APUSH- wars 1754-1975

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APUSH- wars 1754-1975

  1. 1. APUSH Review Causes and Effects of American Wars
  2. 2. French and Indian War History / Causes <ul><ul><li>King Williams War 1689-1697 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English unsuccessful to capture Quebec </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans support by French burn British frontier settlements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QA War, British gain Nova Scotia from France and trade rights with Spanish America </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. History / Causes continued <ul><li>King George War 1744-1748 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>J. Ogelthorpe led colonial army to attack and guard against Spanish attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Englanders capture access to St. Lawrence River (later B exchanges for India gains) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French head south from Canada to Pennsylvania to prevent British expansion </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Causes, War comes to colonies <ul><ul><li>British feel French provoke war as they build forts in Ohio River Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy NE/VA own land, Ohio Company and sent Washington to warn French to leave, build Fort Dusquesne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French purpose to stop British settlements moving further West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washing forced to surrender at Fort Necessity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albany Plan 1754 to recruit troops, tax, promote defense (B. Franklin and T. Hutchinson), gift Indians (1st attempt of unity failed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William Pitt capture Quebec as new prime minister for victory over France </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Effects French and Indian War <ul><li>Treaty of Paris 1763 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B gain French Canada and Spanish Florida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France gave Spain land west of Mississippi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain navy dominates North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France keeps islands Guadelupe and Martinique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial pride in wars, and develop confidence, plus are less impressed with British leadership and military methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British low opinion of colonial military effort, feel need to contribute more money and defend new frontier better so abandon Salutary Neglect! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British need for money as war costly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pontiac Rebellion 1763 </li></ul><ul><li>Proclamation Line 1763 </li></ul>
  6. 6. American Revolution Causes <ul><li>Financial influence </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar Act </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act… direct tax </li></ul><ul><li>Townshend </li></ul><ul><li>Tea Act </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick Henry taxation w/o representation </li></ul><ul><li>John Dickinson parliament to regulate trade, but not tax </li></ul><ul><li>James Otis / Samuel Adams circular letters to petition Parliament to repeal laws </li></ul>
  7. 7. American Revolution Causes <ul><li>Colonial Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarter Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declaratory Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston Massacre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive / Intolerable Acts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quebec Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Continental Congress </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. American Revolution Causes <ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke, Thomas Paine January 1776 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olive Branch Petition July 1775 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence July 1776 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patriots v. Loyalists (undecided) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance with France.. Saratoga </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. American Revolution Effects <ul><li>Treaty of Paris 1783 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain recognize US independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mississippi River is western boundary for USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish Florida is southern boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans to pay debt owed British merchants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans honor loyalist claims for property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles of Confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land Ordinance 1785, 1787 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial debt… Shay’s rebellion </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Causes War of 1812 <ul><li>Madison opens trade with B and F, and if either country interferes he would cut off trade </li></ul><ul><li>France / Napolean agree, Britain increases harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of War on England over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impressment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War Hawks eager to gain land H. Clay / J. C. Calhoun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to rid of British in West </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Effects War of 1812 <ul><li>Natives had sided with British… Tecumseh, lost momentum </li></ul><ul><li>Hartford Convention ended Federalist party, opposed war, traitorous, war ended crises </li></ul><ul><li>US unprepared for war, capitol burned, but most battles a stalemate, battle New Orleans victory but after war ended </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Ghent 1814…status quo </li></ul>
  12. 12. Causes Mexican War <ul><li>Dispute over southern boundary </li></ul><ul><li>Polk sends John Slidell to Mexico to purchase NM and CA and attempt to solve border issue… fails </li></ul>
  13. 13. Effects Mexican War <ul><li>Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo 1848 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rio Grand is the recognized border </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US gains CA, NM/UT territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US paid Mexico $15 million and assumed the claims by American citizens </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Causes of the Civil War <ul><li>Compromise 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Uncle Tom’s Cabin </li></ul><ul><li>Kansas Nebraska Act </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Liberty Laws (to weaken Fugitive slave laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Politics… Free Soilers, Know Nothing, Democrats, republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>Dred Scott decision </li></ul><ul><li>John Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln wins 1860 election </li></ul><ul><li>Fort Sumter </li></ul><ul><li>Border States </li></ul>
  15. 15. Effects of the Civil War <ul><li>Emancipation Proclamation led to Amendments 13, 14, 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Draft Riots.. Poor man’s fight </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds paid for war, increase tariffs, excise taxes, paper money </li></ul><ul><li>Northern industry grew </li></ul><ul><li>Western expansion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homestead act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morill Land grant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcontinental RR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction…Lincoln assassination </li></ul><ul><li>Republican influence in both houses… Wave the Bloody Shirt </li></ul>
  16. 16. Causes of Spanish American War <ul><li>Cuban Revolt to Spanish… Butcher Weyler </li></ul><ul><li>Jingoism </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow Journalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearst and Pulitzer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DeLome letter </li></ul><ul><li>USS Maine sinking </li></ul>
  17. 17. Effects of the Spanish American War <ul><li>Treaty of Paris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuba independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US gains Puerto Rico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US gains Guam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US gains Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platt Amendment after Teller </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine Insurrection </li></ul><ul><li>Insular cases </li></ul>
  18. 18. Causes World War One <ul><li>European Actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravilo Precip assassinates Ferdinand / Sophia Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria declare war on Serbia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia declare war on Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany declare was on Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain and France declare war on Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USA ends neutrality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lusitania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sussex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zimmerman Note </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity in America, desire for peace </li></ul>
  19. 19. Effects World War One <ul><li>Peace Efforts with Wilson 14 Points </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big Four </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harsh treatment to Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA not in League… Lodge reservations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irreconcilables would not accept league membership no matter how it was written </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reservationists would accept league if certain reservations were written </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson refuse to compromise, senate reject the treaty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Postwar problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm prices fell, job problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Scare, Palmer Raids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race riots / labor strikes </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Causes World War Two <ul><li>Post World War 1 problems… WW1 key event </li></ul><ul><li>Kellogg Briand Pact 1928 </li></ul><ul><li>Hoover Stimson Doctrine 1931 </li></ul><ul><li>USA desire for isolation… Lindberg </li></ul><ul><li>Good Neighbor Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal trade Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Cash and Carry (Nye) </li></ul><ul><li>Quarantine Aggressor Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Panay </li></ul><ul><li>Lend Lease </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Sanctions (Atlantic Conference) </li></ul><ul><li>Pearl Harbor </li></ul>
  21. 21. Effects Homefront WW2 <ul><li>NAACP - Double V </li></ul><ul><li>Exec order 8802 fair employment </li></ul><ul><li>Rosie the Riveter… WASP </li></ul><ul><li>GI Bill </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Internment Exec Order 9066 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Korematsu v. US 1944 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CPUSA Joe Peters, Whittacker Chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alger Hiss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethel Julius Rosenberg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McCarthyism </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Effects World War Two <ul><li>Yalta Conference February 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Potsdam Conference 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Weapons </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>CIA </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Curtain… Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Aid / Doctrines to stop communism </li></ul><ul><li>National Security Council </li></ul>
  23. 23. Causes Korean War <ul><li>Postdam Conference Korea claimed liberty for independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1948 South votes Syngman Rhee “Republic” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1948 North votes Kim Yoon Sum as “People Republic of Korea” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>China / Soviets support North and USA support South… cold war at 38th Parallel </li></ul><ul><li>NK took over Seoul SK to begin war June 25, 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Cease fire negotiations, China and SU want out of war… $$ </li></ul>
  24. 24. Effects Korean War <ul><li>Truman and McArthur battle over use of full out war / nuclear </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower President </li></ul><ul><li>Korea remain divided, March 6, 1953 war over </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War continues </li></ul>
  25. 25. Vietnam War Causes <ul><li>Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Communism and Indochina </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam Divided 17th parallel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South Diem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Ho Chi Minh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ike, JFK… military advisors </li></ul><ul><li>LBJ Gulf of Tonkin </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Rolling Thunder </li></ul>
  26. 26. Effects Vietnam War <ul><li>1968 Tet Offensive </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon President </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamization </li></ul><ul><li>Amendment 26 </li></ul><ul><li>Distrust of US government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentagon Papers.. Daniel Ellsburg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mai Lai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kent State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South Vietnam falls to communism 1975 </li></ul>

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