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AP World Industrial Revolution (BASIC!!!!)


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AP World Industrial Revolution (BASIC!!!!)

  1. 1. The Agricultural Revolution leads to the Industrial Revolution in Britain
  2. 2. The Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>period of time when farming techniques improved resulting in higher quality and quantities of food. </li></ul><ul><li>The Enclosure Movement was the process of taking over & consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger fields could be cultivated more efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm output rose, more food was available to feed the growing population </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Industrial Revolution <ul><li>long process during the mid 1700s of switching from simple hand tools to complex machines for production </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why did it start in Britain? <ul><li>A large supply of coal & iron helped Britain to lead the way in the Industrial Revolution (power & building) </li></ul><ul><li>large population that was no longer working on farms (enclosure movement), and could work in cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased the demand for goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>middle and upper class in Britain had a lot of capital that they were eager to invest into new industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Britain had a stable government that supported the new industry </li></ul>
  5. 5. Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution
  6. 6. People Move to Cities <ul><li>Urbanization is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The movement of people to cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities grew around factories </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. New Social Classes <ul><li>Middle Class: entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owned factories, mines, RR, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower Class: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers in rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factory/Mine workers in urban areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in tenements in the cities </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Tenement life: <ul><li>Tenements are multi-story buildings divided into crowded apartments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No running water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No sewage or sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease spread rapidly </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Slums <ul><li>Overcrowded tenements </li></ul><ul><li>A family has one room </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment or illness could ruin a family </li></ul><ul><li>High crime rates </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholism </li></ul>
  10. 10. Population <ul><li>1800->1900 the population doubled! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller families (don’t need masses of children to work farms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death rate fell (better at fighting disease) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Life in a factory: <ul><li>Strict- everything moved by bells </li></ul><ul><li>Women & children made less than men </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts from 12-16 hours </li></ul><ul><li>No safety devices on machines </li></ul><ul><li>Unions are illegal </li></ul>
  12. 12. Life in Mines <ul><li>Increased demand for iron & coal during the Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Miners are paid more than factory workers </li></ul><ul><li>Miners worked in the dark </li></ul><ul><li>Dust from the mines led to “black lung” </li></ul><ul><li>Danger from explosions & cave-ins </li></ul><ul><li>Women & children were smaller & could fit in the shafts easier </li></ul>
  13. 13. New Ways of Thinking
  14. 14. Laissez-Faire Economics <ul><li>Physiocrats of the Enlightenment applied natural laws to the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Adam Smith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote: “ Wealth of Nations” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argued that the free market, without government regulation, would help everyone – rich & poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PROOF! The Industrial Age! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Thomas Malthus <ul><li>Economist </li></ul><ul><li>Predicted that the population would grow faster than the food supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This would cause widespread famine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urged people to have less children </li></ul><ul><li>Discouraged charity of helping the needy </li></ul><ul><li>Discouraged vaccinations </li></ul><ul><li>HE WAS WRONG. </li></ul>
  16. 16. David Ricardo <ul><li>Economist </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that the working class would never escape poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Wage increases never helped he believed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They would only cover the increased cost of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People thought they could have more children when they made more money </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrote: “ The Iron Law of Wages” </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed government help to the poor </li></ul>
  17. 17. Utilitarianism <ul><li>Jeremy Bentham: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The goal of society should be the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things should provide more happiness than pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual freedom guarantees happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited government involvement is needed </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Workers Find Comfort in Religion <ul><li>Methodists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by John Wesley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion influenced by Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People are moving to their city and losing connection with their home churches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stresses the need to find faith on your own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A meetings, sermons that stressed hymns & sermons promising forgiveness of sin if you act in moral & sober ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunday schools: teach to read & write along with Bible study </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Socialism <ul><li>Condemned the evils of capitalistic society </li></ul><ul><li>People as a whole own & operate the means of production </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that human nature is basically good </li></ul>
  20. 20. Utopians <ul><li>Robert Owen established a Utopia in Scotland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A community where all society owned the property together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All work was shared equally in the society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused to use child labor </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Communism <ul><li>Founded by Karl Marx – “scientific socialism” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Communist Manifesto” – Written by Karl Marx & Friedrich Engles (1848) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocated the establishment of a classless society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All means of production are owned by the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics is the driving force of history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All of History is a struggle between the “haves” and the “have not's” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Marxism <ul><li>1860s- Germany forms a social democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual transition from capitalism to socialism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late 1800s- Russians embraced Marxism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1917 Russian Revolution sets up a communist inspired government </li></ul></ul>