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  1. 1. ETHIOPIA By: Joseph Koontz
  2. 2. If You Lived in Ethiopia…  If Ethiopia were your home instead of The United States you would...  Have 12.9 times higher chance of dying in infancy  Be 3.5 times more likely to have HIV/AIDS  Have 3.1 times more babies  Die 22.44 years sooner  Use 99.72% less electricity  Consume 99.33% less oil  Make 98.06% less money  Spend 99.61% less money on health care  Experience 33.33% less of a class divide
  3. 3. Appearance  7th largest country in Africa  Ethiopia is as large as Spain and France Combined and 5x the size of the UK ranging in 114 million square kilometers
  4. 4. Land & Climate  Loacated on the “Horn of Africa”  Has high plateau and mountain ranges  Climate is influenced by altitude with 4 distinct ranges:  Dega (cold to cool)  Weina Dega (warm to cool)  Kolla (warm to hot)  Bereha (hot and arid)
  5. 5. Population  Ethiopia being the largest country in Africa, ended 2012 with a population of 91,728,849 people  Makes it the 13 most populous country in the world  Has a density of 83 people per square Km  The men consists of 50.02% with women being at 49.98%
  6. 6. Language  84 Indigenous Languages  English is the most widely spoken foreign language  After fall of Derge regime in 1991, all groups could speak their own language unlike the previous Ethiopian governments.
  7. 7. Communication Style  Speak in soft tones as loud voices are seen as too aggressive  Sensitive  Ethiopians pride themselves on their articulate speaking style and expect others to speak clearly and use:  Metaphors  Allusions  Witty innuendoes.
  8. 8. Government  Ethiopia adopted a new constitution that established the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Hailemariam Desalegn is the prime minister and head of public
  9. 9. Economy  Ethiopians have the “Birr” as currency  Equivalency to the U.S. is declining over time  The Ethiopian economy is dominated by the agriculture and services sectors  Each accounts for 45% of GDP
  10. 10. Religion  Christianity is the dominant religion and is facilitated with the Ethiopian Orthodox Church  Islam is practiced by about 1/3 of Ethiopians. Traditionally, the status of Islam has been far from equal with that of Christianity.
  11. 11. Holidays Religious & Political  January 7th Christmas Day  January 11th Malad Un Nabi  March 2nd Victory at Adwa Day  May 5th Patriots Day  September 11th New Years Day
  12. 12. Educational System  Ethiopians are desperate to attend school and beyond  School enrollment is at seven, although some start earlier.  Age in the country is often assessed by height and teeth! Schools in rural areas in Ethiopia
  13. 13. Educational System  Government schools are:  Elementary  Secondary  By selection to pre- university 11 & 12.  Class size officially is 50  Adult literacy rate is only 43% Schools in urban areas in Ethiopia
  14. 14. Music  Ethiopian music is extremely diverse, with each of Ethiopia’s ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds.  Some forms of traditional music are strongly influenced by folk music from elsewhere in the Horn of Africa.  However, Ethiopian religious music also has an ancient Christian element
  15. 15. Family  A typical family consists of the father, mother, children, servants, and extended family members.  The families are strong and tend to be large, ranging from 6-12 family members  The family typically lives in a two bedroom house…  1 for the kitchen and supplies  1 for everything else Typical 2 bedroom house
  16. 16. Family Responsibilities  The father is the authority figure and the mother enforces the rules for the children.  The family is responsible for teaching the children cultural and religious values and the skills necessary to become self-supporting adults. An exemplary family
  17. 17. Greetings  Before speaking both individuals will:  Bow to each other  Any head covering is to be removed during this time.  Once the bow has been finished and the first inquiries are made, about one to two minutes of further formalized exchange is required. Each individual is expected not only to ask after the health of each other, but also after their:  Family members  Animals  Harvest  Business
  18. 18. General Attitudes & Values  Ethiopians typically have a positive attitude  When they become mad, they tend to use loud voices, various hand gestures and get in the opposing views “personal bubble”  Family is the most valuable thing in an Ethiopian life
  19. 19. Recreation  Leisure time is generally spent at home. Individual games of skill such as board games and races are the most popular forms of recreation.  The 3 major sports:  Long Distance Running  Soccer  Basketball
  20. 20. Health  Life expectancy at birth is currently about 54 years and is expected to decline to 46 years if the present HIV infection rates are maintained.  Hundreds of people fall ill and die daily as a result of drinking contaminated water  Little food is produced since the harvests are entirely dependent on rainfall and livestock die from diseases related to poor water quality.
  21. 21. Sanitation Problems  Ethiopia's health care system is among the least developed in Sub-Saharan Africa and is not, at present, able to effectively cope with the significant health problems facing the country.  Contributing factors include:  Widespread poverty  Poor nutritional status  Low education levels  Poor access to health services Men digging for new source of water
  22. 22. Dating, Courtship & Marriage  Traditionally, marriages are arranged by the bride and groom's families. It is customary for the bride's family to give the groom's family gifts at the time of marriage.  The appropriate age of marriage in Ethiopia for men and women is 18.
  23. 23. Marriage  Although it may seem uncommon, there is a surprising number of marriages by as little as 7 or 8 years old. Tizalem uncovers her face, which is covered by her traditional wedding outfit, only long enough to sign the marriage contract.
  24. 24. Life Style  When they are getting ready to be married, women stretch their lower lip with the help of wooden or clay plates called "sigaro".  The bigger the lip, the smoother the dowry negotiations between the two families.
  25. 25. Life Style Continued  Ethiopians have one change of clothing, maybe even ill-fitting, second-hand clothing at that. If you go to school, you get a second change. □ The main form of entertainment is visiting and storytelling. Most people cannot read and have no electricity. Men like to sit, drink coffee and talk.
  26. 26. Eating  The Ethiopian diet is mainly composed of:  Cereals (maize, sorghum, teff)  Tubers and root crops (ensete, potatoes, sweet potatoes)  Pulses and oil seeds.  Despite a large livestock population, the food supply of animal products is very limited  For Ethiopians, the coffee ceremony is an important social event that brings people of the family or community together.
  27. 27. Food  Ethiopia's staple food is injera, a spongy bread made of a unique crop only grown in Ethiopia called "teff." Injera is baked in a clay pan and eaten with sauce made of either meat, ground grains, beans or vegetables. Common Ethiopian Household Dinner
  28. 28. Work  Men do the most physically taxing activities outside the house, while women are in charge of the domestic sphere.  Young children, especially on farms, get involved in household labor at an early age.  Girls usually have a greater amount of work to do than boys.
  29. 29. Social and Economic Levels  There are four major social groups:  At the top are high-ranking lineages  Followed by low-ranking lineages  Caste groups, which are endogamous, with group membership attributed by birth and membership associated with concepts of pollution  Constitute the third social stratum  Slaves and the descendants of slaves are the lowest social group.
  30. 30.  There is no real functioning railroad system, few people can afford to travel by air, and even less can afford a car  Most traveling is done by bus or minibus which is the only option for many.  Bus rides in Ethiopia can be very entertaining, lively, social and good experiences, but they can also be exhausting, frustrating and very crammed. Transportation Systems
  31. 31. Transportation Restrictions  The main restrictions of travel are within 100 Kilometers of the surrounding borders Ethiopia has.  There is a high threat from terrorism in Ethiopia  There is also a high threat of kidnapping, particularly in the eastern areas
  32. 32. Communication Systems  The communication systems are currently a monopoly in the control of the Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation (ETC).  All telephone service and internet access requires ETC to be involved.  As of 2010:  866,700 cellular phones  725,000 main line phones were in use
  33. 33. Tourist Attractions  The Blue Nile flows from Ethiopia to meet the White Nile in Khartoum to form the great river that gives life to Egypt and the Sudan.  It has been said that the Blue Nile contributes up to 80% of the Nile’s flow. The Blue Nile Falls (Tisisat Falls)
  34. 34. Tourist Attractions  The “Eighth Wonder of the World”-  Internationally-renowned for its rock-hewn churches which are sometimes called the Physically prised from the rock in which they stand.  These monolithic churches were originally thought to have been built in the 12th century during the reign of King Lalibela, but some have been dated back to the 10th century. There are eleven churches, assembled in three groupings