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History of photography


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History of photography

  1. 1. A Brief History of
  2. 2.  It could be said that photography was not “invented”… But that it evolved over time.
  3. 3.  The word “photo graphy” comes from two Greek words that mean “writing with light.” The first time the word photography was used was in 1839 when the invention of the first photographic process was made public.
  4. 4.  The idea for creating a permanent “photographic” image came from experimentation with the camera obscura. The camera obscura (latin for dark room) was first used about 2400 years ago.
  5. 5.  The camera obscura was essentially a device that projected an image upside down onto a surface. Artists used this device to create accurate proportions in their paintings. The camera obscura in its basic form is a box with a pinhole in it to let in light.
  6. 6.  Since its first use, artists and scientists alike tried to find a way to make the camera obscura’s image permanent. Eventually this experimentation led to the invention of photography
  7. 7.  In 1826, Joseph Niépce invented the first photographic process he called heliography. The heliographic process involved coating a sheet of pewter with a light sensitive asphalt material that hardened when exposed to light. The pewter sheet was placed in front of the camera obscura to create the image.
  8. 8.  Shortly after developing heliography, Niépce became partners with Louis Daguerre. Together they worked to improve the heliographic process. Even at its best the heliographic process took several hours to create one image.
  9. 9.  After Niépce’s death Daguerre continued to work on the process, eventually creating a new process- the Daguerrotype in 1837. This photographic process involved coating silver, a known light sensitive material, onto a copper plate. It shortened the heliography process of several hours to several minutes and created a more detailed image.
  10. 10.  Although the Daguerrotype was hugely popular it had downfalls:  The images it created were not reproducible.  The chemicals used in the process were highly toxic, causing severe health problems for the daguerrotypists.
  11. 11.  In 1839, William Talbot introduced a new photographic process, the calotype- this one creating an image on paper. Talbot’s process exposed the silver-gelatin coated paper to light, and then ran the exposed paper through various chemical processes. The Calotype had one clear advantage over its predecessors- reproducibility. This was the beginning of modern photography.
  12. 12.  Although the Calotypes were reproducible, they were not as detailed or as clear as the earlier dagguerotypes. Frederick Scott Archer solved this problem in 1851 by creating the collodion wet-plate process. This process used similar chemicals to his earlier calotype process but placed the chemicals on a glass plate, eliminating the rough quality of the prints.
  13. 13.  Although this process was reproducible and created a detailed image it had one major disadvantage. Since the negative was made on a glass plate and needed to be processed immediately, it meant you had to have an entire dark room with you every time you took a picture.
  14. 14.  Until the 1880s most people had been photographed but very few people actually knew how to take or develop a photo. All this changed with the invention of the roll of film. Putting the light sensitive material on an easy to handle roll made photography accessible to everyone.
  15. 15.  George Eastman was the first to market roll film commercially. His company, Eastman Kodak Company, developed a portable camera pre-loaded with film. Customers would purchase the camera, take their pictures, and send them off to be developed. They would then receive their developed pictures and their returned cameras with a new roll of film. THUS MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY
  16. 16.  na14
  17. 17.  Ancient Chinese and  Camera Obscura- 2400 Greeks years ago Joseph Niépce  Heliography- 1826 Louis Daguerre  Daguerrotype- 1837 William Talbot  Calotype- 1851 Frederick Scott Archer  Collodion wet-plate process George Eastman  Kodak camera company/ roll film- 1880’s
  18. 18.  After the invention of the Kodak camera the popularity and inventions of photography skyrocketed. Your assignment: create a timeline of the inventions and major milestones of photography since the creation of the Kodak. Your timeline MUST be created using Adobe InDesign.
  19. 19.  Your timeline MUST include:  The top 15 most important discoveries in photography since the Kodak camera  Photographs of these discoveries  Each discovery MUST include a description of what the discovery was, who discovered it, and when it was discovered.  You ARE being graded on your ability to make a timeline that follows all guidelines, is accurate, informative, and visually pleasing.