From early beginnings to long lasting legacy• Indo-Europeans move intoregion conflict andgeography createsseparate city-statesjoined by a commonculture (language, religionand heritage)• Join together in leaguesduring the Golden Age• Culture spread byAlexander the Greatduring Hellenistic Era• Eventually absorbed intothe Roman Empire
Eras in Development of Greek Civilization• Minoan Civilization-• 2000-1400BC flourished on Island of Crete.Great trading power..• Myceneans (Achaeans)- 2000 BC I• nvaded Greece from the north. They built on the achievements of the Minoans.• Around 1250 BC they banded together under the leadership of the king of Mycenae to attacktroy, a rival power. Troy controlled trading routes between the Aegean and Black seas. Thiswar is told in Homers Iliad and the Odyssey. Composed about 750 BC According to IliadParis, a Trojan prince kidnaped Helen wife of the King of Sparta. The Spartan King and hisbrother Agamemnon, of Mycenae involved all of Greece in the effort to rescue Helen. Afterten years of war Troy destroyed and drove the Trojans into exile. Heinrich Schliemannexcavated a site in northwestern Asia Minor which is accepted as the ancient city of Troy.Found nine cities had been built at different times on the same spot. charred wood anddestruction convinced him that this was the layer of Troy.• Dorians came down from the north.• Settled further to the south on the Pelopennisus Peninsula. Conquered many of theregions occupied by the Myceneans. The art of writing was lost during this time. Thisperiod is called the “Dark Age”• Age of the City States• Small city states or monarchies formed instead of a great empire. Golden Age ofGreece• Delian League - Persian and Peloponesian Wars create a new era of differing alliancesin the Aegean Sea. Trade provided wealth and some stablity. Also known as ClassicalGreece.• Hellenistic Greece• Persian occupation after the conquest of Greece by the Macedonian, Alexander theGreat. Greek civilization spread throughout the world but mixed with othercivilizations and changed.• Roman - Greco Civilization
Geographic Influences• Many islands in the Aegean Sea were closetogether.• This made trade and cultural exchange easier.• Short mountain ranges divided the country.• They prevented the development of a sense of Greekunity.• The Greeks could not produce enough food fortheir own needs.• They had to become traders.• The long coastline brought every part of themainland close to the sea.• Greeks became fishermen, sailors and traders.
Characteristics of all Greek city states• Small Size• Small population• An original polis (acropolis or high upplace)• A public meeting place called an agora• This is how we identified whether or notit was a “Greek” city state.
Factors that brought them together and Factorsthat kept them apart• Common Language,Religion, and festivals• Co-operativesupervision of certaintemples• Belief that the Greekswere descended fromthe same ancestors• Rugged Mountainsseparating the valleys• Rivalries between city-states• separate legal systems• independent calendars,money, weights andmeasures• Fierce spirit of
Greek Philosophy• Popular government - is the idea thatpeople could and should rule themselvesrather than be ruled by others.• This is the foundation of GreekDemocracy but is not really a type ofgovernment.• It is more of a philosophy
Greek Systems of Government• Monarchy- is a government by a royal family-in ancientGreece a King. established a dynasty.• Autocracy- (rule by one person who has total control over allothers)• Aristocracy- (government ruled by the wealthy or upperclass) was comprised of the nobility, or landowning classthat ruled the city-state.• Oligarchy - absolute rule by a few• Tyranny - (Tyrant) seized power, gaining popular supportby promising to defend the poor from the aristocracy.• Democracy- the council of citizens helped form laws andlimited the power of rulers.• Theocracy- government in which the clergy rules or inwhich a “god” is the civil ruler.
Geographic and historical influences in the development of Greek citystates• Sparta was located on the Peloponnesus Peninsula, anarea that was good for growing grain but did not providethe protection of an acropolis.• The ruling class of citizens of Sparta was small innumbers compared with the slaves, or helots.• Due in part to a constant fear of outside invaders and ofinside slave revolts, the Spartan aristocracy empathizedmilitary strength and uniformity.• The government controlled all phases of life for bothcitizens and slaves.• By doing so, art, literature, philosophy, and science werepresent only as they supported the military and only in apractical nature. Military might, as shown by strength,courage, endurance, and cleverness, along with devotionto Sparta were the most important values.• Individual freedoms were sacrificed.
Evolution of the system to a democracy• Draco• Wrote harsh code of laws• Solon• Canceled debts of the poor• Set up a court of appeals for citizens• Stopped debt slavery• CLEISTHENES• Determined that all male citizens over age 20 could be inthe Assembly• Set up the Council of 500• PISISTRATUS• Created a following among lower classes• Exiled nobles who disagreed with his policies
Athenian Government• In early times ruled by kings• Later, the aristocracy, selectedrepresentatives called archons• Merchants later replaced some of thenobility• Finally, the four reformers (tyrannts) andwe have Periclean democracy
Spartan social stratification• Privileged rules class – spartiates• About 10% of population• Descendants of Dorian invaders• Small landholders, tradesmen, artisans – perioeci• Native prior to Dorian invasion• Enjoyed rights of citizenship only in their own homecommunities• Between 10 – 15 % of population• Attached to the soil and provide auxiliary militaryservice – helots• Could become citizens and enter the perioeci class for militarybravery• Slaves
Spartan Government• First the Council of Old which had to haveapproval of the popular assembly ofspartiates over 30 years of age• Later, 5 ephors ruled
Athenian social classes• Nobility• Merchants, Artisans• Peasant• Slaves – common Athenian practice tofree their slaves• Metics – foreigners allowed to live inAthens but could not become citizens
Citizen Rightsa) access to courtsb) no enslavement (but the very creation ofcitizen class makes the distinction thatother people are slaves - thats whatmakes citizenship a privilege)c) religious and cultural participationd) death penalty was raree) becoming a citizen was nearly impossiblef) citizen duties - taxes, military service
Characteristics of Greek Art(mostly Athenian)• Expressed ideals ofharmony, balance, orderand moderation.• Glorified humans• Combined beauty andusefulness• Symbolized pride ofpeople in their city-states
Golden Mean•Nothing in excess,everything inmoderation
Hellenic to Hellenistic Era• Greece has an archaic era• Minoans• Myceneans• Dorians• Age of the City-states• Greek – Persian Wars bring them together underAthenian rule to defeat the Persians• Golden Age of Greece• Hellenistic Era• Greek values and way of life spread by Alexander theGreat
Greeks become teachers of me• Great Philosophers (SPA)• Socrates• Plato• Aristotle• Greece absorbed into the Roman Empire andthe Greeks teach the Romans• Later the de Medici’s of Florence rediscoverthe teachings and treasures of the Greeks anduse them to form modern Europe
Great Athenian Philosophers• Socrates- Know thyself!- question everything- only the pursuit of goodnessbrings happiness.• Plato- The Academy- the world of the FORMS- The Republic philosopher-king• Aristotle- the Lyceum- “Golden Mean” [everything in moderation]- Logic- Scientific method.
Socrates (470BCE-399 BCE)• He wrote nothing, but was a skilleddebater.• He opposed the moral relativism andskepticism of many of the sophists.• He used the method of rational debate toseek essential definitions of truth, beauty,justice, goodness, and virtue.• The oracle at Delphi pronounced him thewisest of all.• He was executed by his fellow Atheniansfor impiety and for corrupting the young.
Plato• The Allegory of the Cave& The Republic• There is a higher world ofeternal, unchanging Forms that has always existed.• These Forms make up reality and only a trained mindcan understand them.• What we see is but a reflection of that reality, ashadow of the true Form.• Government works best when divided into three groups.• At the top are philosopher-kings who must rule withwisdom and inspiration.• Warriors encompass the second group, and the thirdincludes everyone else.• Finally, men and women should have equal access topositions.
Athens: The Arts & Sciences• DRAMA (tragedians):- Aeschylus- Sophocles- Euripides• THE SCIENCES:- Pythagoras• - Democritus all matter made up ofsmall atoms.- Hippocrates “Father of Medicine”
Delian and Archeon Leagues• 499 BCE beginning of Persian wars whichlasted throughout the 5thcenturyresulting in a unification of the Greekcity states under first Athenianhegemony• The predominant influence, as of a state,region, or group, over another or others.• then under Sparta influence finally endingwith the defeat of both and Thebescontrolling before the ascension ofMacedonia throughout the Agean Sea
HellenisticPhilosophers• Cynics Diogenes- ignore social conventions &avoid luxuries.- citizens of the world.- live a humble, simple life.• Epicurians Epicurus- avoid pain & seek pleasure.- all excess leads to pain!- politics should be avoided.
Hellenistic Philosophers• Stoics Zeno- nature is the expansion ofdivine will.- concept of natural law.- get involved in politics, notfor personal gain, but toperform virtuous acts forthe good of all.- true happiness is found ingreat achievements.
Hellenism: Arts & Sciences• Scientists / Mathematicians:- Aristarchus heliocentric theory- Euclid geometry- Archimedes pulley• Hellenistic Art:- more realistic; less ideal than Hellenic art.- showed individual emotions, wrinkles and age