Introduction to Systematic Reviews (Oslo)

793 views

Published on

Morning session presentation. From Evidence Based Medicine to the social sciences; Differences between the clinical and social/behavioral sciences; Theoretical and practical implications
http://www.ub.uio.no/english/about/news-and-events/events/2014/systematic-reviews-seminar.html

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
793
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
160
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • EBM-(evidence based) guidelines.Synopses & Syntheses*: a synopsis is a summary and critical appraisal of one article, whereas synthesis is a summary and critical appraisal of a topic (which may answer several questions and may cover many articles).Systematic Reviews (a systematic summary and critical appraisal of original studies) which may or may not include a meta-analysis.Original Studies.
  • Two systematic reviews each addressing three research questions included 26 randomized controlled trials with different combinations in each review. For the outcome depression screening resulting in treatment, both reviews undertook meta-analyses of imperfectly overlapping studies. Two in particular, pooled each by only one of the reviews, influenced the recommendations in opposite directions. Justification for inclusion or exclusion of studies was obtuse.
  • DatabaseRecordsERIC1,300,000CINAHL2,600,000PsycINFO3,300,000Embase20,000,000Medline21,000,000
  • Range: tussen de 361 en 846 resultatenVoorbeeld: reading
  • 1967: Dankzij subsidie van NSF (elektronische versie van Psychological Abstracts)PsycLIT is CD-romversie Psychological abstracts. In 2000 toegevoegd aan PsycINFO
  • Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to the study of behavior and the processes that underlie it
  • 1967: Dankzij subsidie van NSF (elektronische versie van Psychological Abstracts)PsycLIT is CD-romversie Psychological abstracts. In 2000 toegevoegd aan PsycINFO
  • Also: www.psychfiledrawer.org
  • 15 naar 7: scheelt circa 12.000 artikelen(voor de oplettende lezer, screenshots komen uit ERIC)
  • (voor de oplettende lezer, screenshot komt uit ERIC)
  • Reading skills wel bij de ene, niet bij de andereVerschillen tussen thesauri leidt soms echt tot problemen. Voorbeeld: cognitivemeasures and sleep apnea
  • Introduction to Systematic Reviews (Oslo)

    1. 1. Universiteitsbibliotheek Systematic Reviews in Oslo Janneke Staaks March 4, 2014
    2. 2. Janneke Staaks j.staaks@uva.nl @jstaaks Specialist Wetenschappelijke Informatie Psychology Child Development and Education Anthropology
    3. 3. Evidence Based Practice guide lines Syntheses Synopses Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses Primary Studies 3
    4. 4. Systematic Reviews in the Behavioral and Social Sciences
    5. 5. Best evidence?  Goodyear-Smith, F. A., van Driel, M. L., Arroll, B., & Del Mar, C. (2012). Analysis of decisions made in meta-analyses of depression screening and the risk of confirmation bias: A case study. BMC medical research methodology, 12(1), 76 http://www.biomedcentral.com/14712288/12/76
    6. 6. Disclaimer   Transparence and reproducibility Can I find everything?  A specificity of 100% means that the test recognizes all actual positives  Noise?  A sensitivity of 100% means that the test recognizes all actual negatives
    7. 7. Preparation  Research question and/or protocol     Key concepts Search terms Articles Search queries  Cochrane library
    8. 8. Databases 25,000,000 20,000,000 15,000,000 10,000,000 5,000,000 0 ERIC CINAHL PsycINFO Embase Medline
    9. 9. You searched a database and found far too few results. How can you broaden your Depression RCT & SR search and increase the search results? Diabetes Choose the three right answers from the following. A. Add search terms and combine with AND. B. Search more fields, for example "words in abstract". C. Limit to the most recent publications. Effect of interventions for major depressive disorder D. Combine the search terms with OR. (..) in patients with diabetes mellitus E. Use different search terms, for example synonyms.
    10. 10. Search terms
    11. 11. Search terms  General - specific    ethnic minority or Asian physiological measures or cortisol Synonyms and related terms   social phobia or social anxiety or blushing Acronyms  Major Depressive Disorder or MDD
    12. 12. Search terms  Spelling  US – UK: behavior or behaviour  Single - plural: child or children   Opposites   Verb tenses: cry, crying or cried etc fertility or infertility Historical language  Changes in DSM
    13. 13. Night-time thoughts in high and low worriers: Reaction to caffeine-induced sleeplessness Abstract There is ample evidence for the existence of an association between sleeplessness and worry. Not much is known, however, concerning the nature of this relationship. Therefore, a study was conducted investigating the causal relationship between sleeplessness and nocturnal worry. A 2 x 2 (Worry x Induced sleeplessness) analysis of covariance design was used. The first factor consisted of a subject variable defined by scoring either high or low on a trait measure of worry (the Penn State Worry Questionnaire) and the second factor consisted of 300 mg caffeine or placebo. A total of 96 female undergraduate students participated. The dependent variables comprised measures of nocturnal worry (the Night-Time Thoughts Questionnaire) and subjective and objective sleep parameters. Overall, caffeine caused an increase in nocturnal worry and sleeplessness. A significant interaction effect occurred between Worry and Induced sleeplessness on one of the objective sleep parameters, but no other interaction effects were significant. The results suggest that worry may occur as an epiphenomenon of sleeplessness. Key Concepts caffeine, sleeplessness, night time thoughts, worriers Subject Headings *Anxiety *Caffeine *Cognitions *Insomnia link
    14. 14. Search terms Sleeplessness Nocturnal worry Insomnia overlap (1 OR 2 OR 3) 354 1 3.922 4.186
    15. 15.  Controlled vocabulary    Subject headings, Mesh terms, thesaurus etc. Insomnia/ Free text terms  title, abstract etc. (may vary across databases)  sleeplessness.ti,ab,id.
    16. 16. Wildcards depress* depressive
    17. 17. Test your hypotheses snake fear “snake fear” snake AND fear #1 #2 search term 54 54 387 famil* 295.000 family OR families 1 NOT 2 253.000
    18. 18. Tip: finding search terms Sleeplessness.ti,ab,id. 349 Insomnia.ti,ab,id. 7.779 Insomnia/ 3 NOT (1 OR 2) 3.922 170
    19. 19. Night-time thoughts in high and low worriers: Reaction to caffeine-induced sleeplessness.ti. Abstract There is ample evidence for the existence of an association between sleeplessness and worry. Not much is known, however, concerning the nature of this relationship. Therefore, a study was conducted investigating the causal relationship between sleeplessness and nocturnal worry. A 2 x 2 (Worry x .ab. Induced sleeplessness) analysis of covariance design was used. The first factor consisted of a subject variable defined by scoring either high or low on a trait measure of worry (the Penn State Worry Questionnaire) and the second factor consisted of 300 mg caffeine or placebo. A total of 96 female undergraduate students participated. The dependent variables comprised measures of nocturnal worry (the Night-Time Thoughts Questionnaire) and subjective and objective sleep parameters. Overall, caffeine caused an increase in nocturnal worry and sleeplessness. A significant interaction effect occurred between Worry and Induced sleeplessness on one of the objective sleep parameters, but no other interaction effects were significant. The results suggest that worry may occur as an epiphenomenon of sleeplessness. Key Concepts caffeine, sleeplessness, .id. time thoughts, worriers night Subject Headings *Anxiety *Caffeine *Cognitions *Insomnia Insomnia/
    20. 20. You searched a database and found far too few results. How can you broaden your Depression AND search and increase the search results? Diabetes AND RCT & SR Choose the three right answers from the following. A. Add search terms and combine with AND. B. Search more fields, for example "words in abstract". C. Limit to the most recent publications. Effect of interventions for major depressive disorder D. Combine the search terms with OR. (..) in patients with diabetes mellitus E. Use different search terms, for example 213.000 titles 17.000 titles 165.000 titles synonyms.
    21. 21. You searched a database and found far too few results. How can you broaden your Depression RCT & SR search and increase the search results? Diabetes Choose the three right answers from the following. A. Add search terms and combine with AND. B. Search more fields, for example "words in abstract". C. Limit to the most recent publications. Effect of interventions for major depressive disorder D. Combine the search terms with OR. (..) in patients with diabetes mellitus E. Use different search terms, for example 213.000 titles 17.000 titles 165.000 titles synonyms.
    22. 22. You searched a database and found far too few results. How can you broaden your 336 and increase the search results? titles search Diabetes Choose the three right answers from the following. A. Add search terms and combine with AND. Depression RCT & SR B. Search more fields, for example "words in abstract". C. Limit to the most recent publications. Effect of interventions for major depressive disorder D. Combine the search terms with OR. (..) in patients with diabetes mellitus E. Use different search terms, for example 213.000 titles 17.000 titles 165.000 titles synonyms.
    23. 23. Databases
    24. 24. About PsycINFO  All about behavior  Experimental research   Correlational research   „X causes Y‟ „X is correlated with Y‟ X + Y (+ P)
    25. 25. PsycINFO Factsheet    1967: first electronic publication of Psychological Abstracts 1995: 1 milion records Source: Beebe, L. (2010) PsycINFO‟s Growth. retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/pubs/databases/news/2010/12/p sycinfo-growth.aspx
    26. 26. PsycINFO Factsheet  2014  >3,6 milion records  Coverage: 1597 – present   comprehensive from the 1880s Weekly updates  80% journal records  3% book records, 8% chapter records  12% dissertation abstracts
    27. 27. Other Databases  Health care   CINAHL, Sportdiscus, Pilots   Medline, Embase Cochrane Library Education    ERIC, Linguistic and Language Behavior Abstracts (LLBA) EPPI Sociology  Sociological Abstracts, Campbell library
    28. 28. Other Databases     Publishers Syntax Fields Subject headings
    29. 29. Reference Manager Software Refworks https://www.flickr.com/photos/sherlock77/416909735 Endnote Reference Manager 29
    30. 30. Complementary Search Strategies  Citation tracking   Systematic reviews and meta-analyses   Web of Science and Google Scholar (cited by..) Authors Hand searching    Journals Conference proceedings Consulting experts
    31. 31. https://www.flickr.com/photos/rdennis/11948643 File drawer problem   Statistics Unpublished research  Contacting authors  Clinicaltrials.gov  International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) from the World Health Organization (WHO)  Grey literature  Dissertations  Conference Proceedings
    32. 32. Help     DIY Database help University Library website Librarian
    33. 33. From clinical to social science librarian..     Database order Fields Subject headings Explode function
    34. 34. Difference severity of depression between securely versus insecurely attached children PsycINFO Medline ERIC Cochrane 1.745 titles 504 titles 176 titles 115 titles
    35. 35. Tests and measures field (beck* depression inventory OR BDI).ti,ab,id,tm. but (depress* OR affective).tm.
    36. 36. Test and Measures   PsycINFO: test and measures field (.tm.) ERIC: identifier field (.id.) PsycINFO: Supplement Subject Headings ERIC: Geographic Locations Tests and Testing Laws and Legislation
    37. 37. Education   Reading comprehension and strategy instruction Family Literacy Programs http://www.flickr.com/photos/limegreen367/7607047458/
    38. 38. Reading and the thesaurus  From 15 to 7 subject headings   Exclude learning disorders Focus  Do: Phonological awareness, literacy etc.  Don‟t: reading speed, reading materials etc.
    39. 39. Thesaurus
    40. 40. Explode? Reading Intervention Home Children
    41. 41. Explode? ERIC PsycINFO
    42. 42. https://www.flickr.com/photos/doug88888/6486005213 Further reading   Goodyear-Smith, F. A., van Driel, M. L., Arroll, B., & Del Mar, C. (2012). Analysis of decisions made in metaanalyses of depression screening and the risk of confirmation bias: A case study. BMC medical research methodology, 12(1), 76. Sampson M., McGowana J., Cogob E., Grimshaw J., Moher D., Lefebvre C. (2009) An evidence-based practice guideline for the peer review of electronic search strategies. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 62(9) 944952
    43. 43. Questions?

    ×