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1
Motivation & Emotion
Introduction
Dr James Neill
Centre for Applied Psychology
University of Canberra
2013
Image source
2
1. Unit outline
2. Introduction (Ch 1)
3. History (Ch 2)
Lecture 1:
Overview
3
Unit outline
4
Teaching staff
Dr. James Neill
(convener, lecturer & tutor)
Courtney Reis
(tutor)
5
Contacting James Neill
 Face to face: Before or after tutorials
and lectures or by appointment.
 Office hours: 14.30-1...
6
Be able to:
integrateintegrate
theories and
current researchresearch
towards explaining the role of
motivationmotivation...
7
1. Drives and instincts
2. Theories of motivation, consciousness
and volitional behaviour
3. Self-control and self-regul...
8
1. Lectures: Wednesdays
12.30-14.30 12B2
Weeks 1-6, 9-14
2. Tutorials: Thursdays
12.30
16.30
18.30 (virtual)
Fortnightly...
9
Textbook
Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding
motivation and emotion (5th ed.).
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
10
Equipment and materials
1. Computer + internet
2. Audio headset
(Microphone + earphones)
3. Webcam/video camera
(option...
11
Unit websites
1. Moodle:
http://learnonline.canberra.edu.au/course/view.php?id=9790
2. Wikiversity:
http://en.wikiversi...
12
 12 x 2 hour weekly lectures based on
Reeve (2009) textbook chapters
1st
half about motivation
2nd
half about emotio...
13
1. Introduction
2. Assessment task skills
3. Brain & physiological needs
4. Personal & social needs
5. I-E motivation a...
14
7. Nature of emotion
8. Aspects of emotion
9. Personality, motivation &
emotion
10. Unconscious motivation
11. Growth p...
15
1. 6 x 2hr x fortnightly tutorials
2. Follows and extends lecture
and textbook chapter topics
3. Structure
1. ~20% cont...
16
1. Introduction + Wiki editing
2. Needs
3. Self & goals
4. Emotion
5. Personality
6. Growth psychology
Tutorials - Topi...
17
Tutorial attendance
1. Tutorial attendance is strongly
recommended but not compulsory.
2.Tutorials provide hands-on ski...
18
1. Book chapter (50%):
Due 9am Mon Week 13
2. Multimedia (20%)
Due 9am Mon Week 14
3. Quizzes (30%)
Due 9am Mon Week 15...
19
Workload
Task Expected time involved
Textbook
chapter
(50%)
50 hours: 8 hours to learn "how", 20
hours research, 22 hou...
20
Generic skills
21
Book chapter - Task
 Author an interesting, well-written,
freely available, online, self-help book
chapter about a spe...
22
1. Theme
2. User name
3. Topic
4. Location
5. Licensing
Book chapter – Guidelines
6. Academic integrity,
independence, ...
23
Book theme
Motivation and Emotion:Motivation and Emotion:
“How to” improve your life
using psychological theory and
res...
24
Topic examples - Motivation
Motivation – How can we …? e.g.,
 be more motivated?
 be more productive?
 procrastinate...
25
Topic examples - Emotion
Emotion – How can we …? e.g.,
 be happier?
 be emotionally intelligent?
 measure emotions?
...
26
1. Theory (30%): Effective use of key
theoretical concepts, critical thinking &
application of theory.
2. Research (30%...
27
 Table of contents: Some possible
topics are available – you can suggest
more
 Lecture 2 and Tutorial 1:
Discuss/expa...
28
Create a multimedia presentation
(video) explaining the key points of
your book chapter. Max. 5 mins.
Multimedia - Task
29
Multimedia – Guidelines
1. Chapter overview
2. Style
3. Format
4. Location
5. Equipment
6. Length
7. Copyright
8. Attri...
30
1. Structure and content (25%): Well-
designed, logical content which
overviews the chapter content
2. Communication (5...
31
Best aspects?
“Choosing our own topic and writing a chapter
that was meaningful to us, using a new medium
that extended...
32
Quizzes - Task
 Online quizzes about each of the
16 textbook chapters
 Equally-weighted 10-item
multiple-choice quizz...
33
Quizzes – Guidelines
1. Attempts
2. Availability
3. Content
4. Academic integrity
5. Reviewing results
6. Time limit
7....
34
1. W03 – Sign up for chapter topic
2. W04 (Fri) - Final date to withdraw without
penalty
3. W07 – No lectures or tutori...
35
Activity:
What is motivation and emotion?
1. Write your own definition of “motivation”
and “emotion” (1 min.)
2. Share ...
36
Introduction to the
study of motivation
Reading:
Reeve (2009), Ch 1, pp. 1-23 Image source
37
What is motivation?
"motivation"
derives from
the Latin verb
movere
(to move)
"motivation"
derives from
the Latin verb
...
38
Motivation = Energy + Direction
Processes that give behaviour
energy and direction.
Processes that give behaviour
energ...
39
Motivational science:
The function & utility of good theory
Reality
(In all its complexity)
Applications;
Recommendatio...
40
Motivational reasons to exercise
Reeve (2009), Table 1
41
Two perennial questions
Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 5-8)
What causes
behaviour?
“Why did she do that?”
“Why do people do ...
42
Specific questions that constitute
the core problems to be solved in
motivation study
1. What starts behaviour?
2. How ...
43
Four motivational sources
Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.2, p. 8)
Needs
Cognitions
Emotions
External
events
Internalmot...
44
Measuring motivation:
Expressions of motivation
Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 10-13)
Behaviour
Brain &
Physiology
Activatio...
45
Behavioural
expressions
of motivation
Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.2, p. 11)
AttentionAttention
EffortEffort
LatencyLa...
46
Four inter-related aspects of
engagement
Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.3, p. 12)
.
Engagement
Behavioural
engagement
E...
47
Brain & physiological activity as
expressions of motivation
Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.3, p. 13)
Brain ActivityBrain...
48
Themes in the study of
motivation
Based on Reeve (2009,
pp. 13-14)
Motivation
benefits
adaptation.
Motives affect
behav...
49
Motives vary over time & influence
the ongoing stream of behaviour
Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.4, p. 15)
Motivation i...
50
Stream of behaviour and the
changes in the strength of its
underlying motives
Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.4, p. 16)
51
Framework to understand
the study of motivation
Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.5, p. 22)
Antecedent
Conditions
Motive
S...
52
Using motivational theories
to solve practical problems
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1)
Practical
Problem
Given What I know...
53
Framing the practical problem:
understanding the motivational
agent
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1)
•What is the phenomena?...
54
Theoretical understanding of
problem to be solved
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1)
•Why does it work?
•How does it work? (Di...
55
Motivation in
historical
perspective
Reading:
Reeve (2009), Ch 2, 24-46
56
Motivation in historical perspective
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2)
A historical
view of
motivation
study helps
us to
cons...
57
History of motivation
(Overview)
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 26-46)
1. Will
2. Instinct
3. Drive
4. Incentive, Arou...
58
Grand theories of motivation
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 26-35)
All-encompassing theories that seek to explain the ...
59
Summary of Freud's drive theory
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, Figure 2.1, p. 31)
A bodily deficit
occurs
(e.g., blood
sug...
60
Decline of grand theories of
motivation
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2)
Will Instinct Drive
The philosophical
study of the ...
61
Post-drive theory years
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 33-35)
First,
motivation study rejected
its commitment to a
pas...
62
Outline of the typical development of
a scientific discipline
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2)
New paradigm
Crisis and Revol...
63
Rise of the mini-theories
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 35-38)
1. Motivational phenomenon
(e.g.., the flow experience...
64
Abbreviated list of the mini-theories
Achievement motivation theory (Atkinson, 1964)
Attributional theory of achievemen...
65
Relationship of motivation study to
psychology’s areas of specialisation
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, Figure 2.2, p. 38)...
66
The many voices in motivation study
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, p. 43)
●
Motivation’s new
paradigm is one in
which beha...
67
References
 Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation
and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
 Reeve, J. (2009). ...
68
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Introduction to motivation and emotion 2013

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Introduction to motivation and emotion 2013

  1. 1. 1 Motivation & Emotion Introduction Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2013 Image source
  2. 2. 2 1. Unit outline 2. Introduction (Ch 1) 3. History (Ch 2) Lecture 1: Overview
  3. 3. 3 Unit outline
  4. 4. 4 Teaching staff Dr. James Neill (convener, lecturer & tutor) Courtney Reis (tutor)
  5. 5. 5 Contacting James Neill  Face to face: Before or after tutorials and lectures or by appointment.  Office hours: 14.30-16.30 Wed (after lectures) in lecture weeks (12D12)  Open discussion: Moodle discussion forum, Wikiversity talk page (jtneill), Twitter (jtneill) #motem13  Private message: Moodle message or email james.neill@canberra.edu.au  Phone: 6201 2536
  6. 6. 6 Be able to: integrateintegrate theories and current researchresearch towards explaining the role of motivationmotivation and emotionemotion in human behaviour. Learning outcomes
  7. 7. 7 1. Drives and instincts 2. Theories of motivation, consciousness and volitional behaviour 3. Self-control and self-regulation 4. Structure and function of emotions 5. Relationships between emotion and cognition 6. Regulation of emotions Syllabus
  8. 8. 8 1. Lectures: Wednesdays 12.30-14.30 12B2 Weeks 1-6, 9-14 2. Tutorials: Thursdays 12.30 16.30 18.30 (virtual) Fortnightly – either: Weeks 1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13 or Weeks 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14 Timetable Tutorial 1 is in a computer lab.
  9. 9. 9 Textbook Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  10. 10. 10 Equipment and materials 1. Computer + internet 2. Audio headset (Microphone + earphones) 3. Webcam/video camera (optional)
  11. 11. 11 Unit websites 1. Moodle: http://learnonline.canberra.edu.au/course/view.php?id=9790 2. Wikiversity: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion These sites are open access – i.e., freely and openly available without financial or other barriers. Note: What you share is public.
  12. 12. 12  12 x 2 hour weekly lectures based on Reeve (2009) textbook chapters 1st half about motivation 2nd half about emotion  Lecture video and audio will be recorded and downloadable. Access via:  Calendar tool on Moodle site or  Moodle Announcements or  Lecture web pages (Wikiversity) Lectures
  13. 13. 13 1. Introduction 2. Assessment task skills 3. Brain & physiological needs 4. Personal & social needs 5. I-E motivation and goal setting 6. Personal control & the self Lectures - Topics
  14. 14. 14 7. Nature of emotion 8. Aspects of emotion 9. Personality, motivation & emotion 10. Unconscious motivation 11. Growth psychology 12. Summary and conclusion Lectures - Overview
  15. 15. 15 1. 6 x 2hr x fortnightly tutorials 2. Follows and extends lecture and textbook chapter topics 3. Structure 1. ~20% content review 2. ~50% activities 3. ~30% assessment skills Tutorials
  16. 16. 16 1. Introduction + Wiki editing 2. Needs 3. Self & goals 4. Emotion 5. Personality 6. Growth psychology Tutorials - Topics
  17. 17. 17 Tutorial attendance 1. Tutorial attendance is strongly recommended but not compulsory. 2.Tutorials provide hands-on skills and activities which are directly related to the assessment exercises. 3.Tutorial non-attendance will make successful completion of the assessment exercises more difficult.
  18. 18. 18 1. Book chapter (50%): Due 9am Mon Week 13 2. Multimedia (20%) Due 9am Mon Week 14 3. Quizzes (30%) Due 9am Mon Week 15 Assessment - Overview
  19. 19. 19 Workload Task Expected time involved Textbook chapter (50%) 50 hours: 8 hours to learn "how", 20 hours research, 22 hours preparation. (With 100 students, this is equivalent to one person working full-time for 3 years!) Multimedia (20%) 10 hours: 2 hours to learn "how", 6 hours preparation, 2 hours to record & finalise. Quizzes (30%) 90 hours: 12 lectures (x 2 hours each; 24 hours), 6 tutorials (x 2 hours each; 12 hours), 16 chapters (x 3 hours each; 48 hours) and 6 hours completing the quizzes.
  20. 20. 20 Generic skills
  21. 21. 21 Book chapter - Task  Author an interesting, well-written, freely available, online, self-help book chapter about a specific motivation and/or emotion topic.  Consider how psychological theory and research knowledge can be used to help people live more effective motivational and emotional lives.
  22. 22. 22 1. Theme 2. User name 3. Topic 4. Location 5. Licensing Book chapter – Guidelines 6. Academic integrity, independence, & collaboration 7. Length 8. Feedback & peer review 9. Submission
  23. 23. 23 Book theme Motivation and Emotion:Motivation and Emotion: “How to” improve your life using psychological theory and research about motivation and emotion
  24. 24. 24 Topic examples - Motivation Motivation – How can we …? e.g.,  be more motivated?  be more productive?  procrastinate less?  motivate others?  eat a healthy diet?  exercise enough?  understand others' motivations?
  25. 25. 25 Topic examples - Emotion Emotion – How can we …? e.g.,  be happier?  be emotionally intelligent?  measure emotions?  express emotions?  understand the origin and causes of emotions?  identify core emotions?
  26. 26. 26 1. Theory (30%): Effective use of key theoretical concepts, critical thinking & application of theory. 2. Research (30%): Key peer-reviewed research discussed in relation to theoretical aspects of the topic. 3. Written expression (30%): Interesting and readable, logical structure, good interactive learning features, APA style. 4. Social contribution (10%): Helping others to improve book quality. Logged. Book chapter - Marking criteria
  27. 27. 27  Table of contents: Some possible topics are available – you can suggest more  Lecture 2 and Tutorial 1: Discuss/expand the table of contents  Sign up or negotiate topic: You can propose or sign up to a chapter topic any time. You should have a topic by the end of W3. Book chapter - Topic signup
  28. 28. 28 Create a multimedia presentation (video) explaining the key points of your book chapter. Max. 5 mins. Multimedia - Task
  29. 29. 29 Multimedia – Guidelines 1. Chapter overview 2. Style 3. Format 4. Location 5. Equipment 6. Length 7. Copyright 8. Attribution 9. Links
  30. 30. 30 1. Structure and content (25%): Well- designed, logical content which overviews the chapter content 2. Communication (50%): Clear, well- paced, engaging communication of ideas 3. Production quality (25%): Clear picture and sound. Informative title, description, license, etc. Multimedia - Marking criteria
  31. 31. 31 Best aspects? “Choosing our own topic and writing a chapter that was meaningful to us, using a new medium that extended our skills. Learning to use the Wiki, and writing in this way was more relevant to real life than an essay. Really engaging unit!” Worst aspects? “did not like at all the focus on wikiversity and multimedia/social media aspect... overly challenging to be learning the content as well as the medium.” Student feedback (2011)
  32. 32. 32 Quizzes - Task  Online quizzes about each of the 16 textbook chapters  Equally-weighted 10-item multiple-choice quizzes. Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ambox_blue_question.svg
  33. 33. 33 Quizzes – Guidelines 1. Attempts 2. Availability 3. Content 4. Academic integrity 5. Reviewing results 6. Time limit 7. Weighting
  34. 34. 34 1. W03 – Sign up for chapter topic 2. W04 (Fri) - Final date to withdraw without penalty 3. W07 – No lectures or tutorials 4. W08 - Mid-semester break 5. W08 (Fri) – Final date to withdraw without incurring fail grade 6. W13 (Mon 9am) - Book chapter due 7. W14 (Mon 9am) - Multimedia due 8. W15 (Mon 9am) - Quizzes due Key dates
  35. 35. 35 Activity: What is motivation and emotion? 1. Write your own definition of “motivation” and “emotion” (1 min.) 2. Share and discuss your definitions with someone else (1 min.) 3. Improve your definitions (1 min.) 4. Let's hear some definitions … (2 min.)
  36. 36. 36 Introduction to the study of motivation Reading: Reeve (2009), Ch 1, pp. 1-23 Image source
  37. 37. 37 What is motivation? "motivation" derives from the Latin verb movere (to move) "motivation" derives from the Latin verb movere (to move) Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Running_Samburu_Boy.jpg, CC-by-A 2.0
  38. 38. 38 Motivation = Energy + Direction Processes that give behaviour energy and direction. Processes that give behaviour energy and direction.  Energy: Behaviour is relatively strong, intense and persistent  Direction: Behaviour is aimed toward achieving a particular purpose or goal  Energy: Behaviour is relatively strong, intense and persistent  Direction: Behaviour is aimed toward achieving a particular purpose or goal
  39. 39. 39 Motivational science: The function & utility of good theory Reality (In all its complexity) Applications; Recommendations (How to support and enhance motivation and emotion in applied settings) Theory (Created by motivational psychologists) Hypo- theses (Derived from theory) Data (To test the adequacy of each hypothesis) Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 1.1
  40. 40. 40 Motivational reasons to exercise Reeve (2009), Table 1
  41. 41. 41 Two perennial questions Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 5-8) What causes behaviour? “Why did she do that?” “Why do people do what they do?” ? Why does behaviour vary in its intensity? “Why does a person behave one way in a particular situation at one time yet behave in a different way at another time?” “What are the motivational differences among individuals, and how do such differences arise?”
  42. 42. 42 Specific questions that constitute the core problems to be solved in motivation study 1. What starts behaviour? 2. How is behaviour sustained over time? 3. Why is behaviour directed towards some ends but away from others? 4. Why does behaviour change its direction? 5. Why does behaviour stop? 1. What starts behaviour? 2. How is behaviour sustained over time? 3. Why is behaviour directed towards some ends but away from others? 4. Why does behaviour change its direction? 5. Why does behaviour stop? Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 5-6)
  43. 43. 43 Four motivational sources Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.2, p. 8) Needs Cognitions Emotions External events Internalmotives The subject matter of motivation concerns those processes that give behavior its energy and direction. The four processes capable of giving behavior strength and purpose - its energy and direction
  44. 44. 44 Measuring motivation: Expressions of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 10-13) Behaviour Brain & Physiology Activations Engage- ment Self-Report
  45. 45. 45 Behavioural expressions of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.2, p. 11) AttentionAttention EffortEffort LatencyLatency PersistencePersistence ChoiceChoice Probability of responseProbability of response Facial expressionsFacial expressions Bodily gesturesBodily gestures
  46. 46. 46 Four inter-related aspects of engagement Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.3, p. 12) . Engagement Behavioural engagement Emotional engagement Cognitive engagement Voice • Attention • Effort • Persistence • Interest • Enjoyment • Low anger • Low frustration ● Sophisticated learning strategies ● Active self-regulation • Offers suggestions • Makes contributions • Asks questions
  47. 47. 47 Brain & physiological activity as expressions of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.3, p. 13) Brain ActivityBrain Activity Hormonal ActivityHormonal Activity Cardiovascular ActivityCardiovascular Activity Ocular ActivityOcular Activity Electrodermal ActivityElectrodermal Activity Skeletal ActivitySkeletal Activity
  48. 48. 48 Themes in the study of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 13-14) Motivation benefits adaptation. Motives affect behaviour by directing attention. Motive strengths vary over time and influence the stream of behaviour. Types of motivation exist. Motivation study reveals the contests of human nature. To flourish, motivation needs supportive conditions. There is nothing so practical as a good theory. Motivation includes both approach (pull) & avoidance (push) tendencies.
  49. 49. 49 Motives vary over time & influence the ongoing stream of behaviour Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.4, p. 15) Motivation is a dynamic process-always changing, always rising and falling - rather than a discrete event or static condition. How Motives Influence Behaviour for a Student Sitting at a Desk Note: The number of asterisks in column 4 represents the intensity of the aroused motive. One asterisk denotes the lowest intensity level, while five asterisks denote the highest intensity level.
  50. 50. 50 Stream of behaviour and the changes in the strength of its underlying motives Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.4, p. 16)
  51. 51. 51 Framework to understand the study of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 1.5, p. 22) Antecedent Conditions Motive Status Sense of “Wanting to” Urge to Approach vs. Avoid Energising & Directing • Behaviour • Engagement • Physiology • Self-Report Needs Cognitions Emotions
  52. 52. 52 Using motivational theories to solve practical problems Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1) Practical Problem Given What I know About Human Motivation & Emotion Proposed Solution/ Intervention, if any • Student dropout • Mediocre Performance • Theories • Empirical findings • Practical experience • Do I have a strong reason to believe that my proposed intervention will produce positive benefits? •Do no harm
  53. 53. 53 Framing the practical problem: understanding the motivational agent Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1) •What is the phenomena? •What is its opposite? •Where does it come from? •Is it malleable or fixed? •What does it related to, or predict? Identifying the motivational agent underlying the problem (e.g., goals, efficacy, or helplessness)
  54. 54. 54 Theoretical understanding of problem to be solved Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1) •Why does it work? •How does it work? (Diagram?) •How does it change? What causes it to change? •Under what conditions does it change? •Where do high and low levels come from?
  55. 55. 55 Motivation in historical perspective Reading: Reeve (2009), Ch 2, 24-46
  56. 56. 56 Motivation in historical perspective Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2) A historical view of motivation study helps us to consider… A historical view of motivation study helps us to consider… how the concept of motivation came to prominence, how it changed and developed, how ideas were challenged and replaced, how the field reemerged and brought together various disciplines within psychology.
  57. 57. 57 History of motivation (Overview) Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 26-46) 1. Will 2. Instinct 3. Drive 4. Incentive, Arousal, Discrepancy Rise of Mini-theories Contemporary Era 1. Will 2. Instinct 3. Drive 4. Incentive, Arousal, Discrepancy Rise of Mini-theories Contemporary Era •Freud’s Drive Theory •Hull’s Drive Theory •Active Nature of the Person •Cognitive Revolution •Applied Socially Relevant Research •Darwin, James, McDougall •Ancient philosophers, Descartes
  58. 58. 58 Grand theories of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 26-35) All-encompassing theories that seek to explain the full range of motivated action - why we eat, drink, work, play, compete, fear certain things, read, fall in love, and so on. Ancient philosophers understood motivation within two themes: Ø good, rational, immaterial, and active (i.e., the will) Ø Ø primitive, impulsive, biological, and reactive (i.e., bodily desires). Physiological analysis of motivation by focusing on the mechanistic. The appeal of instinct doctrine was its ability to explain unlearned behaviour that had energy and purpose (i.e., goal-directed biological impulses). Behaviour was motivated to the extent that it served the needs of the organism and restored a biological homeostasis. Will Instinct Drive
  59. 59. 59 Summary of Freud's drive theory Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, Figure 2.1, p. 31) A bodily deficit occurs (e.g., blood sugar drops & a sense of hunger emerges). The intensity of the bodily deficit grows & emerges into consciousness as a psychological discomfort, which is anxiety. Seeking to reduce anxiety & satisfy the bodily deficit, the person searches out & consumes a need satisfying environmental object (e.g., food). If the environmental object successfully satisfies the bodily deficit, satisfaction occurs & quiets anxiety, at least for a period of time. Drive’s Source Drive’s Impetus Drive’s Object Drive’s Aim
  60. 60. 60 Decline of grand theories of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2) Will Instinct Drive The philosophical study of the will turned out to be a dead end that explained very little about motivation, as it actually raised more questions than it answered. The physiological study of the instinct proved to be an intellectual dead end as well, as it became clear that “naming is not explaining.” Drive theory proved itself to be overly limited in scope, and with its rejection came the field’s disillusionment with grand theories in general, though several additional grand motivational principles emerged with some success, including incentive and arousal.
  61. 61. 61 Post-drive theory years Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 33-35) First, motivation study rejected its commitment to a passive view of human nature and adopted a more active portrayal of human beings. Second, motivation turned decidedly cognitive and somewhat humanistic. Third, the field focused on applied, socially relevant problems.
  62. 62. 62 Outline of the typical development of a scientific discipline Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2) New paradigm Crisis and Revolution Paradigmatic Preparadigmatic A budding science emerges. It consists of participants who do not share the same language or the same knowledge base. debates are frequent about what should be the discipline’s methods, problems, and solutions. Preparadigmatic factionalism merges into a shared consensus about what constitutes the discipline’s methods, problems, and solutions. This shared consensus is called a paradigm. participants who share this paradigm accumulate knowledge and make incremental advances. An anomaly emerges that cannot be explained by the existing consensus/paradigm. A clash erupts between the old way of thinking (that can explain the anomaly). The new way brings discipline-changing progress. Embracing the new consensus, participants settle back into the new paradigm (a new Paradigmatic stage). Progress returns to making incremental advances.
  63. 63. 63 Rise of the mini-theories Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 35-38) 1. Motivational phenomenon (e.g.., the flow experience) 2. Spec. circumstances that affect motivation (e.g., failure feedback) 3. Groups of people (e.g., extraverts, children, workers) 4. Theoretical questions (e.g., what is the relationship b/w cog. & emotion?) Unlike grand theories that try to explain the full range of motivation, mini-theories limit their attention:
  64. 64. 64 Abbreviated list of the mini-theories Achievement motivation theory (Atkinson, 1964) Attributional theory of achievement motivation (Weiner, 1972) Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) Effectance motivation (White, 1959; Harter, 1978a) Expectancy x value theory (Vroom, 1964) Goal-setting theory (Locke, 1968) Intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1975) Learned helplessness theory (Seligman, 1975) Reactance theory (Brehm, 1966) Self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977) Self-schemas (Markus, 1977) Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 35-38)
  65. 65. 65 Relationship of motivation study to psychology’s areas of specialisation Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, Figure 2.2, p. 38) Social Industri al/Organ isational Develop -mental Educat- ional Persona l-ity Cognit- ive Clinical Physio- logical Health Counsel -ing Motivation and Emotion Domain-specific answers to core questions: § What causes behaviour? § Why does behaviour vary in its intensity? Motivation study in the 21st century is populated by multiple perspectives and multiple voices, all of which contribute a different piece to the puzzle of motivation and emotion study
  66. 66. 66 The many voices in motivation study Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, p. 43) ● Motivation’s new paradigm is one in which behaviour is energised and directed not by a single grand cause but, instead, by a multitude of multi-level and co-acting influences. ● Most motivational states can be (and indeed need to be) understood at multiple levels - from a neurological level, a cognitive level, a social level, and so on. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Perspective: Motives emerge from… _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Behavioral Environmental incentives Neurological Brain activations Physiological Hormonal activity Cognitive Mental events and thoughts Social-cognitive Ways of thinking guided by exposure to other people Cultural Groups, organizations, and nations Evolutionary Genes and genetic endowment Humanistic Encouraging the human potential Psychoanalytical Unconscious mental life _________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  67. 67. 67 References  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  68. 68. 68 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html

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