Uncovering Analogness and Digitalness in Interactive Media

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In this paper we analyze the works of the Keio-NUS CUTE Center at the National University of Singapore in order to uncover the dispositions of “analogness” and “digitalness” in regards to the relationship between users and interfaces. By comparing concepts of embodiment from a philosophical perspective, paired with the computer science treatment of analog and digital data, we derive a contingent definition for analog-like and digital-like interaction. With case studies as reference, we outline a continuum to describe types of interfaces based on these dispositions, which could then be further analyzed using characteristics for designing analog-like, digital-like or hybrid-like interactive systems. Finally, we propose a new methodology for designing novel interactive systems that are analog in nature, called interactive analog media (IAM).

Koh, J. T. K. V., & Peiris, R. L., Ken. (2012). Uncovering Analogness and Digitalness in Interactive Media. Proceedings of the 30th ACM International Conference on Design of Communication (pp. 233-241). Seattle, Washington: ACM Press.

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Uncovering Analogness and Digitalness in Interactive Media

  1. 1. ACM Special Interest Group on Design of Communication Conference Seattle, Washington, USA October 3rd - 5th, 2012 UNCOVERING ANALOGNESS AND DIGITALNESS IN INTERACTIVE MEDIA Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh Roshan Lalintha Peiris Kening Zhu Doros Polydorou Ryohei NakatsuFriday, October 5, 2012
  2. 2. cutecenter.nus.edu.sgFriday, October 5, 2012
  3. 3. THINGS SKIPPED • Discussion on Embodiment and Phenomenology • Analysis of a prototypical interface • Some case studiesFriday, October 5, 2012
  4. 4. ANALOG AND DIGITAL DEFINED IN PHILOSOPHY DAVID LEWIS has made contributions in philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophical logic. Lewis, D. (1971). Analog and Digital. Noûs , 5 (3), 321-327.Friday, October 5, 2012
  5. 5. ANALOG AND DIGITAL DEFINED IN PHILOSOPHY DAVID LEWIS It’s hard!!! has made contributions in philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophical logic. Lewis, D. (1971). Analog and Digital. Noûs , 5 (3), 321-327.Friday, October 5, 2012
  6. 6. ANALOG AND DIGITAL DEFINED IN COMPUTER SCIENCE COMPUTER SCIENCE ILLUMINATED continues to excite and enlighten students on the dynamic and diverse field of computer science. Dale, N., Lewis, J. (2002). Computer Science Illuminated (4th ed.). USA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.Friday, October 5, 2012
  7. 7. ANALOG AND DIGITAL DEFINED IN COMPUTER SCIENCE COMPUTER SCIENCE It’s easy!!! ILLUMINATED continues to excite and enlighten students on the dynamic and diverse field of computer science. Dale, N., Lewis, J. (2002). Computer Science Illuminated (4th ed.). USA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.Friday, October 5, 2012
  8. 8. DEFINING DIGITAL AND ANALOG a discrete signal a continuous signalFriday, October 5, 2012
  9. 9. DEFINING DIGITALNESS AND ANALOGNESS a discrete interaction a continuous interactionFriday, October 5, 2012
  10. 10. DEFINING DIGITALNESS AND ANALOGNESSAnalog-like interfaces create a continuous experience for both the user and the system, analogous to the actual information it represents. Digital-like interfaces create a discrete experience, segregating the users’ interaction with information and the systems interaction with the user into separate events.Friday, October 5, 2012
  11. 11. CHARACTERISTICS FOR DEVELOPING SYSTEMS WITH ANALOG-LIKE AND/OR DIGITAL-LIKE INTERACTIONFriday, October 5, 2012
  12. 12. CHARACTERISTICS FOR DEVELOPING SYSTEMS WITH ANALOG-LIKE AND/OR DIGITAL-LIKE INTERACTION • Analog-Like Interactive Systems: Content and Media are Singular in Embodiment • Digital-Like Interactive Systems: Content and Media are Dichotomistic in Embodiment • Analog-Like Interactive Systems: Interaction is Continuous • Digital-Like Interactive Systems: Interaction is Discreet • Analog-Like Interactive Systems: The Interface is Intuitive • Digital-Like Interactive Systems: The Interface is Mediated • Hybrid-Like Interactive Systems: Fulfills Some or All of the Afore Mentioned RulesFriday, October 5, 2012
  13. 13. ANALOG-LIKE INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS: CONTENT AND MEDIA ARE SINGULAR IN EMBODIMENTFriday, October 5, 2012
  14. 14. DIGITAL-LIKE INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS: CONTENT AND MEDIA ARE DICHOTOMISTIC IN EMBODIMENTFriday, October 5, 2012
  15. 15. ANALOG-LIKE INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS: INTERACTION IS CONTINUOUSFriday, October 5, 2012
  16. 16. DIGITAL-LIKE INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS: INTERACTION IS DISCRETEFriday, October 5, 2012
  17. 17. ANALOG-LIKE INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS: THE INTERFACE IS INTUITIVEFriday, October 5, 2012
  18. 18. DIGITAL-LIKE INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS: THE INTERFACE IS MEDIATEDFriday, October 5, 2012
  19. 19. HYBRID-LIKE INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS: FULFILLS SOME OR ALL OF THE AFORE MENTIONED CHARACTERISTICSFriday, October 5, 2012
  20. 20. w00t!!! HYBRID-LIKE INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS: FULFILLS SOME OR ALL OF THE AFORE MENTIONED CHARACTERISTICSFriday, October 5, 2012
  21. 21. ANALOG-LIKE INTERACTIVE SYSTEM: HUGGY PAJAMA • Users must wear pajama to feel hug transmitted over the Internet, meaning that the content and media cannot be separated. • Quantum Tunneling Composite circuits continuously sense variable pressure exerted on the input doll. • Air pressure recreates the hug, also in a continuous way for the user, using a closed-loop system. Teh, J. K. S., Tsai, Z., Koh, J. T. K. V., & Cheok, A. D. (2012). Mobile Implementation and User Evaluation of the Huggy Pajama System. IEEE Haptics Symposium 2012 (pp. 471-478). Vancouver, Canada: IEEE.Friday, October 5, 2012
  22. 22. DIGITAL-LIKE INTERACTIVE SYSTEM: POETRY MIX-UP • Extension of existing text-messaging paradigm by reinterpreting SMS messages and turning them into poetry. • The poems are digital and therefore can be outputted to any number of display technologies. • The system uses discrete steps to receive, interpret, recreate and display the data. Zhu, K., Ranasinghe, N., Edirisinghe, C., Cheok, A. D., Fernando, O. N. N., & Cao, Y. Y. (2009). Poetry mix-up: the 10th muse. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series Vol 422 (pp. 461-461).Friday, October 5, 2012
  23. 23. HYBRID-LIKE INTERACTIVE SYSTEM: AGE INVADERS • Allows the elderly to play with children in physical space. • Parents can participate in real- time through the Internet. • Mixing physical reality and virtual reality, users can perform free and continuous play using their body, while other users can also interact with players on a computer screen in virtual reality. Khoo, E. T., & Cheok, A. D. (2006). Age Invaders: Inter-generational mixed reality family game. The International Journal of Virtual Reality, 5(2), 45-50.Friday, October 5, 2012
  24. 24. SUMMARY OF CASE STUDY PROJECTS Content & Content & Interface is Interaction is Media are Example Media are Interaction is Interface is Intuitive Continuous Singular in System Dichotomistic in Discrete Mediated Embodiment Embodiment LIVING ✓ ✓ ✓ MEDIA HUGGY ✓ ✓ ✓ PAJAMA POETRY MIX-UP ✓ ✓ ✓ CONFUCIUS COMPUTER ✓ ✓ ✓ METAZOA ✓ ✓ LUDENS ✓ ✓ AGE ✓ ✓ INVADERS ✓ ✓ ✓ ANALOG-LIKE DIGITAL-LIKEFriday, October 5, 2012
  25. 25. ANALOGNESS-DIGITALNESS CONTINUUM (ADC) • study and classify all interactive systems • used with guidelines, the ADC can be used to develop styles of interaction and user/system relationship Analogness Hybridness DigitalnessFriday, October 5, 2012
  26. 26. ANALOGNESS-DIGITALNESS CONTINUUM (ADC) Analogness Hybridness DigitalnessFriday, October 5, 2012
  27. 27. w00t!!! • we can begin to analyze past and present interfaces and characterize their interactivity style • we can purposely develop bespoke interaction styles by interpreting the AD characteristics into our inventionsFriday, October 5, 2012
  28. 28. FAIL • WE MAKE TOO MANY ASSUMPTIONS! • Empirical study is needed to substantiate our claims • n00bies when it comes to usability • ...but we think it’s important so we have to start somewhere...Friday, October 5, 2012
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  30. 30. Friday, October 5, 2012
  31. 31. Friday, October 5, 2012
  32. 32. ACM Special Interest Group on Design of Communication Conference Seattle, Washington, USA October 3rd - 5th, 2012 THANK YOU! Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh jtkvkoh@gmail.com http://villainous.biz/ @smallcapsFriday, October 5, 2012

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