Adams, Jefferson, Madison


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Adams, Jefferson, Madison

  1. 1. John Adams • John Adams, Vice President under Washington was victorious in the election of 1796. Thomas Jefferson, who had the second most votes, became the Vice President • John Adams was the first President to live in the White House. He also had to avert a full scale war with France. • Adams would only be president 1 term before he would be defeated by his own Vice-President, Thomas Jefferson, in 1800.
  2. 2. XYZ AFFAIR • President John Adams sent peace envoys to France to deal with some diplomatic problems. After weeks, 3 men (later called X, Y, and Z) ask for a bribe and for the US to “loan” France $10 million. • When Adams, Congress and the American people found out, they were furious. Congress cancelled its Treaties with France and prepared for war. America and France began fighting an “Undeclared War” on the ocean. The U.S. was very successful, and by 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte had taken control of France. He wanted peace with the US. • The Agreement of 1800, secured peace for the US and France to travel on the oceans.
  3. 3. N spa ew r pe W r ite r m lia l Wi , n ua D o ed s ccu A f e n tio i ed S ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS 1798 •1798 the Federalist controlled Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, despite opposition of the Democratic Republicans. • It now took, 14 years to become a citizen instead of 5, which hindered much of the immigrant's Republican voting power. It also made it illegal for ANY person to speak against the government (SEDITION). • Jefferson and Madison fought against these acts. By the time, Jefferson became President in 1800, the law was weak enough to be eliminated.
  4. 4. Peace with France •The two political parties were arguing and “fighting” for power at home. Adams attempted to make peace with France, even though it made him many enemies in both parties. •France and the U.S. signed the Agreement of 1800 which led to peace on the oceans. Adams felt that avoiding this war was his most important act as President.
  5. 5. This Presentation accompanies 8th Grade United States History Textbook: The Jefferson Era 1800-1816, Chapter 10
  6. 6. Election of 1800 •In election of 1800, old friends, Jefferson and Adams, insulted and criticized each other the likes of which the country had never seen. •Jefferson was eventually the winner of the election, but it was so close that bitter and often insulting campaigns became a part of American politics that still remain
  7. 7. Thomas Jefferson DemocraticRepublicans John Adams Federalist The Election of 1800 • The election was one of the closest contests between a Federalist and a DemocraticRepublican. • Each party accused the other of endangering the Constitution and the American republic.
  8. 8. Aaron Burr Thomas Jefferson • Jefferson & Burr, both from the Democratic-Republican Party were running for President and Vice-President respectively. However, they both received 73 votes. According to the Constitution, The House of Representatives had to chose between the two. • The Democratic-Republicans wanted Jefferson to be President but would not hold a majority in the House for months. The Federalist controlled House of Representatives had to decide. • The Federalists were divided. Some feared Jefferson & wanted to back Burr, others however, found Burr to be very unreliable. Alexander Hamilton did not like Jefferson, but thought he would do more good for the country than Burr.
  9. 9. • The House voted 35 times without determining a winner. Finally, Hamilton and other Federalist decided to put their support behind Jefferson. On the 36th ballot, Jefferson finally won the presidency. • Aaron Burr, who would become vice-president, blamed Hamilton and would never forget his insult. • In 1804, Aaron Burr challenged Alexander Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton went to the duel but resolved not to fire. Burr, however shot Hamilton, who died the next day. • The 12th Amendment was ratified in 1804 after the election of 1800 took place. This amendment changed the way the president and vice-president would be elected.
  10. 10. The “Twelfth Amendment” • The “Twelfth Amendment” changes the procedure of electing the President and Vice President. • Presidential candidates also choose their own vice presidential candidates.
  11. 11. • No other President in our nation’s history has ever matched Jefferson in the variety of personal achievements. • Best known as the primary author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the United States. He was a man of many talents--an architect, an inventor, a scientist, and a collector of books and artifacts of American history. He could read more than five languages and was the U.S. minister to France for several years.
  12. 12. • Musician – Jefferson loved music and played the violin. • Author – Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence and Notes on the State of Virginia, which became a classic. • Politician – Jefferson served as ambassador to France, Secretary of State, leader of the Republican party, Vice President, and eventually President. • Reader – Jefferson was an eager reader. He had one of the best libraries in America (it is now the core of the new Library of Congress). • Inventor – Jefferson invented the dumbwaiter, storm windows, and a seven-day clock • Architect – Jefferson designed his home, Monticello, Washington D.C., and the University of Virginia. • Farmer – He was a gentleman farmer, even in the white house. • Lawyer – He received a law degree from the College of William and Mary
  13. 13. • One of Jefferson’s first orders of business was to reverse some of the Federalist policies. He believed the federal government should have less power than it had under the Federalists. • Jefferson urged Congress to allow the Alien & Sedition Act to expire and he released any persons convicted under these laws. • Jefferson repealed many taxes while destroying the finance system set up by Hamilton. • Jefferson reduced the number of federal employees and the size of the military • Jefferson tried to reform the federal government so that it would have a more limited role in people’s lives.
  14. 14. • Jefferson’s problem area was the Judiciary Branch. • Before John Adams left office he appointed many Federalists to the Court including John Marshall as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. • Although a distant relative of Jefferson’s, Marshall was a Federalists and disagreed with Jefferson many times. • One of the most important decisions to come out of the Marshall Court was Marbury v. Madison (1803)
  15. 15. • William Marbury was named as a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia. He was supposed to be installed into this position by the Secretary of State James Madison. • Madison refused to install him, and Marbury sued. • The Supreme Court said that the law under which Marbury was suing was unconstitutional, that is, it was contradictory to the Constitution. • This court case established the principal of Judicial Review. This principal states that the Supreme Court has the final say in interpreting the Constitution. • By establishing Judicial Review, Marshall helped create a lasting balance among the 3 branches of government.
  16. 16. • In 1800, when Americans talked about the “West,” they meant the area between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. • Thousands of people were beginning to settle into this territory. • Although the Mississippi River was the western boundary there was a lot of activity going on west of this point. • The U.S. began to show great interest in this area.
  17. 17. New Orleans Napoleon • “There is on the globe one single spot the possessor of which is our natural and habitual enemy,” Jefferson wrote about New Orleans. • This spot changed ownership and eventually was held by France and Napoleon. Napoleon had plans to eventually colonize the American territory. • France needed money to help finance its fights with Britain and with revolutionaries in one of its colonies in the West Indies. • Napoleon offered the entire Louisiana Territory to Jefferson .
  18. 18. April 30, 1803 – The Louisiana Purchase was approved for $15 million – about 3 cents per acre. The Purchase doubled the size of the United States.
  19. 19. • To explore the newly acquired Louisiana Territory, the Corps of Discovery became the first scientific expedition. The explorers were expected to return with detailed information about the land, plants, animals, and Indians. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were chosen to lead this expedition.
  20. 20. The Lewis & Clark expedition started in St. Louis and traveled along the Missouri River by way of shallowbottomed riverboats. They brought back large amounts of information about the west and reinforced the American claim to the Pacific Northwest. They were aided by a Shoshone Indian, Sacajawea, who served as a guide and an interpreter. Lewis & Clark’s Route
  21. 21. • Zebulon Pike, an army officer, led an expedition through the southwest for scientific reasons and to find the source of the Arkansas and Red Rivers. • Pike’s expedition followed the Arkansas River to the Rocky Mountains where he spotted the Rocky Mts. Peak, now known as Pikes Peak. • He headed south hoping to run into the Red River, instead he missed it and went all the way to the Rio Grande, which is in Spanish Territory. They were arrested by Spanish troops. • After being released by the Spanish, he returned with valuable information of the Great Plains and the Rio Grande River Valley.
  22. 22. • France and Britain were again at war in 1803. Each tried to prevent the other from getting food and supplies. • Both Britain and France began to seize American ships. Britain also began to step up the impressment, or kidnapping of American sailors to work on British ships. • When Jefferson was re-elected in 1804, he could not ignore the British and French attacks. • Jefferson wanted to avoid war, but how could he enforce European nations to respect the rights of American ships at sea.
  23. 23. • Instead of declaring war, Jefferson • asked Congress to pass legislation that would stop all foreign trade. • The Embargo Act of 1807, banned American ships from sailing to any foreign port and closed American ports to foreign ships. Americans went without imported goods, farmers lost foreign customers, and sailors and shipbuilders had little work. Many merchant ships began to ignore the Embargo act and sailed for Europe risking seizure. This became a major issue in the election of 1808. Jefferson declined to run for a third term and passed the presidency on to James Madison. Madison won the election and passed the NonIntercourse Act of 1809. This allowed American ships to trade with any foreign country except Britain or France. This became in time no more effective then the Embargo Act.
  24. 24. • James Madison was a • Democratic Republican from Virginia and the 4th President of the U.S.. He was known as “The Father of the Constitution”. The War of 1812 occurred while he was in office. Dolley Madison hosted many White House functions. During the British attack in 1814, she rescued state papers and George Washington’s portrait.
  25. 25. • British support of the Indians in the Northwest, including Tecumseh, against the Americans led to leaders on the frontier calling for war against the British. These westerners were called War Hawks. • Tecumseh led a confederation of Indians against William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe. The Indians were crushed and Tecumseh’s dream of an Indian Confederation was destroyed. • Urged on by the War Hawks, Congress declared war on the British.
  26. 26. • Britain did not really want to go to war with the U.S. because it was still involved in another war with France. The War was fought in two phases. • President of the U.S, James Madison, asked Congress for a declaration of war and got it on June 18, 1812. • The U.S. military was weak when war was declared. Remember, the DemocraticRepublicans had reduced the size of the military
  27. 27. • The British conducted limited war because they were still fighting Napoleon in Europe. • In spite of its small size, the U.S. Navy rose to the challenge. • The Battle of Lake Erie was the most important battle of this phase. Naval Commander Oliver Hazard Perry led the fight, and is famous for saying “We have met the enemy, and they are ours”.
  28. 28. • The war in Europe was over so the British turned their full attention to America. The British invaded Washington D.C. and burned the White House and the Capital. This act was revenge for when the Americans attacked York, a city in Canada, burning several governmental buildings. The capital building after it was burned
  29. 29. • The British attacked Ft. McHenry at Baltimore, Maryland. It was at this battle that Francis Scott Key was inspired to write the Star Spangled Banner. Held prisoner on a British ship, Francis Scott Key watched the allnight battle. At dawn he was thrilled to see that the flag still flew.
  30. 30. The “Star Spangled Banner,” inspired by the flag that flew over Ft. McHenry, continues to move Americans. Francis Scott Key’s song enjoyed widespread popularity for more than 100 years before an act of Congress made it the national anthem in 1931.
  31. 31. Andrew Jackson became a hero when he defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans. He lost 71 men compared to the 2,000 the British lost The war had already ended with the Treaty of Ghent, although neither side knew it .
  32. 32. WAR Increase American Patriotism Weakened Native American Resistance U.S. Manufacturing Grew