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Scratch and pair programming


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Scratch and pair programming

  1. 1. Scratch and pair programming Irena Nančovska Šerbec Jože Rugelj University of Ljubljana Faculty of Education Dep. for math. and comp. {Irena.Nancovska, Joze.Rugelj}
  2. 2. Scratch 1 part
  3. 3. S ources <ul><li>Scratch download: </li></ul><ul><li>ScratchEd: </li></ul><ul><li>Scratch Lesson Plans: </li></ul><ul><li>Resources for parents and teachers to teach children Scratch programming : </li></ul><ul><li>Web WORKSHOP: </li></ul><ul><li>Scratch Beginner's Guide - A Scratch Tutorial : </li></ul><ul><li>Marija Oblak, PROGRAMSKA ORODJA V POMOC UČENJU PROGRAMIRANJA, diplomsko delo, PEF UL, 2009. </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  4. 4. Papers <ul><li>Resnick, M., at all (2009). Scratch : Programming for all, Communications on ACM, Vol. 52, Iss. 11; 60. (retrieved from ) </li></ul><ul><li>Resnick, M. (2007). All I really need to know (about creative thinking) I learned (by studying how children learn) in kindergarten. Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGCHI conference on Creativity & cognition - C&C '07 , 1-6. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi: 10.1145/1254960.1254961.(retrieved form ) </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  5. 5. Scratch and pair programming
  6. 6. <ul><li>There are only 10 types of people in the world — those who understand binary, and those who don't. </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  7. 7. <ul><li>Endless Loop: n., see Loop, Endless. </li></ul><ul><li>Loop, Endless: n., see Endless Loop. </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming From Data Processing Dictionary
  8. 8. Raise Your Hand If You <ul><li>Have heard of Scratch other than at this lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Have downloaded Scratch ?... but not gotten around to playing with it yet </li></ul><ul><li>Have played around with it </li></ul><ul><li>Use it in your teaching </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  9. 9. Agenda <ul><li>What is Scratch? </li></ul><ul><li>Scratch and … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 Century Learning Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming sprite is a two-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene.
  10. 10. What is Scratch? <ul><li>A new graphical media rich programming language that allows users to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>animations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interactive stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Digital fluency” should mean designing, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creating, and remixing, not just browsing, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chatting, and interacting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resnick </li></ul></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  11. 11. What is Scratch <ul><li>It is intended especially for 8- to 16-year-olds (peaking at 12 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging and intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Scratch offers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low floor (easy to get started) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high ceiling (ability to create complex projects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wide walls (support for a wide diversity of projects) </li></ul></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  12. 12. What is Scratch Scratch and pair programming imagine • program • share
  13. 13. What is Scratch <ul><ul><li>Last version 1.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Available i n Slovene </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is developed by the Lifelong Kindergarten group at the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MIT Media Lab by a team led by Mitchel Resnick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>first appeared in the may 2007 </li></ul></ul></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  14. 14. <ul><li>The name Scratch is derived </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from the turntablist technique of scratching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>refers to both the language and its implementation . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The similarity to musical &quot;scratching”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usability the objects, graphics, sounds, and scripts can be easily imported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usability of projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpreted dynamic visual programming language </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  15. 15. Scratch and … 21 century skills <ul><li>Students learn to : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>select, create and manage multiple forms of media. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>create media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analyze media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>express themselves creatively and persuasively. </li></ul></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  16. 16. Scratch and 21 century Scratch and pair programming
  17. 17. Scratch and … 21 century skills <ul><li>Thinking and Problem Solving Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students learn : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>critical reasoning and systems thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coordinate timings and interactions between multiple sprites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identify new problems and creative solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>break problems up into steps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback </li></ul></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  18. 18. Scratch and … 21 century skills <ul><li>Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The visual nature of the programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>=> sharablility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They create with an audience in mind and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>=> able to make easy changes based on feedback of others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social responsibility as they </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>=> interact with others through the scratch website </li></ul></ul></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  19. 19. Scratch and the Classroom Scratch and pair programming
  20. 20. School <ul><li>At Faculty of Education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Introduction to programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1 year study: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two - subject teachers: Computer science and *) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7 th Grade Computer Literacy Curriculum ( Computer Science Curriculum ) . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 years old children </li></ul></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  21. 21. Scratch and pair programming motion control looks
  22. 22. Scratch and pair programming sensing sound operations
  23. 23. Scratch and pair programming pen variables
  24. 24. Day 1 <ul><li>Day One – Discuss types of games (ex. role-playing game, shooters, mazes, skill, sports …) </li></ul><ul><li>Explore Environment and Use Scratch Cards (12) </li></ul><ul><li>With partners start planning game using workshop design guide </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  25. 25. Scratch and pair programming
  26. 26. Scratch and pair programming Move, Clone, Cut, Change Shape Sprite List Stage Sprite Position Full Screen Stage Create, Find or Surprise Sprite Start and Stop Game
  27. 27. Scratch and pair programming Scripts Area
  28. 28. Scratch and pair programming Blocks
  29. 29. Scratch and pair programming
  30. 30. Day 1 <ul><li>Programming concepts that students will be introduced to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If/Then conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coordination and synchronization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boolean logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>random numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial and Error </li></ul></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  31. 31. Day 2 <ul><li>Students begin programming ( individually ) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  32. 32. Example - guess <ul><li>Elephant imagines a number between 1 and 100. Guess which one. If you guess the number, it changes its colour and stretche s trunk. If the imputed number is lower than his, he said, &quot;My number is bigger.&quot; If imputed number is greater than his, he said, &quot;My number is smaller.&quot; Learning Objective: Understanding conditional sentences, reading input </li></ul><ul><li>Example: GUESS </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  33. 33. Example – ball and stick <ul><li>Creating their own sprites: stick and ball. Stick, we put it next to the edge, move vertically with the aim to hit the ball. The ball is bouncing off the edges at random. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Objective : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating game </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: in </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  34. 34. Day 3 <ul><li>Explore </li></ul><ul><li>Set up an account </li></ul><ul><li>Pair programming concepts introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Download three games that are similar to the ones that you want to create </li></ul><ul><li>See how these games are coded </li></ul><ul><li>Save a game to your web account </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  35. 35. Day 4 <ul><li>Set up pair programming </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the use of broadcasting to go to another level </li></ul><ul><li>Constant Student Interaction – Ask 3 before me. </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  36. 36. Day 5 <ul><li>Troubleshoot and peer review </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  37. 37. Pair Programming 2 part
  38. 38. Papers <ul><li>Williams, L., & Kessler, R. (2000). All I really need to know about pair programming I learned in kindergarten. Communications of the ACM , 3 (5), 108-114. ACM. Retrieved from . </li></ul><ul><li>Nančovska Šerbec, I., Kaučič, B., & Rugelj, J. (2008). Pair programming as a modern method of teaching computer science. Int. j.: emerg. technol. learn. , vol. 3, s2, 45-49. </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  39. 39. Scratch and pair programming Williams, L., & Kessler, R.: All I really need to know about pair programming I learned in kindergarten . Resnick, M. : All I really need to know (about creative thinking) I learned (by studying how children learn) in kindergarten
  40. 40. Scratch and pair programming
  41. 41. Agenda <ul><li>Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation/inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ All I Ever Need to Know about Pair Programming I Learned in Kindergarten” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages and disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Pair programming experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Survey on the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  42. 42. Terms <ul><li>Pair programming (PP) is a practice where two programmers work together at one computer, collaborating on the same design, algorithm, code, or test </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Programming ( XP ) is a software engineering methodology (and a form of agile software development) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning refers to methodologies and environments in which learners engage in a common task in which each individual depends on and is accountable to each other </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  43. 43. Motivation <ul><li>Experiences from teaching programming - students implicitly practiced PP without being aware of that </li></ul><ul><li>Modern studies confirmed the advantages of the method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>novice–novice pairs against novice solos experience significantly greater productivity gains than expert–expert pairs against expert solos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Related to collaborative work </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing for project work </li></ul><ul><li>Questionable story about XP </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  44. 44. Scenario <ul><li>The pair is made up of a driver and navigator , </li></ul><ul><li>driver actively types at the computer or records a design </li></ul><ul><li>navigator watches the work of the driver and attentively identifies problems and makes suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Both are also continuous brainstorming partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of behavior are defined: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PP relationship is very active: communicate, at least every 45 to 60 seconds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>switching roles every 30-45 minutes or after the task is finished </li></ul></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  45. 45. If PP “works” or it doesn’t work? <ul><li>L. Williams (2000): coupled programmers in the average are 15 % slower then solo programmers but they produce 15 % less errors </li></ul><ul><li>Arisholm (2007): 48% increase in correctness but no significant difference in time </li></ul><ul><li>Lui, Chan (2006): methodology is better for novices </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and debugging are expensive </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  46. 46. All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten ( By Robert Fulghum, 1988 ) <ul><li>Share everything. </li></ul><ul><li>Play fair. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t hit people. </li></ul><ul><li>Put things back where you found them. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean up your own mess. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t take things that aren’t yours. </li></ul><ul><li>Say you’re sorry when you hurt somebody. </li></ul><ul><li>Wash your hands before you eat. </li></ul><ul><li>Flush. </li></ul><ul><li>Warm cookies and cold milk are good for you. </li></ul><ul><li>Live a balanced life – learn some and think some and draw and paint and sing and </li></ul><ul><li>dance and play and work every day some. </li></ul><ul><li>Take a nap every afternoon . </li></ul><ul><li>When you go out into the world, watch out for traffic, hold hands and stick together. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of wonder. </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  47. 47. Advantages <ul><li>More discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Better code (less errors, easier to understand) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible software development </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge interchange between the partners </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasant atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual ownership of the sources </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesion in the team of two (in the pair participants became more familiar) </li></ul><ul><li>Pair is less sensitive on disturbances from environment </li></ul><ul><li>We need less computers (PC-s or workstations ) </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  48. 48. Disadvantages <ul><li>Giving instructions to the less experienced is tiring </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced programmers rather work independently and they fill uncomfortable in the pair </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced programmer produces code without (or with less) bugs and it is purposeless to be paired </li></ul><ul><li>Is difficult to compare pair with solos empirically </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in the programming styles cause conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Par could program less hour/day in comparison with solos which influence the deadline </li></ul><ul><li>In the SW enterprises where programmers work at home PP is difficult to realize </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  49. 49. Scratch and pair programming
  50. 50. Experience (1)– novices <ul><li>At Faculty of Education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Introduction to programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1 year study: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two - subject teachers: Computer science and *) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Background knowledge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From flow-chars to working program e s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The last month in the semester </li></ul></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  51. 51. Experience – time table <ul><li>Students are sent URL with longer test on programming </li></ul><ul><li>Homework, reading the paper: All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten </li></ul><ul><li>30 min discussion on the rules in the pair </li></ul><ul><li>Divide into pairs, who chose their names </li></ul><ul><li>Each pair is randomly given programming exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Pairs are presenting their programs and presenting their experience with pro et contra debate </li></ul><ul><li>Students fulfill web-poll </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  52. 52. Web-poll and test <ul><li>Time framework of PP? </li></ul><ul><li>Which positive experience with PP would you put out? </li></ul><ul><li>Which negative experience with PP would you put out? </li></ul><ul><li>Please, take few minutes to solve the web adaptive test in Moodle environment . Is you result better/equal/ worse then the former, wider test? </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  53. 53. Scratch and pair programming
  54. 54. Scratch and pair programming
  55. 55. Scratch and pair programming
  56. 56. Web poll results <ul><li>3/4 and even more said that the experience was positive </li></ul><ul><li>9 of 16 were more or equally successful in solving the second (quick) test </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for novice programmers </li></ul><ul><li>We continue d with the PP practice </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  57. 57. Experience (2) <ul><li>course Computer science practice – generation started 200 7 /0 8 </li></ul><ul><li>We exclude the influence of the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>The same learning materials as in the Experience (1) </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  58. 58. Experience ( 3 ) <ul><li>Course Programming </li></ul><ul><li>contents : dynamical structures (pointers) in Pascal </li></ul><ul><li>2 school hours 2 exercises </li></ul><ul><li>2 groups: PP, collective solving the examples </li></ul><ul><li>Exercises of different level of difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Pairs need less time for adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Pairs achieved better results then the group, which collectively solved the examples </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  59. 59. Experience ( 4) <ul><li>Course Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Contents: programming language C </li></ul><ul><li>2 groups : opposite with experience 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge assessment with short test </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  60. 60. 4 years experience PP <ul><li>8 2 % had positive experience with PP or they founded PP good or excellent </li></ul><ul><li>63 % of the students who participated the PP experiment showed better results on the testing after the PP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which could mean that better understanding of programming concepts was achieved </li></ul></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  61. 61. Conclusion <ul><li>Modern form of collaborative work </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge improvement </li></ul><ul><li>We will continue with the PP and Scratch </li></ul>Scratch and pair programming
  62. 62. Scratch and pair programming