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  1. 1. Rocking Chair Research<br /><br />the rocking chair origin( history of rocking chairs, 1 of 6 ).....................................................................................................references to paintings and prints depicting the rocking motionfirst appearence of rocking furniturefirst rocking chairswe all know that the rocking chair is a distinctly american passion, its origins, however, are less clear. adding skates or rockers to the bottom of chairs probably evolved from the cradle and the rocking horse, which both predate the rocking chair. apparently no one thought to apply the idea to furniture for adults until the eighteenth century.the word 'rocker' originated in the 15th century and indicated the person responsible for rocking the cradle. in the 18th century it also meant an orator who put others to sleep. anyway, it was not until 1787 that the earliest dated citation ' ROCKING CHAIR' appeared in the oxford english dictionary for usage.38100776605rebis on rocking half-moon detail from'viatorum spagyricum' , woodcut by h. hamsthalergermany, 1625ALCHEMIC ICONOGRAPHYone of the first illustrations of the rocking motioncan be found in a current symbol in alchemy:the rebis - the 're-born' or hermaphrodite - is standing on a half-moon.(the king and queen, the two are one. the rebis is cursed to forever roam the shores of the lake, but is known to have knowledge of things well beyond its domain. alchemy is the 'maternal darkness' and compensates for christianity's 'paternal light' and the goal is to become holy oneself, light and dark made one). 19050-882650cradle, detail by piero della francescaitalian early renaissance painter (1415?-1492)CRADLEca. 1500, europeeuropean rocking cradles made of hollowed-out logs date back through middle ages.2524125-792480cradle, detail by andrea mantegnaitalian early renaissance painter (1431-1506)----200025167005victorian rocking horseROCKING HORSEca. 1700, europethe first rocking horses were probably made in germany, although many hail from the victorian era.19050657225yorkshire rocking chairTHE CONVERTED ROCKING CHAIRca. 1710, englandIn the early 18th century, skates were sometimes applied to existing chairs, converting them to rockers.for example this yorkshire chair dates back to 1630,but only 80 years later (ca.1710) curved blades were mounted on the legs. 19050771525adult-size cradles in the shaker infirmary, massachusettsADULT-SIZED CRADLES1810, usacradles for gently rocking weak or aged invalids.a ceremony of the circle of life - from birth, to death. the movement probably helped to prevent bedsores.manufacturered by the religious shaker communities.<br /><br />Floor board interlocking systemSnap-together floors have specially milled tongues and grooves that lock together tightly when joined.The flooring we're using is similar to snap-together plastic laminate floors except that it has a surface layer of real wood. The 5/16-in. thick flooring has specially shaped tongues and grooves that interlock to form a strong tight joint without glue or nails. Once assembled, the entire floor “floats” in one large sheet. You leave a small expansion space all around the edges so the floor can expand and contract with humidity changes.<br /><br />WOODCARVING AND WOOD ARTWORK<br />Seljuk Turks excelled in the working of stone and wood. The most important of the woodworking techniques was called kundekari where pieces of shaped wood are interlocked through rabbeting and mortising, without the use of any nails or glue. Before shaping, the wood was carefully treated so that it would not dry out and shrink later on. Individual pieces were cut and carved into octagons, diamonds, stars etc. according to the design intended. The composition was than framed and backed. Another Seljuk woodworking technique, popular in doors, shutters, reading desks and sarcophagi, was sunk relief where the motifs were carved into the plane of the surface. The reverse of the technique in which the motif stands out of the plane was used in calligraphic friezes and decorative borders. Latticing and openwork was developed to a high art, producing lace-like traceries in wood. Beveling, a technique favored in earlier Central Asian Turkish Art was used not as often. <br /><br />Rocking Chair HistoryAlthough the first rocking chairs in existence were believed to have originated around the early to mid 1700’s in England, the rocking chair was originally utilized as a garden sitting chair. The Windsor rocking chair was called such because of it place of origination, Windsor Castle, around the beginning of the 1700’s. It was a wooden rocking chair, wood being the easiest medium through which to create such a piece of furniture, and since its creation has given birth to many new variations of the rocking chair; such as the glider rocking chair. In the timeline of rocking chairs, the wicker rocking chair came after the creation of the Windsor, which was mainly a wood rocking chair with a heavily rounded hoop back with spindles that gave it the appearance of a bird cage.Just as outdoor rocking chairs and porch rocking chairs are popular today, in the first days of rocking chairs people enjoyed the relaxing, undulating back and forth motion while taking in the beauty of nature in the garden. This gentle motion created by the rocking chair is found soothing by many, similar to the motions of a swaying cradle. Often outdoor rocking chairs are displayed on porches and have since become an American standard for relaxation and household outdoor enjoyment. After its creation in England, the rocking chair was said to have been become mainstream in America around 1750. Benjamin Franklin is often widely credited with the first wood rocking chair creation, which he made by simply modifying an existing chair and adding gliders to it. Benjamin Franklin apparently adopted the bowed rockers from a baby’s cradle to fit the design of an ordinary chair and thus, the rocking chair was born. However, historians have had varying opinions on the validity of historical evidence to support Mr. Franklin as the originator in America. We do however know that both the rocking horse and the rocking cradle predate the rocking chair. By the end of the 18th century, rocking chairs became the most common type of outdoor porch furniture. The rocking chair soon became a mainstream household object, with the adult rocking chair being used as a symbol of status for many grandparents and heads within families during the early 19th century in the mid west. The rocking chair gains its ability to rock in such a way because of a unique feature, the wooden rocking chair only makes contact with the floor in two places at any one point in time. Without this feature, the wood rocking chair would not be a rocking chair at all; however one could easily classify it as a stool, bench, ottoman, or just a plain old chair. There is an ergonomic benefit associated with rocking chairs as well. Due to the center of gravity of the user being met and the angle utilized, the rocking chair leaves its user at an almost weightless state. In the late 1800’s, the first lightweight rocking chair called the bentwood rocking chair was crafted by German craftsman named Michael Thonet. He utilized a type of steamed wood, which he then bent and manipulated to achieve the graceful look of the bentwood rocking chair. With their high affordability and lightweight but beautiful designs, the bentwood rocking chair became an extremely popular among outdoor rocking chairs across America and the rest of the world. The modern rocking chair design has been pushed to the limit. Everything from glider rocking chairs, to portable children’s rocking chairs, and even a high tech rocking chair called the Gravitron have been inspired by the classic wooden rocking chair. It is hard to further perfect the simple design associated with rocking chairs, but the mediums through which they have been designed since their creation has vastly differed. From high tech steel rocking chairs, to rocking surfboard chairs, to even high tech collapsible rocking chairs; the rocking chair has undergone transformations over the years, but all in all has withstood the test of time.<br />,or.&fp=ee7ae51cefa9981c<br />Rocking Chair Timeline<br /> 1740 1740 - The first known rocking chair was called a "Gungstol" and was created in 1740 in Sweden. The Gungstol, which means rocking chair in Swedish, had six legs that met at two curved bands of wood and was typically painted black and gold. Source : Design Boom: Rocking Chairs ...<br /><br />Why Rocking Chairs For Adults?<br />Increased comfort: A chair is one of the most useful pieces of furniture designed for man. It helps you to get off your feet and relax after a hard day at work. Of all the different types of chairs available today, a rocking chair is considered to be the most comfortable chair to park yourself in. The curved rockers of the chair provide a smooth and gentle back and forth movement which 4914900147320helps to soothe your body and melt your stress away. So the next time you feel weighted down by tension, you can relieve it by using an adult rocking chair.<br />Relief from back pain: An adult chair provides immense relief from back pain. It is commonly believed that an orthopedic designed rocking chair is the only one that can help in relieving lower back pain. But research has shown that the design of the particular rocker does not have so much to do with pain relief as does the basic rocking movement of the chair. <br />Rocking Chairs – From America?<br />Americans are very proud that they Invented one of the most popular forms of furniture - the rocking chair. It is no longer possible to ascertain who actually created the first rocking chair but the story that Benjamin Franklin was the first in 1787 to have had curved rails set under a chair is not true. An earlier bill from the furniture maker William Savery of 1774 bears the inscription: 'to putting rockers on a chair' for which the charge was one shilling and sixpence.  <br />The rocking chair was brought back into fashion in the 1960s by President Kennedy but furniture makers had started putting curved rockers under existing chairs from the beginning of the eighteenth century to make them more comfortable. <br />These early rocking chairs were known as 'carpet cutters' because of the damage done to carpets by repeated rocking in the same place. Rocking chairs existed in whatever style was in vogue such as Windsor, slat back, and banister. Rockers were fixed by notching the legs of the chair which were then fixed to the rockers. This was used for attaching rockers to chairs that had not been made as rockers.<br />Soon chairs were being expressly designed and made as rocking chairs. These often had heavier duty legs which were jointed to the rockers themselves. These chairs were also often broader with some being up to three times as wide as the early 'carpet cutters'. Rocking chairs are usually not upholstered and the seats are normally of wood or rush. In order to sit on a soft seat cushions were added.<br />The Boston rocker is a popular form of rocking chair with the earliest known example of this Windsor style chair being made in 1830, probably in Connecticut. The rolled seat is characteristic of these chairs, with the front of the seat curved inwards and the rear curving upwards. Collectors and art historians are particularly interested in the decorations on the chair back and armrests that Were often done in gold paint.<br />Soon the grandmother knitting in in her rocking chair or spinning yarn became a familiar sight throughout the world. The best way to determine if a rocking chair is genuine or converted is to compare the history of paint on the chair with that of the rockers. If the rockers have fewer layers of paint than the chair then it is almost certain the rockers had been added later.   <br />Do you remember those days when your grandparents used to tell you stories while sitting in their favorite rocking chairs? Did you ever experience the thrill of being rocked back and forth on that chair for the first time? For some people, rocking chairs are endearing parts of their lives. But, do you know that rocking chairs also have their own stories to tell? If not, here's the history of rocking chairs that not all of you may have heard about<br /><br />The First Rockers<br />The original inventor of the rocking chair is still unknown. Though some stories attribute its invention to Benjamin Franklin, no historical evidence can prove them right. Historians can only trace the rocking chair's origins to North America during the early 18th century. They were originally used in gardens and were just ordinary chairs with two rockers at their bottoms. It was in 1725 that early rocking chairs first appeared in England. They were also used as garden chairs and had hoop-shaped backs. The distinction of being the creator of the first popular rocking chair design actually belonged to England's North American colonies. Windsor rockers, as this design was called, were first built near the Windsor Castle in the early 1700s. These rocking chairs featured a round hoop back, a birdcage (with spindles known for its cage-like appearance), and a comb-back (with comb-shaped head rest). The wicker rocking chair was another popular design created during that time. The production of wicker rocking chairs reached its peak in America during the middle of the 18th century. These wicker rockers, as they were popularly known, were famous for their craftsmanship and creative designs.<br />Into the Modern Era<br />Michael Thonet, a German craftsman, created the first bentwood rocking chair in 1860. This design is distinguished by its graceful shape and its light weight. Thonet used bent steamed wood for these rocking chairs. Because of their affordability and beautiful design, bentwood rocking chairs not only became famous around the world but spawned countless imitators as well. Neoclassical designs also became a trend in the US during the 1890s. These rocking chairs were influenced by Greek and Roman designs as well as Renaissance and colonial era artistry. During the 1920s, however, folding rocking chairs became more popular in the US and in Europe. They were handy for outdoor activities and travel purposes. By the 1950s, rocking chairs built by Sam Maloof, a US craftsman, became famous for their durability and deluxe appearance. Maloof's rocking chairs are distinguished by their ski-shaped rockers.<br />The Rockers of Today<br />Today's rocking chairs are distinguished by their diverse materials and cutting edge, sometimes outrageous, designs. One of the modern era's most unique was created by Ron Arad in 1990. The single volume rocking arm chair is made of steel that also tilts upward when it is not used. Meanwhile, Peter Opsvik of Norway created the "gravity balance" in 1999. This ergonomic rocking chair allows the sitter to relax or stretch through its four positions. Another unique one was created in 1999 by Illka Terho and Teppo Asikaine of Sweden. Known as the "chip lounger," this rocking chair is shaped like a surfboard. In 2001, MAC Sports, USA released the "malibu" rocking chair, which can be folded up completely into its own carrying case.<br />A chair is man's invention to make sitting more comfortable. One of the most popular types of chairs is the contemporary rocking chair. The rocking chair is named after its unique feature. Unlike other types of chairs, the rocking chair is capable of an automatic rocking motion. It allows the occupier to move towards and backwards without the fear of tipping over. A rocking chair is famous with the elderly. Most of the senior members of the society develop a certain fixation with the rocking chair because it provides them with comfort and relaxation.<br />A rocking chair is divided into five parts: the rocker, the seat, the legs, the backrest, and the armrests. The rocker is the most important feature of the rocking chair. It is the base of the chair that is formed into a curve. This curved appearance of the rocker makes the rocking of the chair possible. It allows the occupier of the chair to swing back and forth. It is carefully produced to accomplish a smooth swaying of the chair. The parts of the rocking chair which connects the rocker to the rest of the chair are the legs. The four vertical legs act as the chair's support system. They are normally shorter than the legs of ordinary chairs because they are designed to affix to the rockers. The legs of a rocking chair are usually carved with different designs. The part of the rocking chair that is directly supported by the legs is called the seat. It is either a flat or a concave surface that supports the occupier's bottom. If the seat is responsible for the support of the occupier's bottom, the backrest is the one responsible for the support of the occupier's back. For additional ease and relaxation, the backrest of a rocking chair is made to be a bit bended. The last part of the rocking chair are the armrests. Armrests come in doubles: one in the left and one in the right. As its name suggests, the armrests primarily function as a place to rest the arms. Aside from supporting the forearms, the armrests also make it easy for the occupier to enter or exit the chair. The addition of armrests into contemporary rocking chairs is optional.<br />The modern version of the rocking chair is called a contemporary rocking chair. Unlike the other types of rocking chairs, a contemporary rocking chair doesn't necessarily present a woody appearance. The said type of rocking chair is available in a wide array of bold colors like red and yellow. The shapes and sizes of contemporary rocking chairs are very different from the conventional types too. Makers of contemporary types of rocking chair are more aggressive when it comes to backrest shapes, rocker forms, leg sizes, and seat materials. Some models of contemporary rocking chair are odd-looking and very geometrical. Despite its unique appearance, the contemporary types of rocking chair still gives the same comfort and relaxation provided by other rocking chair types.<br />Although the rocking chair provides benefits like comfort and relaxation, it may also cause some trouble. It may be unsafe for children because the chair is at contact with floor by only two points. If children stay too close to the chair, there is a possibility that their feet may be squeezed by the rocker. However, this problem is already given a solution. Many rocking chairs are created with springs or platforms that will prevent any form of feet squashing in the future.<br /> <br /><br />The first sample the creative chair uncertain until now still not know. While some stories have said that it is Benjamin Franklin, but the evidence given does not convince. The historical research has determined vestige of uncertain form and chair the first North American early 18 centuries. Original form and chair used in garden and only two pieces below the curved wooden chairs. In May 1725, chair precarious forms appear in the UK. They also used such as chairs for the garden and also the last image below. Who form the creative chair precarious popular first fact is in North America under United Kingdom. Template designed chairs first is called "Windsor rockers, made the first long-term near Windsor in the early years of 1700. The chair form is the last bar is below the seat, back title image pen (with the mọc straight up in the same pen pictures), and a title (a brief shape curvature). However, there are a precarious chairs with rattan materials with sallow thorn (The wicker rocking chair) is a design common to other designs in that time. Product chairs đan precarious time have been used to point at the top of the U.S. in the mid-18 century. Rattan chairs the sample slices are famous through the proficient skills and the design is very creative.<br />In the modern era: A craftsman named Michael Thonet's Germany was the creative type chairs with precarious wooden materials inflexible in 1860. Design is recognized as sample chairs have shaped gracious easy and light weight. Thonet used the curved wooden chairs category for this uncertain. Because the design beautiful and useful types of chairs so precarious that this does not become famous all over the world but also have more designs by other nhái. The modern design classic (Neoclassical designs) will become trends in the U.S. in 1980. The designs are uncertain impact of design and Greece as well as La Video art the resurrection and the colonial period. However, in the 1920 types of chairs are precarious than has been prevalent in the U.S. and Europe. They used to be portable for the purpose of active fun outdoors and travel. In the 1950's, the type of chairs are made precarious by Sam Maloof, a craftsman skilled Americans, became famous thanks to the long-lasting design and advanced. Chair form of precarious Maloof is recognized through two wooden pieces curved shape skiing.<br />Chair form today: Mau chairs insecure today is recognized through many design changes and material diversity. One of the design is modern by Ron Arad in 1990. Sample chairs uncertain at this boot is made of most materials, steel and sloping ramp up to when not in use. Meanwhile, Peter Opsvik has creative form and chair the "balance of forces (gravity balance) in 1999. Design chairs based on research of this kind allow people to relax sitting or reaching out through the four sitting position. A sample chairs are creative Illka by Terho and Teppo Asikaine in 1999. Famous with the name "chip lounger, chair form is precarious shape as the surface of a board. In 2001, the company MAC Sports America for the chair form insecure name "Malibu", form the seat can fold inserted into the network cable vác go.<br />2162175142875Modern Rocking Chairs:<br />2305050169545-47625074295<br /><br />They note that by 1787, the words "Rocking Chair" made their debut in the Oxford English Dictionary but even earlier than that, references to rocking chairs and rockers had long been around. A 1625 German woodcut, depicts a semi-circle producing a rocking motion and going even further than that an early renaissance painting by Andrea Mantega shows a child in a cradle. Precursors to the modern rocking chair include a Birdcage Windsor Rocker, circa 1800, and a Shaker Rocker circa 1820.<br />However, it seems that the Iron Rocking Chair, shown at the Great Exhibition of the Industries of All Nations in 1851, is the inspiration to modern classics like Le Corbusier's model nr. B306 and Torben Orskov's rocking chaise lounge.<br />Who knew something so simple and homey as a rocking chair, could have such a vast and interesting past?<br /><br />The Evolution of the Rocking Chair<br />The rocking chair (or rocker) has been around since sometime in the 1700's.  While no one knows for sure how it came to exist, American Legend has it that the rocking chair may have been invented by Benjamin Franklin.  It is said that he formed the idea by watching a baby being lulled to sleep by the gentle rocking motion of its cradle, and decided to find out if these could also be relaxing for an adult. So, he took a standard chair and added two curved bands of wood to the bottom legs; and thus, the rocking chair was born (or so legend has it)!<br />Since its birth the rocking chair has been and remains still, a very popular and comfortable option for seating.  Because of its uncanny ability to help relieve tension and stress, it has become a welcome and comforting fixture both indoors and out.   It has served as a focal point in living rooms and nurseries and provided a charming way to relax on front porches around the world! Because of its popularity, it has been manufactured in almost every material imaginable and comes in just about every color conceivable!  If you are looking for a rocking chair, you are bound to find one that suits you (and your taste)!  Rockers come in a wide array of options, everything from the classic unstained, wooden look to the brightly colored, contemporary styled designs.  <br />The rocking chair has not only evolved in color and style though.  It has been so well-liked that a modified version of the original was born...the glider rocker!  Unlike the traditional rocker, a glider rocker does not sit on two curved bands of wood.  Instead the glider rocker sits completely flat on the floor and the chair moves back and forth on a double-rocker four bar linkage while the base remains still (a glider rocker can be somewhat safer whereas kids and pets are involved as the pinch points are moved away from the floor).  But while the bases of a traditional rocker and a glider rocker may differ, both rockers provide a gentle rocking that can lull just about anyone to sleep! <br />Whether you prefer the comfort and style of the original rocking chair or the more sleek and modern versions that have followed, I think we all can agree that rocking chairs provide comfort and relaxation like no other type of chair! <br /><br />Basic Woodworking Joints<br />Joinery makes or breaks a project. Generally, the more difficult the joint, the stronger it is. That's why woodworkers decide on the joints they'll use early on in the planning stages. Here's a sampling of popular joints, some simple, some more difficult.<br />-1905071755<br />Butt Joint. A simple joining of two pieces of wood, either at a corner or edge to edge. Make it stronger with glue blocks or screws.<br />-10477526035<br />Dado Joint. You'll see this joint on bookcase shelves. A dado cut in one piece receives the end of the other.<br />-18097535560<br />Dowel Joint. Drill aligning holes in each piece of wood, then glue dowels in place for a tight joint. Perfection requires a centering tool.<br />-18097531750<br />Lap Joint. Add gluing surface and strength to a butt joint by cutting a rabbet in the overlapping piece.<br />-18097569215<br />Miter Joint. Create this corner joint by sawing one end of each piece to 450. It demands accurate cutting.<br />57150-200025Mortise-and-Tenon Joint. A strong, traditional joint that can be made even tougher by adding a peg. Not all mortises go all the way through.<br />-762009525<br />Through-Dovetail Joint. There's not a better-looking joint, nor one that requires more patience and accuracy to cut. The interlocking feature makes it really strong, but adds visual interest.<br />-7620094615<br />Tongue-and-Groove Joint. This joint allows for wood shrinkage. Cut a groove in the edge of one piece and a tongue on the other to fit into the groove.<br />Bibliography<br />Brecken, J. (n.d.). A guide to contemporary rocking chairs. Retrieved from <br />Basic woodworking joints. (n.d.). Retrieved from<br />Blogging Design Boom History of Rocking Chair, (2008) Retrieved from<br />Designboom. (2008). Retrieved from<br />Home Service Publications,(2011). Retrieved from<br />My Rocking Chair,(2006) Retrieved from<br />Rocking chairs history. (2008). Retrieved from<br /><br /> <br />The evolution of the rocking chair. (2008). Retrieved from<br />The History of Rocking Chair, (2011). Retrieved from<br /><br />Turkish Cultural Foundation, (2011). Retrieved from<br />The origin of uncertain form and chair (rocking chair), (2009) Retrieved from <br /><br /> <br />