Extrinsic motivation and goal-setting

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Discusses extrinsic, goal-setting, feedback, and goal-striving.

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  • Hello dear My name is mariam nasrin, I know that this email will meet you in a good health and also surprisingly but God has his own way of bringing people together. Nice to Meet you I would appreciate if you can reply me back( mariamnasrin2@gmail.com ) So that i can explain you more about me. thank Yours mariam.
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  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US_Navy_100810-N-3013W-014_A_Drug_Education_for_Youth_%28DEFY%29_summer_camp_attendee_from_Naval_Air_Station_Jacksonville_climbs_a_rock_wall_during_a_goal_setting_exercise_at_Camp_McConnell_in_Micanopy,_Fla.jpg
    Image by: U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Charles White
    Image license: Public domain
    Acknowledgements: This lecture is based in part on instructor resource slides from Wiley.
    Wednesday 9 September, 2015, 12:30-14:30, 12B2
    7124-6665 Motivation and Emotion / G
    Centre for Applied Psychology
    Faculty of Health
    University of Canberra
    Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia
    ph: +61 2 6201 2536
    [email_address]
    http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion
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    License: Public domain
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    License: CC-BY-A 2.5
    Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo
  • Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carrot_and_stick_motivation.svg
    Image by: Nevit Dilman, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Nevit
    Image license: Creative Commons Share-Alike 3.0 Unported, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
  • Incentives are learnt.
    Reinforcer: Any environmental stimulus that, when presented, increases the future probability of the desired behaviour.
    Punisher: Any environmental stimulus that, when presented, decreases the future probability of the undesired behaviour.
  • The research on the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation began with the question: “if a person is involved in an intrinsically interesting activity and beings to receive an extrinsic reward for doing, what happines to his or her intrinsic motivation for that activity?” (Reeve, 2009, p.121)
    “The psychological need for autonomy (Chapter 6) provides one way for understanding the hidden costs of rward (Deci & Ryan, 1987).” (p. 123)
    “...Locus of causality becomes less and less internal and more and more external...” (p. 123)
    “Basically, coercing individuals to engage in a task, even when using unquestionably attractive rewards like oney, instigates a shift in their understanding of why they choose to engage in that task from one of autonomy to one of environment (Deci et al., 1999).
  • Notes: This chapter is the first within the Cognition section of Reeve (2009)
    Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cycling_Time_Trial_effort.jpg
    Image by: David Brandt, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Dabstar
    Image license: Creative Commons Share-alike 3.0 unported, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
  • Plan = Ideal state
  • Review/revise with text
  • Review/revise with text
  • Image source: http://www.wilderdom.com/experiential/elc/ExperientialLearningCycle.htm
    Image author; James Neill
    Image
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    License: Public domain
  • Extrinsic motivation and goal-setting

    1. 1. 1 Motivation & Emotion Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2016 Image source Extrinsic motivation & goal-setting
    2. 2. 2 1. Extrinsic motivation (Ch 5) 2. Goal setting & goal striving (Ch 8) Overview
    3. 3. 3 Extrinsic motivation Reading: Reeve (2015) Ch 5 (pp. 116-151) Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carrot_and_stick_motivation.svg
    4. 4. 4 Outline – Extrinsic motivation Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 116-117)  Quasi-needs  Extrinsic motivation  Incentives, consequences, and rewards  Incentives  Reinforcers  Consequences  Hidden costs of reward  Intrinsic motivation  Quasi-needs  Extrinsic motivation  Incentives, consequences, and rewards  Incentives  Reinforcers  Consequences  Hidden costs of reward  Intrinsic motivation  IM vs. EM  Expected and tangible rewards  Implications  Benefits of incentives, consequences, and rewards  Cognitive evaluation theory  Controlling and informational events  Types of EM  Motivating others to do uninteresting tasks  IM vs. EM  Expected and tangible rewards  Implications  Benefits of incentives, consequences, and rewards  Cognitive evaluation theory  Controlling and informational events  Types of EM  Motivating others to do uninteresting tasks
    5. 5. 5 Quasi-needs Examples: ● an umbrella in the rain ● a bandaid for a cut ● a secure job Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 119)  Situationally-induced wants that create tense energy to engage in behaviour to reduce built-up tension.  Deficiency-oriented.  What we lack, yet want, from the environment in a rather urgent way.  Situationally-induced wants that create tense energy to engage in behaviour to reduce built-up tension.  Deficiency-oriented.  What we lack, yet want, from the environment in a rather urgent way.
    6. 6. 6 Extrinsic motivation Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 120) Environmentally-created reason (e.g., incentives or consequences) to engage in an action or activity. “Do this in order to get that” type of motivation requested behaviour extrinsic incentive or consequence “What’s in it for me?” motivation
    7. 7. 7 External regulation of motivation: Incentives, consequences, and rewards Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 120-122) Incentives Consequences Rewards ● Follows behaviour ● Reinforcers: “Do” ● Positive: ↑s action to get more of a desirable quality (e.g., smile) ● Negative: ↑s action to get less of an undesirable quality (e.g., frown) ● Punishers: “Stop”: ● ↓s action to avoid undesirable quality • Precede behaviour, create expectation, based on past learning • Attracts or repels a person from a course of action. (e.g., a nice smell vs. a bad smell) Any offering from one person to another person in exchange for his or her service or achievement. • Based on operant conditioning
    8. 8. 8 Reinforcer effectiveness Based on Reeve (2015, p. 124) Reinforcer effectiveness is determined by:  Quality and intensity  Immediacy  Recipient's need for, and perceived value of, the reward (person/reinforcer fit) Reinforcer effectiveness is determined by:  Quality and intensity  Immediacy  Recipient's need for, and perceived value of, the reward (person/reinforcer fit)
    9. 9. Managing behaviour by offering reinforcers Reeve (2015), Figure 5.1 Effect of reinforcement on use of orthodontic device, p. 123)
    10. 10. 10 Rewards Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 124-125) How do rewards work? Do they facilitate desirable behaviour? An extrinsic reward enlivens positive emotion and facilitates behaviour because they signal opportunity for a personal gain. When events take an unexpected turn for the better, then dopamine is released and Behavioural Activation System (BAS) neural activation occurs, as the brain inherently latches onto the environmental signal of the unexpected gain.
    11. 11. 11 “If you do X, then you get Y.” “Because you were able to do X, that means you are effective, competent.” Controlling function Informational function • Decreases intrinsic motivation • Interferes with quality of learning • External regulation increases • Self-regulation undermined • Increases intrinsic motivation • Enhances high-quality learning • Enhances self-regulation Any external event (Rewards) Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 124-125)
    12. 12. 12 Do punishers work? Do they suppress undesirable behaviour? Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 128-130) Research shows that punishment is an ineffective motivational strategy (popular but ineffective) “Side effects” Negative emotionality e.g., • crying, • screaming, • feeling afraid Impaired relationship between punisher and punishee. Negative modeling of how to cope with undesirable behaviour in others.
    13. 13. 13 Immediate & long-term consequences of corporal punishment (Spanking) Based on Reeve (2009, Figure 5.3, p 129  Short-term:  Immediate compliance  Long-term:  Aggression  Anti-social behaviour  Poor mental health  Poor quality of relationship with parent  Victim of physical abuse  More likely to abuse own child  More likely to get a criminal record  Short-term:  Immediate compliance  Long-term:  Aggression  Anti-social behaviour  Poor mental health  Poor quality of relationship with parent  Victim of physical abuse  More likely to abuse own child  More likely to get a criminal record
    14. 14. 14 Hidden cost of rewards Based on Reeve (2015), pp. 130-131) Extrinsic rewards can have unexpected, unintended, and adverse effects on intrinsic motivation, learning, and self-regulation. Extrinsic rewards can have unexpected, unintended, and adverse effects on intrinsic motivation, learning, and self-regulation. Using a reward to engage someone in an activity Intended primary effect ➢ Promotes compliance (behavioural engagement in the activity) Unintended primary effect Ø Undermines intrinsic motivation Ø Interferes with the quality and process of learning Ø Interferes with the capacity for autonomous self- regulation
    15. 15. 15 Intrinsic motivation Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 130-131) The inherent desire to engage one’s interests and to exercise and develop one’s capacities. “I am doing this because it is …” type of motivation engaged activity interesting, fun, enjoyable, satisfying psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness)
    16. 16. 16 Origins of intrinsic motivation Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 5.4, p. 131) Intrinsic motivation Psychological need satisfaction Autonomy Competence Relatedness Autonomy support (from environment and relationships) Competence support (from environment and relationships) Relatedness support (from environment and relationships)
    17. 17. 17 Benefits of intrinsic motivation Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 131-133) Persistence Creativity Conceptual understanding/ High-quality learning Optimal functioning & well-being The higher a person’s intrinsic motivation, the greater the person's persistence on that task. The more people experience interest, enjoyment, satisfaction, and challenge of the work itself, the more creative they are. Flexible thinking, Active information processing, Learning in conceptual way Greater self-actualisation, Greater subjective vitality, Less anxiety and depression, Greater self-esteem
    18. 18. 18 Benefits of incentives, consequences, and rewards Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 137-139) When there is no intrinsic motivation to be undermined, rewards can make an otherwise uninteresting task seem suddenly worth pursuing e.g., Improving children’s reading fluency Participating in recycling Preventing drunk driving Getting motorists to stop at stop signs Preventing undesirable behaviours such as biting Increasing older adults’ participating in physical activity
    19. 19. 19 Reasons not to use extrinsic motivation (even for uninteresting endeavors) Based on Reeve (2015, p. 138) Extrinsic motivators undermine the quality of performance and interfere with the process of learning. Using rewards distracts attention away from asking the hard question of why a person is being asked to do an uninteresting task in the first place. There are better ways to encourage participation than extrinsic bribery. Extrinsic motivators still undermine the individual’s long-term capacity for autonomous self-regulation.
    20. 20. 20 Cognitive evaluation theory Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 139-140) Predicts the effects of an extrinsic event on a person's I-E motivation based on the event’s effect on the psychological needs for competence and autonomy. All external events have two functions: Control behaviour Inform competence Which function is more salient determines how the external event will affect intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. All external events have two functions: Control behaviour Inform competence Which function is more salient determines how the external event will affect intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
    21. 21. 21 Cognitive evaluation theory Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 141)
    22. 22. 22 What makes us feel good about our work? Dan Ariely TED Talk (20 mins) Start at 9:54 http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=5aH2Ppjpcho#t=594 TED Talk (20 mins) Start at 9:54 http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=5aH2Ppjpcho#t=594
    23. 23. 23 Types of extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation External regulation Introjected regulation Identified regulation Integrated regulation Self-Determination Theory (SDT) posits that different types of motivation can be organised along a continuum of self-determination or perceived locus of causality. Based on Reeve (2015, p. 142-147) Increasing autonomy
    24. 24. Self-determination continuum showing types of motivation Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 5.6, p. 143)
    25. 25. Types of extrinsic motivation Based on Reeve (2015, Table 5.1, p. 144) Four Types of Extrinsic Motivation, Example: “Why I Recycle”
    26. 26. 26 Four part experience of amotivation Experience of amotivation Maladaptive ability beliefs: “I don't have what it takes to do well.” Maladaptive effort beliefs: “I don't have the energy.” Low value placed on task: “This task has no interest for me.” Unappealing task characteristics: “This task is boring.” Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 146-147)
    27. 27. 27 Motivating others to do uninteresting activities Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 147-149) Ways to promote more autonomous types of extrinsic motivation Providing a rationale Explain why the uninteresting activity is important and useful enough to warrant one’s volitional engagement Building interest Involves first catching one’s situational interest in an activity and then holding that initial interest over time by developing an individual interest in the activity. e.g.,
    28. 28. 28 Building interest in a particular domain Based on Reeve (2015), pp. 147-149) Characteristics of the environment Object and activities that are novel, surprising, need-satisfying, and relevant to one’s goals. Characteristics of the person Person develops an enduring disposition to prefer activity in a particular domain. Actualised experience of interest Increased: • Attention • Learning • Knowledge • Achievement Builds situational interest Builds individual interest
    29. 29. 29 Extrinsic motivation summary Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 149-150)  Extrinsic motivation arises from environmental rewards and punishments (operant conditioning)  Hidden cost → undermining of intrinsic motivation  Cognitive evaluation theory  Types of extrinsic motivation  Motivating others to do uninteresting activities  Extrinsic motivation arises from environmental rewards and punishments (operant conditioning)  Hidden cost → undermining of intrinsic motivation  Cognitive evaluation theory  Types of extrinsic motivation  Motivating others to do uninteresting activities Incentives Consequences Rewards External Regulation Introjected Regulation Identified Regulation Integrated Regulation Autonomy Competence controlling or informational? controlling or informational?
    30. 30. 30 Goal setting & goal striving Reading: Reeve (2015) Ch 8 (pp. 213-238)
    31. 31. 31 Outline – Goal setting & goal striving Based on Reeve (2015, p. 213)  Plans  Corrective motivation  Discrepancy  Affect and feelings  Two types of discrepancy  Goal setting  Goal-performance discrepancy  Difficult, specific goals enhance performance  Feedback  Criticisms  Long-term goal setting  Plans  Corrective motivation  Discrepancy  Affect and feelings  Two types of discrepancy  Goal setting  Goal-performance discrepancy  Difficult, specific goals enhance performance  Feedback  Criticisms  Long-term goal setting  Goal striving  Mental simulations  Implementation intentions  Goal disengagement  Goal striving  Mental simulations  Implementation intentions  Goal disengagement
    32. 32. 32 Discrepancy between present and ideal states Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 218-219) Present state Ideal state How one wishes life was going. How one's life is going. Discrepancy occurs when the present state falls short of the ideal state. It is the discrepancy, rather the ideal state per se, which creates a sense of wanting to change.
    33. 33. 33 The TOTE unit Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 8.1, p. 216) TOTE model: Iterative progress towards a goal i.e., T-O-T-O-T-O-TO Test Compare present state with ideal state Test Compare present state with ideal state Exit Present state congruity with ideal state If congruous If incongruous The cognitive mechanism by which plans energise and direct behaviour towards an “ideal state”. Operate Act on environment to realise ideal state If incongruous
    34. 34. 34 Two types of discrepancy Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 219-220) Discrepancy reduction Discrepancy creation Based on the discrepancy- detecting feedback that underlies plans and corrective motivation. Based on the discrepancy- detecting feedback that underlies plans and corrective motivation. Based on a “feed-forward” system in which the person looks forward and proactively sets a future, higher goal. Based on a “feed-forward” system in which the person looks forward and proactively sets a future, higher goal. Discrepancy reduction corresponds to plan-based corrective motivation. Discrepancy reduction is reactive, deficiency overcoming, and revolves around a feedback system. Discrepancy creation corresponds to goal-setting motivation. Discrepancy creating is proactive, growth pursuing, and revolves around a “feed- forward” system.
    35. 35. 35 Affect and feelings ● If making good progress, positive affect is experienced ● If making poor progress, negative affect is experienced ● Affective responses provide informational feedback to guide corrective action and energise action. Based on Reeve (2015, p. 219)
    36. 36. 36 Corrective motivation Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 217-218) Act to achieve ideal state Change and revise the goal Corrective motivation to reduce discrepancy between actual and ideal: Discrepancy between actual and ideal states does not automatically trigger action. Instead, discrepancy creates “corrective motivation”, i.e., desire to reduce the discrepancy by either: or
    37. 37. 37 Goal setting Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 220-221) A goal is what an individual is trying to accomplish. Standard a definition of what adequate performance is Incentive a performance criterion for reinforcement Goals are reference points for guiding action so that one can evaluate the adequacy for one's performance. Goals define the cross-over point between satisfaction and dissatisfaction. A target to aim for - usually with an external object to aim for such as money or a high grade.
    38. 38. 38 Difficult and specific goals raise performance to remove goal- performance discrepancies Based on Reeve (2015), Figure 8.2, pp. 224) Energises and sustains behaviour • Increases effort, person works harder • Increases persistence, person works longer Directs behaviour • Increases attention, person works with focus • Increases planning, person works smarter When difficult When specific Setting a goal Enhanced performance
    39. 39. 39 Additional goal mechanisms Based on Reeve (2009, p. 214) Clarify performance expectations. Counteract apathy, boredom. Make feedback important. Without goals, performance can be emotionally unimportant. Attainment can generate feelings of pride, satisfaction, or competence that the task itself cannot generate. Why do goals work to increase performance?
    40. 40. 40 Should I make my goals public? Derek Sivers: Keep your goals to yourself (3:15 mins): http://www.ted.com/talks/derek_sivers_keep_your_goals_to_yourself Common wisdom is that sharing goals helps people to achieve them because it creates social expectation. However, when you tell someone your goal, the mind is tricked into feeling that it's already done. and then you're less motivated to do the actual hard work. Therefore, if you're going to tell someone your goals, make sure to do so in such a way that you derive no satisfaction from doing so.
    41. 41. 41 Feedback Based on Reeve (2015, p. 225)  Along with goals, feedback is vital for goal attainment  Provides knowledge of results and documents the performer’s progress  Defines performance against a standard  Above standard  At standard  Below standard  Acts as a reinforcer or punisher  Instructive to future goal setting efforts
    42. 42. Effect-sizes from 500+ meta-analyses of various influences of school achievement (Hattie)
    43. 43. 43 Effective feedback Based on Hattie and Timperley (2007, Figure 1) Effective feedback answers 3 questions:  Where am I going? (goals) Feed Up  How am I going? Feed Back  What next? Feed Forward Image source: http://www.wilderdom.com/experiential/elc/ExperientialLearningCycle.htm 3-step Experiential Learning Cycle
    44. 44. 44 Feedback to enhance learning Hattie & Timperley (2007) ● Feedback is the single most important predictor of achievement ● But feedback alone is not sufficient – effective instruction is also needed ● Feedback is powerful – but it can be helpful or harmful
    45. 45. 45 Criticisms of goal setting Goal setting has advantages, but pitfalls include that: ● Goal setting works best when tasks are relatively uninteresting and straightforward ● Goal conflict, overload, and stress ● Undermining of intrinsic motivation Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 225,227)
    46. 46. 46 Long-term goal setting ● For uninteresting tasks, short-term goals help to make them more interesting by creating extrinsic motivation. ● For interesting tasks, only long-term goals enhance intrinsic motivation. Short-term goals can be experiences as controlling distractions (undermining autonomy). Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 225,227)
    47. 47. 47 • LTG e.g.,: Become a psychologist • STG e.g.,: Pass Exam X Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 227-228) Problems with long-term goal setting ● Lack of immediate performance feedback ● Prolonged unreinforced performance Goal commitment is likely to decrease (especially if the LTG is uninteresting) Solution Translate LTG into a series of short-term goals
    48. 48. 48 Goal striving Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 228-234) Goal striving (effort, persistence, attention, strategic planning) is needed to translate goal setting into performance and goal attainment.  Mental stimulation: Focus on visualising processes and actions required for success (rather than imagining what it would feel like to achieve the goal).  Implementation intentions: Advanced planning for when, where, and how goal striving will be actioned. Addresses self-regulation requirements for:  Getting started  Staying on track  Resuming after interruption Goal striving (effort, persistence, attention, strategic planning) is needed to translate goal setting into performance and goal attainment.  Mental stimulation: Focus on visualising processes and actions required for success (rather than imagining what it would feel like to achieve the goal).  Implementation intentions: Advanced planning for when, where, and how goal striving will be actioned. Addresses self-regulation requirements for:  Getting started  Staying on track  Resuming after interruption If … thenIf … then
    49. 49. 49 Goal disengagement Based on Reeve (2015, p. 235-236)  Goal disengagement is knowing when to stop and abandon a goal (e.g,. if it is unattainable or a more important, incompatible goal is adopted).  Ill-advised goal striving can make the goal striver vulnerable to failure feedback and psychological distress.  “When one door closes, another door opens; but we so often look so long and regretfully upon the closed door, that we do not see the ones which open for us". - Alexander Bell  Goal disengagement is knowing when to stop and abandon a goal (e.g,. if it is unattainable or a more important, incompatible goal is adopted).  Ill-advised goal striving can make the goal striver vulnerable to failure feedback and psychological distress.  “When one door closes, another door opens; but we so often look so long and regretfully upon the closed door, that we do not see the ones which open for us". - Alexander Bell
    50. 50. 50 Summary 1. Ideal-actual discrepancies creates cognitive motivation → plan of action to remove discrepancy (corrective motivation). 2. Goals that are specific, difficult, and self-congruent generally improve performance. 3. Feedback provides information about performance which generates negative or positive emotional motivational states accordingly. 4. Short-term goals provide rich feedback; long-term goals foster intrinsic motivation. 5. Implementation intentions help focus, start, continue, and resume: If (situational cue) → Then (goal striving action) 6. Goal disengagement is reduction or cessation of effort in the face of unattainable goals. Adaptive when it frees up resources to allocate to a different goal. 1. Ideal-actual discrepancies creates cognitive motivation → plan of action to remove discrepancy (corrective motivation). 2. Goals that are specific, difficult, and self-congruent generally improve performance. 3. Feedback provides information about performance which generates negative or positive emotional motivational states accordingly. 4. Short-term goals provide rich feedback; long-term goals foster intrinsic motivation. 5. Implementation intentions help focus, start, continue, and resume: If (situational cue) → Then (goal striving action) 6. Goal disengagement is reduction or cessation of effort in the face of unattainable goals. Adaptive when it frees up resources to allocate to a different goal.
    51. 51. 51 Personal control beliefs (Ch 9) The self & its strivings (Ch 10) Next lecture
    52. 52. 52 References  Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Note: Detailed image credits are in the slide notes
    53. 53. 53 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html

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