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  1. 1. ArchaicArchaicClassicalClassicalandandHellenistic GreeceHellenistic Greece
  2. 2. From early beginnings to long lasting legacy• Indo-Europeans move intoregion conflict andgeography createsseparate city-statesjoined by a commonculture (language, religionand heritage)• Join together in leaguesduring the Golden Age• Culture spread byAlexander the Greatduring Hellenistic Era• Eventually absorbed intothe Roman Empire
  3. 3. Greeks came together atthe Olympics
  4. 4. Eras in Development of Greek Civilization• Minoan Civilization-• 2000-1400BC flourished on Island of Crete.Great trading power..• Myceneans (Achaeans)- 2000 BC I• nvaded Greece from the north. They built on the achievements of the Minoans.• Around 1250 BC they banded together under the leadership of the king of Mycenae to attacktroy, a rival power. Troy controlled trading routes between the Aegean and Black seas. Thiswar is told in Homers Iliad and the Odyssey. Composed about 750 BC According to IliadParis, a Trojan prince kidnaped Helen wife of the King of Sparta. The Spartan King and hisbrother Agamemnon, of Mycenae involved all of Greece in the effort to rescue Helen. Afterten years of war Troy destroyed and drove the Trojans into exile. Heinrich Schliemannexcavated a site in northwestern Asia Minor which is accepted as the ancient city of Troy.Found nine cities had been built at different times on the same spot. charred wood anddestruction convinced him that this was the layer of Troy.• Dorians came down from the north.• Settled further to the south on the Pelopennisus Peninsula. Conquered many of theregions occupied by the Myceneans. The art of writing was lost during this time. Thisperiod is called the “Dark Age”• Age of the City States• Small city states or monarchies formed instead of a great empire. Golden Age ofGreece• Delian League - Persian and Peloponesian Wars create a new era of differing alliancesin the Aegean Sea. Trade provided wealth and some stablity. Also known as ClassicalGreece.• Hellenistic Greece• Persian occupation after the conquest of Greece by the Macedonian, Alexander theGreat. Greek civilization spread throughout the world but mixed with othercivilizations and changed.• Roman - Greco Civilization
  5. 5. Crete: MinoanCivilization(Palace at Knossos)
  6. 6. Minoan Civilization
  7. 7. Fresco – bull leaping
  8. 8. Knossos: MinoanCivilization
  9. 9. The Mask of Agamemnon
  10. 10. The Mycenaean Civilization
  11. 11. Geographic Influences• Many islands in the Aegean Sea were closetogether.• This made trade and cultural exchange easier.• Short mountain ranges divided the country.• They prevented the development of a sense of Greekunity.• The Greeks could not produce enough food fortheir own needs.• They had to become traders.• The long coastline brought every part of themainland close to the sea.• Greeks became fishermen, sailors and traders.
  12. 12. Homer:The“Heroic/Homeric Age”Dark Age
  13. 13. Bronze Age Greece
  14. 14. Greek City StatesHellos
  15. 15. Greece changes Geographically
  16. 16. Characteristics of all Greek city states• Small Size• Small population• An original polis (acropolis or high upplace)• A public meeting place called an agora• This is how we identified whether or notit was a “Greek” city state.
  17. 17. Factors that brought them together and Factorsthat kept them apart• Common Language,Religion, and festivals• Co-operativesupervision of certaintemples• Belief that the Greekswere descended fromthe same ancestors• Rugged Mountainsseparating the valleys• Rivalries between city-states• separate legal systems• independent calendars,money, weights andmeasures• Fierce spirit of
  18. 18. Greek Philosophy• Popular government - is the idea thatpeople could and should rule themselvesrather than be ruled by others.• This is the foundation of GreekDemocracy but is not really a type ofgovernment.• It is more of a philosophy
  19. 19. Greek Systems of Government• Monarchy- is a government by a royal family-in ancientGreece a King. established a dynasty.• Autocracy- (rule by one person who has total control over allothers)• Aristocracy- (government ruled by the wealthy or upperclass) was comprised of the nobility, or landowning classthat ruled the city-state.• Oligarchy - absolute rule by a few• Tyranny - (Tyrant) seized power, gaining popular supportby promising to defend the poor from the aristocracy.• Democracy- the council of citizens helped form laws andlimited the power of rulers.• Theocracy- government in which the clergy rules or inwhich a “god” is the civil ruler.
  20. 20. Geographic and historical influences in the development of Greek citystates• Sparta was located on the Peloponnesus Peninsula, anarea that was good for growing grain but did not providethe protection of an acropolis.• The ruling class of citizens of Sparta was small innumbers compared with the slaves, or helots.• Due in part to a constant fear of outside invaders and ofinside slave revolts, the Spartan aristocracy empathizedmilitary strength and uniformity.• The government controlled all phases of life for bothcitizens and slaves.• By doing so, art, literature, philosophy, and science werepresent only as they supported the military and only in apractical nature. Military might, as shown by strength,courage, endurance, and cleverness, along with devotionto Sparta were the most important values.• Individual freedoms were sacrificed.
  21. 21. 4 Reformers/Tyrants• Draco• Solon• Pisistratus• Cleisthenes
  22. 22. Evolution of the system to a democracy• Draco• Wrote harsh code of laws• Solon• Canceled debts of the poor• Set up a court of appeals for citizens• Stopped debt slavery• CLEISTHENES• Determined that all male citizens over age 20 could be inthe Assembly• Set up the Council of 500• PISISTRATUS• Created a following among lower classes• Exiled nobles who disagreed with his policies
  23. 23. Athenian Government• In early times ruled by kings• Later, the aristocracy, selectedrepresentatives called archons• Merchants later replaced some of thenobility• Finally, the four reformers (tyrannts) andwe have Periclean democracy
  24. 24. Spartan social stratification• Privileged rules class – spartiates• About 10% of population• Descendants of Dorian invaders• Small landholders, tradesmen, artisans – perioeci• Native prior to Dorian invasion• Enjoyed rights of citizenship only in their own homecommunities• Between 10 – 15 % of population• Attached to the soil and provide auxiliary militaryservice – helots• Could become citizens and enter the perioeci class for militarybravery• Slaves
  25. 25. Spartan Government• First the Council of Old which had to haveapproval of the popular assembly ofspartiates over 30 years of age• Later, 5 ephors ruled
  26. 26. Athenian social classes• Nobility• Merchants, Artisans• Peasant• Slaves – common Athenian practice tofree their slaves• Metics – foreigners allowed to live inAthens but could not become citizens
  27. 27. Citizen Rightsa) access to courtsb) no enslavement (but the very creation ofcitizen class makes the distinction thatother people are slaves - thats whatmakes citizenship a privilege)c) religious and cultural participationd) death penalty was raree) becoming a citizen was nearly impossiblef) citizen duties - taxes, military service
  28. 28. Characteristics of Greek Art(mostly Athenian)• Expressed ideals ofharmony, balance, orderand moderation.• Glorified humans• Combined beauty andusefulness• Symbolized pride ofpeople in their city-states
  29. 29. Golden Mean•Nothing in excess,everything inmoderation
  30. 30. Architecture• Doric• Corinthian• Ionic
  31. 31. Architecture• Doric• Corinthian• Ionic
  32. 32. Architecture• Doric• Corinthian• Ionic
  33. 33. Red Figure Style
  34. 34. Black Figure Style
  35. 35. Practical but beautiful
  36. 36. Hellenic to Hellenistic Era• Greece has an archaic era• Minoans• Myceneans• Dorians• Age of the City-states• Greek – Persian Wars bring them together underAthenian rule to defeat the Persians• Golden Age of Greece• Hellenistic Era• Greek values and way of life spread by Alexander theGreat
  37. 37. Greeks become teachers of me• Great Philosophers (SPA)• Socrates• Plato• Aristotle• Greece absorbed into the Roman Empire andthe Greeks teach the Romans• Later the de Medici’s of Florence rediscoverthe teachings and treasures of the Greeks anduse them to form modern Europe
  38. 38. ATHENSGolden AgeToday
  39. 39. Piraeus: Athens’ PortCity
  40. 40. Persian Wars:499 BCE – 480 BCE
  41. 41. Persian Wars• Marathon (490 BCE)- 26 miles from Athens• Thermopylae (480 BCE)- 300 Spartans at the mountain pass• Salamis (480 BCE)- Athenian navy victorious
  42. 42. Golden “Age of Pericles”:460 BCE – 429 BCE
  43. 43. Great Athenian Philosophers• Socrates- Know thyself!- question everything- only the pursuit of goodnessbrings happiness.• Plato- The Academy- the world of the FORMS- The Republic  philosopher-king• Aristotle- the Lyceum- “Golden Mean” [everything in moderation]- Logic- Scientific method.
  44. 44. Socrates (470BCE-399 BCE)• He wrote nothing, but was a skilleddebater.• He opposed the moral relativism andskepticism of many of the sophists.• He used the method of rational debate toseek essential definitions of truth, beauty,justice, goodness, and virtue.• The oracle at Delphi pronounced him thewisest of all.• He was executed by his fellow Atheniansfor impiety and for corrupting the young.
  45. 45. Plato• The Allegory of the Cave& The Republic• There is a higher world ofeternal, unchanging Forms that has always existed.• These Forms make up reality and only a trained mindcan understand them.• What we see is but a reflection of that reality, ashadow of the true Form.• Government works best when divided into three groups.• At the top are philosopher-kings who must rule withwisdom and inspiration.• Warriors encompass the second group, and the thirdincludes everyone else.• Finally, men and women should have equal access topositions.
  46. 46. Athens: The Arts & Sciences• DRAMA (tragedians):- Aeschylus- Sophocles- Euripides• THE SCIENCES:- Pythagoras• - Democritus  all matter made up ofsmall atoms.- Hippocrates  “Father of Medicine”
  47. 47. Acropolis
  48. 48. The Acropolis Today
  49. 49. The Parthenon
  50. 50. The Agora
  51. 51. The Classical Greek “Ideal”
  52. 52. SPARTA
  53. 53. Delian and Archeon Leagues• 499 BCE beginning of Persian wars whichlasted throughout the 5thcenturyresulting in a unification of the Greekcity states under first Athenianhegemony• The predominant influence, as of a state,region, or group, over another or others.• then under Sparta influence finally endingwith the defeat of both and Thebescontrolling before the ascension ofMacedonia throughout the Agean Sea
  54. 54. Peloponnesian Wars
  55. 55. Macedonia Under PhilipII
  56. 56. Alexander the Great
  57. 57. Alexander the Great’s Empire
  58. 58. Alexander the Great inPersia
  59. 59. The Hellenization of Asia
  60. 60. Pergamum: A Hellenistic City
  61. 61. Economy of the HellenisticWorld
  62. 62. HellenisticPhilosophers• Cynics  Diogenes- ignore social conventions &avoid luxuries.- citizens of the world.- live a humble, simple life.• Epicurians  Epicurus- avoid pain & seek pleasure.- all excess leads to pain!- politics should be avoided.
  63. 63. Hellenistic Philosophers• Stoics  Zeno- nature is the expansion ofdivine will.- concept of natural law.- get involved in politics, notfor personal gain, but toperform virtuous acts forthe good of all.- true happiness is found ingreat achievements.
  64. 64. Hellenism: Arts & Sciences• Scientists / Mathematicians:- Aristarchus heliocentric theory- Euclid  geometry- Archimedes  pulley• Hellenistic Art:- more realistic; less ideal than Hellenic art.- showed individual emotions, wrinkles and age
  65. 65. Division of Alexander’s Empire