APUSH WWII homefront

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APUSH WWII homefront

  1. 1. World War Two Homefront
  2. 2. What must be done to win the war? <ul><li>Increase production of war goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War Production Board </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convince Americans to fight for democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office of War Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posters, movies (no movies critical of America, like in 30’s!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Subdue subversives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese-American Internment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensure enough soldiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Service- 16 million served </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Economics <ul><li>Decrease domestic production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited wash machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited fridges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase War Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airplanes 300,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanks 88,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jeeps 3 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ships 7,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullets BILLIONS! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conservation at home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrap drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victory Gardens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saving instead of spending! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1942 only 1% unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>30% increase cost of living, but 70% increase in wages! </li></ul><ul><li>$185 billion raised in bonds to fund the war-BORROWING! </li></ul><ul><li>HOW?? </li></ul><ul><li>War Production Board </li></ul><ul><li>National War Labor Board (Union membership up 50%!) </li></ul><ul><li>Smith-Connolly Act 1943 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Society <ul><li>Working Women </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rosie the Riveter” </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 th were married </li></ul><ul><li>1/4 th had children </li></ul><ul><li>Daycare idea expands </li></ul><ul><li>18 million women worked </li></ul><ul><li>$31-32 wages a week ($50+ for men) </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage age decreased to 20.5 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce increased </li></ul><ul><li>Increase juvenile delinquency </li></ul><ul><li>350,000 women in Nurse’s Corp and military branches </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s role blurring… </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Executive order 9066 February 19, 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation centers mostly out west (Co, WY, AZ, ND, MT, TX, GA) 16 states total </li></ul><ul><li>424,000 held in camps at peak </li></ul><ul><li>26 main camps, 511 branches </li></ul><ul><li>Korematsu v. US 1944 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(military necessity allowed) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EO 9066 rescinded 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>33,000 served in armed forces (Hawaii) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Society Continued <ul><li>Japanese continued </li></ul><ul><li>1946 last camp closed </li></ul><ul><li>Future… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1968 reparations paid for lost property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1983 camps were ruled unjustified, formal apology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1988 $20,000 paid to surviving internee (60,000) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Society <ul><li>Italian and German Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finger-printed, photographed, carry registration card at all times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In some places, travel restrictions, curfew </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why not as harsh as against Japanese Americans? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Society <ul><li>Mexican Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bracero Program- 300,000 to fill defense jobs in SW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500,000 served in war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LA Riots 1943- anti-Mexican fervor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25,000 served (1/3 of able bodied men) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Wouldn’t need selective service if everyone volunteered like the Indians” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navajo Code Talkers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended exclusion in 1943 because allies against Japan </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Society – African-American <ul><li>Double “V” by NAACP = Victory at home & abroad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support by NAACP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CORE = Congress of racial equality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sit ins begin against Jim Crow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited success, but… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Military units still segregated (1 million AA men served) </li></ul><ul><li>1941: Executive Order 8802 = fair employment practice for blacks, a civil rights movement by presidential intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Phillip Randolph threats! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee on Fair Employment Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Still segregated units </li></ul><ul><li>5.5 million move to cities (majority of blacks living in city) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial tension </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. CPUSA (not for exam) <ul><li>Led by Joseph Peters to recruit employees in D.C. as FDR government expands to spy for Stalin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work in state department, forged passports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work in Lend-Lease, Manhattan Project (Theodore Hall) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steal information from US airforce – make Mig 15 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why would Americans commit treason? </li></ul><ul><li>VERONA project to decode S.U. spies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whittacker Chambers – Sr. Editor of Time magazine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin purges 17-22 million - paranoid </li></ul></ul>

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