Case Study 3: The Tacos are Trouble

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Case Study 3: The Tacos are Trouble

  1. 1. The Tacos are Trouble <ul><li>Mike and Yianni </li></ul>
  2. 2. Debriefing <ul><li>67 people (from NJ, NY, PA, DE, and SC) became ill from November to December in 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms were bloody diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>51 (76%) people needed to be hospitalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 (12%) developed kidney failure called hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All individuals consumed raw Taco Bell food </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Digestive System <ul><li>We believe that the patients have Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu) </li></ul><ul><li>The stomach, large intestine, and rectum are affected </li></ul>
  4. 4. Possible Culprits <ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella enterica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus aureus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streptococcus pyogenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haemophilus influenzae </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Gram Test <ul><li>Gram positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell wall is made of a thick layer of peptidoglycan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gram negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin layer of peptidoglycan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram positive bacteria are easier to treat than gram negative </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Results of Gram Test <ul><li>Escherichia coli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram negative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram negative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salmonella enterica </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram negative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus aureus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram positive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus pyogenes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram positive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Haemophilus influenzae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram negative </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>LET'S GO TO THE VIDEO TAPE </li></ul>
  8. 8. Possible Cures Antibiotic  Diameter MM Resistance Chloramphenol 23 Effective  (Sensitive) Penicillian 0 Not effective  (Resistant) Vancomycin 0 Not effective  (Resistant) Tetracycline 19 Effective  (Sensitive) Gentamycin 18 Effective  (Sensitive) Strepomyocin 10 Not effective  (Resistant)
  9. 9. Our Culprit?
  10. 10. Escherichia coli (E. coli)
  11. 11. Stuff <ul><li>Gram-negative </li></ul><ul><li>Bacillus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rod shaped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not arranged in a chain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facultative anaerobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed-acid fermentation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Other Stuff <ul><li>Found in lower intestine of mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Live in areas with low levels of hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>When infecting the body, it produces enterotoxins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These toxins increase the levels of cAMP in a cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cell reacts by secreting water and chlorine ions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Faecal-oral transmission <ul><li>Faecal particles are consumed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm contamination due to manure fertilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation with contaminated water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contaminated water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw ground beef </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw seed sprouts </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Cure <ul><li>Chloramphenol is the most effective drug at curing E. coli. </li></ul>

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