equivalent to one person working full-time for 3 years!) Multimedia (20%) 10 hours: 2 hours to learn "how", 6 hours preparation, 2 hours to record & finalise. Quizzes (30%) 90 hours: 12 lectures (x 2 hours each; 24 hours), 6 tutorials (x 2 hours each; 12 hours), 16 chapters (x 3 hours each; 48 hours) and 6 hours completing the quizzes.
  20. 20. 20 Generic skills
  21. 21. 21 Book chapter - Task  Author an interesting, well-written, freely available, online, self-help book chapter about a specific motivation and/or emotion topic.  Consider how psychological theory and research knowledge can be used to help people live more effective motivational and emotional lives.
  22. 22. 22 1. Theme 2. User name 3. Topic 4. Location 5. Licensing Book chapter – Guidelines 6. Academic integrity, independence, & collaboration 7. Length 8. Feedback & peer review 9. Submission
  23. 23. 23 Book theme Motivation and Emotion:Motivation and Emotion: “How to” improve your life using psychological theory and research about motivation and emotion
  24. 24. 24 Topic examples - Motivation Motivation – How can we …? e.g.,  be more motivated?  be more productive?  procrastinate less?  motivate others?  eat a healthy diet?  exercise enough?  understand others' motivations?
  25. 25. 25 Topic examples - Emotion Emotion – How can we …? e.g.,  be happier?  be emotionally intelligent?  measure emotions?  express emotions?  understand the origin and causes of emotions?  identify core emotions?
  26. 26. 26 1. Theory (30%): Effective use of key theoretical concepts, critical thinking & application of theory. 2. Research (30%): Key peer-reviewed research discussed in relation to theoretical aspects of the topic. 3. Written expression (30%): Interesting and readable, logical structure, good interactive learning features, APA style. 4. Social contribution (10%): Helping others to improve book quality. Logged. Book chapter - Marking criteria
  27. 27. 27  Table of contents: Some possible topics are available – you can suggest more  Lecture 2 and Tutorial 1: Discuss/expand the table of contents  Sign up or negotiate topic: You can propose or sign up to a chapter topic any time. You should have a topic by the end of W3. Book chapter - Topic signup
  28. 28. 28 Create a multimedia presentation (video) explaining the key points of your book chapter. Max. 5 mins. Multimedia - Task
  29. 29. 29 Multimedia – Guidelines 1. Chapter overview 2. Style 3. Format 4. Location 5. Equipment 6. Length 7. Copyright 8. Attribution 9. Links
  30. 30. 30 1. Structure and content (25%): Well- designed, logical content which overviews the chapter content 2. Communication (50%): Clear, well- paced, engaging communication of ideas 3. Production quality (25%): Clear picture and sound. Informative title, description, license, etc. Multimedia - Marking criteria
  31. 31. 31 Best aspects? “Choosing our own topic and writing a chapter that was meaningful to us, using a new medium that extended our skills. Learning to use the Wiki, and writing in this way was more relevant to real life than an essay. Really engaging unit!” Worst aspects? “did not like at all the focus on wikiversity and multimedia/social media aspect... overly challenging to be learning the content as well as the medium.” Student feedback (2011)
  32. 32. 32 Quizzes - Task  Online quizzes about each of the 16 textbook chapters  Equally-weighted 10-item multiple-choice quizzes. Image source:
  33. 33. 33 Quizzes – Guidelines 1. Attempts 2. Availability 3. Content 4. Academic integrity 5. Reviewing results 6. Time limit 7. Weighting
  34. 34. 34 1. W03 – Sign up for chapter topic 2. W04 (Fri) - Final date to withdraw without penalty 3. W07 – No lectures or tutorials 4. W08 - Mid-semester break 5. W08 (Fri) – Final date to withdraw without incurring fail grade 6. W13 (Mon 9am) - Book chapter due 7. W14 (Mon 9am) - Multimedia due 8. W15 (Mon 9am) - Quizzes due Key dates
  35. 35. 35 Activity: What is motivation and emotion? 1. Write your own definition of “motivation” and “emotion” (1 min.) 2. Share and discuss your definitions with someone else (1 min.) 3. Improve your definitions (1 min.) 4. Let's hear some definitions … (2 min.)
  36. 36. 36 Introduction to the study of motivation Reading: Reeve (2009), Ch 1, pp. 1-23 Image source
  37. 37. 37 What is motivation? "motivation" derives from the Latin verb movere (to move) "motivation" derives from the Latin verb movere (to move) Image source:, CC-by-A 2.0
  38. 38. 38 Motivation = Energy + Direction Processes that give behaviour energy and direction. Processes that give behaviour energy and direction.  Energy: Behaviour is relatively strong, intense and persistent  Direction: Behaviour is aimed toward achieving a particular purpose or goal  Energy: Behaviour is relatively strong, intense and persistent  Direction: Behaviour is aimed toward achieving a particular purpose or goal
  39. 39. 39 Motivational science: The function & utility of good theory Reality (In all its complexity) Applications; Recommendations (How to support and enhance motivation and emotion in applied settings) Theory (Created by motivational psychologists) Hypo- theses (Derived from theory) Data (To test the adequacy of each hypothesis) Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 1.1
  40. 40. 40 Motivational reasons to exercise Reeve (2009), Table 1
  41. 41. 41 Two perennial questions Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 5-8) What causes behaviour? “Why did she do that?” “Why do people do what they do?” ? Why does behaviour vary in its intensity? “Why does a person behave one way in a particular situation at one time yet behave in a different way at another time?” “What are the motivational differences among individuals, and how do such differences arise?”
  42. 42. 42 Specific questions that constitute the core problems to be solved in motivation study 1. What starts behaviour? 2. How is behaviour sustained over time? 3. Why is behaviour directed towards some ends but away from others? 4. Why does behaviour change its direction? 5. Why does behaviour stop? 1. What starts behaviour? 2. How is behaviour sustained over time? 3. Why is behaviour directed towards some ends but away from others? 4. Why does behaviour change its direction? 5. Why does behaviour stop? Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 5-6)
  43. 43. 43 Four motivational sources Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.2, p. 8) Needs Cognitions Emotions External events Internalmotives The subject matter of motivation concerns those processes that give behavior its energy and direction. The four processes capable of giving behavior strength and purpose - its energy and direction
  44. 44. 44 Measuring motivation: Expressions of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 10-13) Behaviour Brain & Physiology Activations Engage- ment Self-Report
  45. 45. 45 Behavioural expressions of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.2, p. 11) AttentionAttention EffortEffort LatencyLatency PersistencePersistence ChoiceChoice Probability of responseProbability of response Facial expressionsFacial expressions Bodily gesturesBodily gestures
  46. 46. 46 Four inter-related aspects of engagement Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.3, p. 12) . Engagement Behavioural engagement Emotional engagement Cognitive engagement Voice • Attention • Effort • Persistence • Interest • Enjoyment • Low anger • Low frustration ● Sophisticated learning strategies ● Active self-regulation • Offers suggestions • Makes contributions • Asks questions
  47. 47. 47 Brain & physiological activity as expressions of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.3, p. 13) Brain ActivityBrain Activity Hormonal ActivityHormonal Activity Cardiovascular ActivityCardiovascular Activity Ocular ActivityOcular Activity Electrodermal ActivityElectrodermal Activity Skeletal ActivitySkeletal Activity
  48. 48. 48 Themes in the study of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 13-14) Motivation benefits adaptation. Motives affect behaviour by directing attention. Motive strengths vary over time and influence the stream of behaviour. Types of motivation exist. Motivation study reveals the contests of human nature. To flourish, motivation needs supportive conditions. There is nothing so practical as a good theory. Motivation includes both approach (pull) & avoidance (push) tendencies.
  49. 49. 49 Motives vary over time & influence the ongoing stream of behaviour Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.4, p. 15) Motivation is a dynamic process-always changing, always rising and falling - rather than a discrete event or static condition. How Motives Influence Behaviour for a Student Sitting at a Desk Note: The number of asterisks in column 4 represents the intensity of the aroused motive. One asterisk denotes the lowest intensity level, while five asterisks denote the highest intensity level.
  50. 50. 50 Stream of behaviour and the changes in the strength of its underlying motives Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.4, p. 16)
  51. 51. 51 Framework to understand the study of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.5, p. 22) Antecedent Conditions Motive Status Sense of “Wanting to” Urge to Approach vs. Avoid Energising & Directing • Behaviour • Engagement • Physiology • Self-Report Needs Cognitions Emotions
  52. 52. 52 Using motivational theories to solve practical problems Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1) Practical Problem Given What I know About Human Motivation & Emotion Proposed Solution/ Intervention, if any • Student dropout • Mediocre Performance • Theories • Empirical findings • Practical experience • Do I have a strong reason to believe that my proposed intervention will produce positive benefits? •Do no harm
  53. 53. 53 Framing the practical problem: understanding the motivational agent Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1) •What is the phenomena? •What is its opposite? •Where does it come from? •Is it malleable or fixed? •What does it related to, or predict? Identifying the motivational agent underlying the problem (e.g., goals, efficacy, or helplessness)
  54. 54. 54 Theoretical understanding of problem to be solved Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1) •Why does it work? •How does it work? (Diagram?) •How does it change? What causes it to change? •Under what conditions does it change? •Where do high and low levels come from?
  55. 55. 55 Motivation in historical perspective Reading: Reeve (2009), Ch 2, 24-46
  56. 56. 56 Motivation in historical perspective Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2) A historical view of motivation study helps us to consider… A historical view of motivation study helps us to consider… how the concept of motivation came to prominence, how it changed and developed, how ideas were challenged and replaced, how the field reemerged and brought together various disciplines within psychology.
  57. 57. 57 History of motivation (Overview) Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 26-46) 1. Will 2. Instinct 3. Drive 4. Incentive, Arousal, Discrepancy Rise of Mini-theories Contemporary Era 1. Will 2. Instinct 3. Drive 4. Incentive, Arousal, Discrepancy Rise of Mini-theories Contemporary Era •Freud’s Drive Theory •Hull’s Drive Theory •Active Nature of the Person •Cognitive Revolution •Applied Socially Relevant Research •Darwin, James, McDougall •Ancient philosophers, Descartes
  58. 58. 58 Grand theories of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 26-35) All-encompassing theories that seek to explain the full range of motivated action - why we eat, drink, work, play, compete, fear certain things, read, fall in love, and so on. Ancient philosophers understood motivation within two themes: Ø good, rational, immaterial, and active (i.e., the will) Ø Ø primitive, impulsive, biological, and reactive (i.e., bodily desires). Physiological analysis of motivation by focusing on the mechanistic. The appeal of instinct doctrine was its ability to explain unlearned behaviour that had energy and purpose (i.e., goal-directed biological impulses). Behaviour was motivated to the extent that it served the needs of the organism and restored a biological homeostasis. Will Instinct Drive
  59. 59. 59 Summary of Freud's drive theory Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, Figure 2.1, p. 31) A bodily deficit occurs (e.g., blood sugar drops & a sense of hunger emerges). The intensity of the bodily deficit grows & emerges into consciousness as a psychological discomfort, which is anxiety. Seeking to reduce anxiety & satisfy the bodily deficit, the person searches out & consumes a need satisfying environmental object (e.g., food). If the environmental object successfully satisfies the bodily deficit, satisfaction occurs & quiets anxiety, at least for a period of time. Drive’s Source Drive’s Impetus Drive’s Object Drive’s Aim
  60. 60. 60 Decline of grand theories of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2) Will Instinct Drive The philosophical study of the will turned out to be a dead end that explained very little about motivation, as it actually raised more questions than it answered. The physiological study of the instinct proved to be an intellectual dead end as well, as it became clear that “naming is not explaining.” Drive theory proved itself to be overly limited in scope, and with its rejection came the field’s disillusionment with grand theories in general, though several additional grand motivational principles emerged with some success, including incentive and arousal.
  61. 61. 61 Post-drive theory years Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 33-35) First, motivation study rejected its commitment to a passive view of human nature and adopted a more active portrayal of human beings. Second, motivation turned decidedly cognitive and somewhat humanistic. Third, the field focused on applied, socially relevant problems.
  62. 62. 62 Outline of the typical development of a scientific discipline Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2) New paradigm Crisis and Revolution Paradigmatic Preparadigmatic A budding science emerges. It consists of participants who do not share the same language or the same knowledge base. debates are frequent about what should be the discipline’s methods, problems, and solutions. Preparadigmatic factionalism merges into a shared consensus about what constitutes the discipline’s methods, problems, and solutions. This shared consensus is called a paradigm. participants who share this paradigm accumulate knowledge and make incremental advances. An anomaly emerges that cannot be explained by the existing consensus/paradigm. A clash erupts between the old way of thinking (that can explain the anomaly). The new way brings discipline-changing progress. Embracing the new consensus, participants settle back into the new paradigm (a new Paradigmatic stage). Progress returns to making incremental advances.
  63. 63. 63 Rise of the mini-theories Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 35-38) 1. Motivational phenomenon (e.g.., the flow experience) 2. Spec. circumstances that affect motivation (e.g., failure feedback) 3. Groups of people (e.g., extraverts, children, workers) 4. Theoretical questions (e.g., what is the relationship b/w cog. & emotion?) Unlike grand theories that try to explain the full range of motivation, mini-theories limit their attention:
  64. 64. 64 Abbreviated list of the mini-theories Achievement motivation theory (Atkinson, 1964) Attributional theory of achievement motivation (Weiner, 1972) Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) Effectance motivation (White, 1959; Harter, 1978a) Expectancy x value theory (Vroom, 1964) Goal-setting theory (Locke, 1968) Intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1975) Learned helplessness theory (Seligman, 1975) Reactance theory (Brehm, 1966) Self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977) Self-schemas (Markus, 1977) Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 35-38)
  65. 65. 65 Relationship of motivation study to psychology’s areas of specialisation Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, Figure 2.2, p. 38) Social Industri al/Organ isational Develop -mental Educat- ional Persona l-ity Cognit- ive Clinical Physio- logical Health Counsel -ing Motivation and Emotion Domain-specific answers to core questions: § What causes behaviour? § Why does behaviour vary in its intensity? Motivation study in the 21st century is populated by multiple perspectives and multiple voices, all of which contribute a different piece to the puzzle of motivation and emotion study
  66. 66. 66 The many voices in motivation study Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, p. 43) ● Motivation’s new paradigm is one in which behaviour is energised and directed not by a single grand cause but, instead, by a multitude of multi-level and co-acting influences. ● Most motivational states can be (and indeed need to be) understood at multiple levels - from a neurological level, a cognitive level, a social level, and so on. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Perspective: Motives emerge from… _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Behavioral Environmental incentives Neurological Brain activations Physiological Hormonal activity Cognitive Mental events and thoughts Social-cognitive Ways of thinking guided by exposure to other people Cultural Groups, organizations, and nations Evolutionary Genes and genetic endowment Humanistic Encouraging the human potential Psychoanalytical Unconscious mental life _________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  67. 67. 67 References  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  68. 68. 68 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.   This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software. 