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World Heritage Presentation

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World Heritage Presentation

  1. 1. Sense of Place – Planning, Design, Development Jeffrey Soule, FAICP American Planning Association
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>International Cultural Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>What is the sense of place? </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the role of design </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Challenges of Urbanization (190,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Identity vs. globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Scarce resources </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Civic view vs. Ego </li></ul><ul><li>A philosophy as much as technique </li></ul>What is sense of place and why do we care?
  4. 6. Ideological Battle <ul><li>Many architects promote a “no context” design philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Koolhaas “Tabla Rasa” </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the world views architecture and engineering as planning </li></ul><ul><li>Planning takes a humanistic approach </li></ul>
  5. 7. Ring Road System Copied from Moscow
  6. 8. Goals for Urban Planning: <ul><li>improve quality of life for the most people. </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly distribute positive and negative aspects of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and historic preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a predictable process for decision making informed by community goals.  </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Involve a variety of people </li></ul>
  7. 9. Human Impacts of Development <ul><li>Destruction of traditional settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity costs: Beijing example </li></ul><ul><li>CCTV building= $800,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Opera House= $300,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Misunderstanding modernity   </li></ul>
  8. 10. Planning in America <ul><li>Comprehensive </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen participation </li></ul><ul><li>Many approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Long term perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement of Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom up process </li></ul><ul><li>Planners represent public </li></ul>
  9. 11. Zoning: Legal Authority and Background 1920s <ul><ul><li>The Standard State Zoning Enabling Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Standard City Planning Enabling Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State enabling legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent law suits due to urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning act an afterthought </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Sense of place at the regional scale <ul><li>Planning Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Global challenge: Going beyond objects to places </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of this approach </li></ul><ul><li>US Heritage Area Efforts </li></ul>
  11. 13. Heritage area concept <ul><li>Natural, historic, and cultural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Managed as an whole </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects an entire narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities to conserve natural, cultural, historic, and scenic features; </li></ul><ul><li>Provide recreational, economic and educational opportunities. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Elements and application </li></ul><ul><li>Corridors, features that span a region </li></ul><ul><li>Containing a variety of resources, tangible, intangible, natural and cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Appalachian trail example </li></ul>
  13. 15. Strategic Economic value of planning and design <ul><li>Analysis and positioning </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate cultural character </li></ul><ul><li>Engage institutions and individual </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a strategy </li></ul>
  14. 16. Interpretation engages people <ul><li>Develop a narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight the linkages </li></ul><ul><li>Scenic </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Historic </li></ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Oral and musical </li></ul><ul><li>Arts </li></ul>
  15. 17. Short Term Planning Fads 规划短视的表现 <ul><li>Bad ideas from elsewhere are not good ideas in China </li></ul><ul><li>中国不要走其它国家城市规划失误弯路 </li></ul><ul><li>CBD, Wide Streets, Skyscrapers, Plazas </li></ul><ul><li>概念误区: CBD ,大街道,摩天大厦,大广场 </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture alone does not make a city </li></ul><ul><li>建筑本身不能形成城市 </li></ul><ul><li>Design competitions are not good for planning </li></ul><ul><li>设计竞标无助优质规划 </li></ul>
  16. 18. Purpose of regulations <ul><li>Provide a process to manage growth </li></ul><ul><li>Predictability over time </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out the vision and general plan </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for appeals </li></ul><ul><li>Shared power </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage continuity </li></ul>
  17. 19. Zoning is only a piece of the process <ul><li>Incentives like finance </li></ul><ul><li>Advice, education and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Subdivision </li></ul><ul><li>Design Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Historic Preservation Districts/Overlays </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental standards </li></ul><ul><li>Energy standards </li></ul>
  18. 20. City Design Process <ul><li>Reading the city </li></ul><ul><li>Refle ct cultur al layers </li></ul><ul><li>Human perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen participation </li></ul><ul><li>Urban design is between city plan and architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Manage at different levels </li></ul>
  19. 21. Elements of Reading Places <ul><li>Customs </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Visual elements </li></ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape </li></ul>
  20. 23. Linking design with management <ul><li>Establish the infrastructure to direct development </li></ul><ul><li>Create neighborhoods with distinct character </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Design guidelines based on district characteristics </li></ul>
  21. 24. Design Guidelines <ul><li>Strengthen the city’s character </li></ul><ul><li>Helps implement the civic vision and plan </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage new development that adds value to the city </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes a process and criteria for review </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for success </li></ul>
  22. 25. Annapolis Design Guidelines preserve the city fabric
  23. 26. Washington DC
  24. 28. Design Guidelines Elements for Success <ul><li>Clarity of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Legal integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Link to City Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Third-party review </li></ul><ul><li>Weather criticism from architects </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate results with the public </li></ul><ul><li>Specific design elements well defined </li></ul><ul><li>Mandeville Louisiana case study </li></ul>
  25. 29. Case Examples
  26. 30. Nanjing Men Xi Combining preservation with development
  27. 31. <ul><li>Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Establish form characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Locate Key new development in cleared industrial area </li></ul><ul><li>Tie into overall tourism strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot efforts in engagement </li></ul>
  28. 32. Zhenjiang <ul><li>New Town Design </li></ul><ul><li>Based on historic urban landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates modern design within a local framework </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to both human and environmental needs </li></ul>
  29. 34. Beijing Qianmen <ul><li>Historic preservation, tourism and redevelopment </li></ul><ul><li>High visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical conflict </li></ul>
  30. 35. Heritage Area and scenic corridor ChangXing Example
  31. 37. 节点 3
  32. 38. Shanghai Xu Hui <ul><li>Response to mega design </li></ul><ul><li>Urban redevelopment from human perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation underlies urban form </li></ul><ul><li>Scale, pedestrian orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Individual buildings subordinate to pattern </li></ul>
  33. 39. Other tools <ul><li>Historic Preservation Tax Credits </li></ul><ul><li>National Register of Historic Places </li></ul><ul><li>Historic Overlay districts </li></ul>
  34. 40. 20% rehabilitation tax credit <ul><li>The building must be used in a trade or business or held for the production of income. </li></ul><ul><li>The rehabilitation must be substantial . </li></ul><ul><li>The property must be placed in service </li></ul><ul><li>The building must be a certified historic structure when placed in service </li></ul><ul><li>Qualified rehabilitation expenditures include costs of the work on the historic building, as well as architectural and engineering fees, site survey fees, legal expenses, development fees, and other construction-related costs </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nps.gov/history/hps/tps/tax/index.htm </li></ul>
  35. 41. Criteria for “Adverse Impact” Under the National Register <ul><li>Physical destruction, damage </li></ul><ul><li>Alteration not consistent with the Secretary’s guidelines; </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of the property from its historic location; </li></ul><ul><li>Change of the character of the property’s use or of physical features within the property's setting that contribute to its historic significance; </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of visual, atmospheric or audible elements that diminish the integrity of the property's historic features; </li></ul><ul><li>Neglect of a property which causes its deterioration. </li></ul>
  36. 42. Observations <ul><li>Essentially missing from global debates </li></ul><ul><li>Link cultural heritage conversations to issues of sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a community-based planning process </li></ul><ul><li>Base dialogues on defining local cultural values </li></ul><ul><li>Link to community development </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of life is the entry point </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and design is about good governance and tools for managing change </li></ul><ul><li>Provide incentives for residents and businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the lessons from heritage areas </li></ul><ul><li>Engage political leaders more effectively </li></ul>

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