Adventures with RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle  Bryan Houliston AURA laboratory, School of Computing and Mathematical Sc...
Outline <ul><li>Anaesthesia for busy people </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring anaesthesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaches and ...
Anaesthesia for Busy People <ul><li>“ Extreme approximation of death”  (Euliano , 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amnesia + An...
The Anaesthetic Triangle ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction >  Anaesthesia  > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > ...
Anaesthetic Activities <ul><li>Patient care 16% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug prep, admin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas, Air...
Why Monitor Anaesthesia ? <ul><li>“ Every complication has the potential to cause lasting harm... Therefore, deviations fr...
Monitoring Anaesthesia <ul><li>Self reporting – Anaesthetic record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distraction from patient care </l...
Theatre Gets Busy ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia >  Monitoring  > RF+IDAS > AMoA > ...
Monitoring Anaesthesia <ul><li>Self reporting – Anaesthetic record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distraction from patient care </l...
RFID for Monitoring Activity <ul><li>Fixed readers   vs  Mobile readers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity at location Activit...
RFID Monitoring Applications ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring >  RF+IDAS...
Perioperative Progress ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia >  Monitoring  > RF+IDAS > AM...
Anaesthetic Training ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia >  Monitoring  > RF+IDAS > AMoA...
Masters: Requirements <ul><li>Replace barcodes on syringes in IDAS (Merry, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent labels  (FDA...
Design <ul><ul><li>13.56MHz HF rather than UHF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less in...
Tagging Syringes ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring >  RF+IDAS  > AMoA > C...
RF+IDAS <ul><li>Reader under syringe tray, 1 read / second </li></ul><ul><li>Tags under label, linked with barcode </li></...
Issues <ul><li>Couldn’t get tags that are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right colours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small size </li><...
PhD: Requirements <ul><li>Monitor tasks to support observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug preparation, admin </li></ul></u...
Mobile Reader Approach ? <ul><li>Don’t wear gloves much </li></ul><ul><li>Battery life < 2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Short r...
Fixed Reader Approach <ul><li>Each activity associated with a location </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangl...
Readers <ul><li>Tracient UHF Padl </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery powered for  7 – 8 hours </li><...
Trolley, Clipboard, Chair ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS >  ...
Operating Table and IV ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS >  AMo...
Tagging the Anaesthetist <ul><li>Tags worn on dominant hand  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be comfortable to wear </li></ul><...
Wristbands <ul><li>ver 1 - tag on outside of wrist </li></ul><ul><li>ver 2 – hanging tag  </li></ul><ul><li>ver 3 – 3 tags...
Results ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS >  AMoA  > Conclusion...
Issues <ul><li>Readers around table </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interference from metal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knocked aroun...
Multiple Activities per Location ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+I...
Telling Activities Apart <ul><li>Planning to try three approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn RFID sequences for observed ...
Learn RFID Sequences <ul><li>Match on common element - Time </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device tim...
Telling Activities Apart <ul><li>Planning to try three approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn RFID sequences for observed ...
Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Median 17s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median 42s </li></ul>...
Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of procedure </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic ...
Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Preceding activities </li>...
Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Preceding activities </li>...
Telling Activities Apart <ul><li>Considering three approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn RFID sequences from observed act...
Future Work <ul><li>Refine activity characterisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 2 fuzzy sets  (Hagras, 2008) </li></ul></u...
Future Work <ul><li>Alternative reader locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active RFID, triangulation by signal strength </li>...
Conclusion <ul><li>There is RFID technology suitable for automated anaesthesia monitoring  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless ...
References <ul><li>Agarwal, S., Joshi, A., Finin, T., Yesha, Y., & Ganous, T. (2007).  A Pervasive Computing System for th...
References ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA >  Conclusi...
References <ul><li>Jeffery, S. R., Franklin, M. J., & Garofalakis, M. (2008).  An adaptive RFID middleware for supporting ...
References Symonds, J., Parry, D., & Briggs, J. (2007).  An RFID-based System for Assisted Living: Challenges and Solution...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>Tracient Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For providing RFID readers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ana...
Questions? ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA >  Conclusi...
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Rfid In Anaesthetic Triangle

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Presentation given my Bryan Houliston. Bryan is a PhD student at AUT.

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Rfid In Anaesthetic Triangle

  1. 1. Adventures with RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Bryan Houliston AURA laboratory, School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology [email_address] Aura Laboratory
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Anaesthesia for busy people </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring anaesthesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaches and problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automated monitoring with RFID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Masters: RF+IDAS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PhD: AMoA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future work </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle
  3. 3. Anaesthesia for Busy People <ul><li>“ Extreme approximation of death” (Euliano , 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amnesia + Analgesia + Relaxation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 - Induction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>injections, gases, intubation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 - Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monitoring vital signs, fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 - Emergence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extubation, injections </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  4. 4. The Anaesthetic Triangle ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  5. 5. Anaesthetic Activities <ul><li>Patient care 16% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug prep, admin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas, Airway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recording 9% </li></ul><ul><li>Computer 8% </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment 7% </li></ul><ul><li>Other 4% </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion <ul><li>Observing 31% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversing 25% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgeon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Based on observation of 150 general anaesthetics at Auckland City Hospital, 2008) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Why Monitor Anaesthesia ? <ul><li>“ Every complication has the potential to cause lasting harm... Therefore, deviations from the norm must be recognized and managed promptly” (Aitkenhead , 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 error every 133 cases = 5 / day (Webster, 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% cause serious harm, death = 18 / year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is ‘the norm’ ? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we recognise deviations ? </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  7. 7. Monitoring Anaesthesia <ul><li>Self reporting – Anaesthetic record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distraction from patient care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inaccurate, ‘normalised’ (Aitkenhead , 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manual observation (Weinger , 1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusive, distraction, potential safety risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour intensive, errors, subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long periods of inactivity </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  8. 8. Theatre Gets Busy ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  9. 9. Monitoring Anaesthesia <ul><li>Self reporting – Anaesthetic record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distraction from patient care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inaccurate, ‘normalised’ (Aitkenhead , 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manual observation (Weinger , 1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusive, distraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour intensive, errors, subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long periods of inactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theatre gets busy, views get blocked </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supplement with automated monitoring ? </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  10. 10. RFID for Monitoring Activity <ul><li>Fixed readers vs Mobile readers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity at location Activity by person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity detection vs Event detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration captured No duration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coarse grained vs Fine grained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving around Body movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specified rules vs Machine learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect known Discover patterns </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  11. 11. RFID Monitoring Applications ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  12. 12. Perioperative Progress ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  13. 13. Anaesthetic Training ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  14. 14. Masters: Requirements <ul><li>Replace barcodes on syringes in IDAS (Merry, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent labels (FDA, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t change IDAS code </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal extra cables </li></ul><ul><li>No interference with medical equipment (van der Togt, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  15. 15. Design <ul><ul><li>13.56MHz HF rather than UHF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less interference from metal, liquids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed for pharma tagging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixed reader less intrusive than mobile </li></ul><ul><li>On drug trolley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cables out of the way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Away from electronic medical devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less hygiene concern than at patient </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  16. 16. Tagging Syringes ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  17. 17. RF+IDAS <ul><li>Reader under syringe tray, 1 read / second </li></ul><ul><li>Tags under label, linked with barcode </li></ul><ul><li>Tag not detected = syringe picked up = send barcode through virtual serial port </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  18. 18. Issues <ul><li>Couldn’t get tags that are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right colours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read range shorter than expected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 reader per syringe tray </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  19. 19. PhD: Requirements <ul><li>Monitor tasks to support observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug preparation, admin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updating anaesthetic record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sitting down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can’t tag syringes </li></ul><ul><li>Can ‘equip’ anaesthetists </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  20. 20. Mobile Reader Approach ? <ul><li>Don’t wear gloves much </li></ul><ul><li>Battery life < 2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Short range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging all syringes </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  21. 21. Fixed Reader Approach <ul><li>Each activity associated with a location </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion Activity Reader located Observed activity Preparing drugs Drug trolley Drug Prep IV Updating manual anaesthetic record Clipboard on workstation Recording Sitting at rest Chair - Injection – neck Head of table Drug Admin IV Injection – wrist Arm of table Drug Admin IV Injection – IV line IV stand Drug Admin IV
  22. 22. Readers <ul><li>Tracient UHF Padl </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery powered for 7 – 8 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth connection to PC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low power, RF emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No interference with infusion pump </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  23. 23. Trolley, Clipboard, Chair ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  24. 24. Operating Table and IV ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  25. 25. Tagging the Anaesthetist <ul><li>Tags worn on dominant hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be comfortable to wear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must read from different angles, distances </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  26. 26. Wristbands <ul><li>ver 1 - tag on outside of wrist </li></ul><ul><li>ver 2 – hanging tag </li></ul><ul><li>ver 3 – 3 tags around wrist </li></ul><ul><li>ver 4 - 4 tags along wrist </li></ul><ul><li>+ tag on back of scrubs </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  27. 27. Results ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion False -ve False +ve Theory Location mismatch? Action mismatch?
  28. 28. Issues <ul><li>Readers around table </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interference from metal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knocked around </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wristband </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to remove – handwashing, transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location – Activity mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities that change location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities with no location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locations with multiple activities </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  29. 29. Multiple Activities per Location ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion Reader location Activities to monitor Other activities Drug trolley Drug Prep IV Cleaning Up Clipboard on anaesthetic workstation Recording Using Computer Drug Admin Gas Equipment Related Chair Sitting ? Head of table Drug Admin IV Line Placement Positioning Patient Airway Procedure Arm of table Drug Admin IV Line Placement Positioning Patient IV stand Drug Admin IV IV Setup/Adjustment
  30. 30. Telling Activities Apart <ul><li>Planning to try three approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn RFID sequences for observed activities </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  31. 31. Learn RFID Sequences <ul><li>Match on common element - Time </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device times must be kept synchronised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many sequences required? </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion Drug Prep IV 9:27:33 9:27:40 Drug Prep IV 9:30:03 9:31:00 Line Placement 9:31:03 9:32:53 09:28:13 Trolley E2003411B802011156202131 09:30:38 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:39 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:41 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:48 Trolley E2003411B802011156202130 09:30:49 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:53 Trolley E2003411B802011156202131 09:30:53 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:55 Trolley E2003411B802011156202131 09:30:56 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:58 Trolley E2003411B802011156202132 09:30:58 Trolley E2003411B802011156202093 09:30:58 Trolley E2003411B802011156202130 09:30:59 Trolley E2003411B802011156202131 09:31:01 Trolley E2003411B802011156202131 09:31:02 Trolley E2003411B802011156202093
  32. 32. Telling Activities Apart <ul><li>Planning to try three approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn RFID sequences for observed activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterise observed activities, and apply to RFID sequences </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  33. 33. Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Median 17s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median 42s </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  34. 34. Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of procedure </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  35. 35. Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Preceding activities </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  36. 36. Characterising Activity <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Preceding activities </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>More initial effort, but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker to apply in real time </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  37. 37. Telling Activities Apart <ul><li>Considering three approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn RFID sequences from observed activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterise observed activities, and apply to RFID data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mine RFID data for common sequences, and compare to observed activities </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  38. 38. Future Work <ul><li>Refine activity characterisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 2 fuzzy sets (Hagras, 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More RFID data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning - SMURF (Jeffery, 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test fuzzy set functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand position, movement ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining – PERUSE (Minnen, 2007) </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  39. 39. Future Work <ul><li>Alternative reader locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active RFID, triangulation by signal strength </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Object tagging in simulation (Patterson, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit realisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesizing ‘the norm’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detecting deviations in real time </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  40. 40. Conclusion <ul><li>There is RFID technology suitable for automated anaesthesia monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless readers, good battery life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negligible risk of interference, distraction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But technical and economic challenges remain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate activity detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation / standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost / safety </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  41. 41. References <ul><li>Agarwal, S., Joshi, A., Finin, T., Yesha, Y., & Ganous, T. (2007). A Pervasive Computing System for the Operating Room of the Future. Mobile Netw Appl(12), 215-228. </li></ul><ul><li>Aitkenhead, A. R., Smith, G., & Rowbotham, D. J. (Eds.). (2007). Textbook of Anaesthesia (Fifth ed.): Elsevier Limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacheldor, B. (2008). PinnacleHealth Pushes Ahead with RFID. Retrieved 1 September, 2008, from www.rifdjournal.com </li></ul><ul><li>Boginski, V., Mun, I. K., Wu, Y., Mason, K. P., & Zhang, C. (2007). Simulation and Analysis of Hospital Operations and Resource Utilization Using RFID Data. Paper presented at the International Conference on RFID, Grapevine, Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Bravo, J., Hervas, R., Fuentes, C., Chavira, G., & Nava, S. W. (2008). Tagging for Nursing Care. Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, Tampere, Finland. </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  42. 42. References ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion Euliano, T. Y., & Gravenstein, J. S. (2004). Essential Anaesthesia From Science to Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. FDA. (2004). 2002N-0204: Bar Code Label Requirements for Human Drug Products and Biological Products; Final Rule. Retrieved October 21, 2004, from www.fda.gov Fishkin, K. P., Consolvo, S., Rode, J., Ross, B., Smith, I., & Souter, K. (2004). Ubiquitous Computing Support for Skills Assessment in Medical School. Paper presented at Third International Workshop on Ubiquitous Computing for Pervasive Healthcare Applications, Nottingham, England Hagras, H. (2008). Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controllers: A Way Forward for Fuzzy Systems in Real World Environments. Paper presented at the IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence, Hong Kong, June 1-6. Houliston, B. (2005). Integrating RFID Technology into a Drug Administration System. Paper presented at the Health Informatics NZ Conference, August 2-5, Auckland, New Zealand.
  43. 43. References <ul><li>Jeffery, S. R., Franklin, M. J., & Garofalakis, M. (2008). An adaptive RFID middleware for supporting metaphysical data independence. The VLDB Journal, 17, 265-289. </li></ul><ul><li>Khoussainova, N., Balazinska, M., & Suciu, D. (2007). Probabilistic RFID Data Management: University of Washington, Seattle. </li></ul><ul><li>Merry, A., Webster, C., & Mathew, D. (2001). A New, Safety-Oriented, Integrated Drug Administration and Automated Anesthesia Record System. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 93, 385-390. </li></ul><ul><li>Minnen, D., Starner, T., Essa, I., & Isbell, C. (2006). Discovering Characteristic Actions from On-Body Sensor Data. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Wearable Computing, Montreux, Switzerland. </li></ul><ul><li>Patterson, D. J., Fox, D., Kautz, H., & Philipose, M. (2005). Fine-Grained Activity Recognition by Aggregating Abstract Object Usage. Paper presented at the Ninth International Symposium on Wearable Computers, October 18-21, Osaka, Japan. </li></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  44. 44. References Symonds, J., Parry, D., & Briggs, J. (2007). An RFID-based System for Assisted Living: Challenges and Solutions. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 127, 127-138. van der Togt, R., van Lieshout, E. J., Hensbroek, R., Beinat, E., Binnekade, J. M., & Bakker, P. J. M. (2008). Electromagnetic Interference From Radio Frequency Identification Inducing Potentially Hazardous Incidents in Critical Care Medical Equipment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299(24), 2884-2890. Webster, C., Merry, A., Larsson, L., McGraths, K. A., & Weller, J. (2001). The Frequency and Nature of Drug Administration Error During Anaesthesia. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 29(5), 494-500. Weinger, M. B., Herndon, O. W., Zornow, M. H., Paulus, M. P., Gaba, D. M., & Dallen, L. T. (1994). An Objective Methodology for Task Analysis and Workload Assessment in Anaesthesia Providers. Anesthesiology, 80(1), 77-92. ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion
  45. 45. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Tracient Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For providing RFID readers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anaesthetists at ACH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For their professionalism and forbearance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dave Parry, Alan Merry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For their guidance and supervision </li></ul></ul>ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion Aura Laboratory
  46. 46. Questions? ACIS 2008 RFID in the Anaesthetic Triangle Introduction > Anaesthesia > Monitoring > RF+IDAS > AMoA > Conclusion Aura Laboratory

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