Reading for adults<br />Targeting the problem<br />
Hot questions <br /><ul><li>What are the primary causes of poor reading skills in adults?
What should be the targets of instruction to improve literacy in adults?
What can we do to efficiently increase reading skills in adults?</li></li></ul><li>Reasons adults in the AECC say they want to read<br />I want to read to my children…<br />I want to be able to read (and understand) the Bible…<br />I want to go to technical school…<br />I want a better job…<br />I want to read the newspaper…<br />I don’t want my spouse (or children) to read to me…<br />I want to use computers…<br />I want to get my GED…<br />
What causes Reading Problems?<br /><ul><li>Learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, often overlooked or misdiagnosed, may have turned adults off from reading.
Students from poor rural areas, or with a poor preparation for learning to read may have been left behind because of inadequate instruction
Failure at an early age, unattended, leads to an inability to recover and a lifetime of shame and unachieved dreams
Adults whose parents did not value literacy, or had poor school attendance may never have felt the need to accept reading for pleasure.</li></li></ul><li>Skills required for good readers <br />Reliable strategies for identifying unknown words in texts:<br /><ul><li>Phonemic analysis: phonics
Guessing from the context: requires confidence</li></li></ul><li>Vehn Diagram for comprehension<br />Co<br />Comprehension<br />Visual<br />Auditory<br />Language<br />
Weak phonemic awareness<br />A primary cause of decoding and spelling problems is difficulty in judging sounds within words. This weakness in phonological processing causes individuals to omit, substitute and reverse sounds and letters within words. <br />Second language students: Individuals with weak phonological processing cannot get the words off the page. They cannot judge if what they say matches what they see.<br />
symptoms<br />Many adults have difficulty judging sounds within words. Although they see letters correctly, they cannot detect their errors in reading or spelling:<br />This causes errors such as:<br /><ul><li>Decoding errors such as steam for stream, imagination for immigration, claps for clasp etc.
Spelling errors such as gril for girl, cret for correct, etc.
Pronunciation errors such as death for deaf, flusterated for frustrated etc.</li></li></ul><li>Most serious challenges to adults without good reading skills<br /><ul><li>They still do not understand how letters are used to represent the sounds in words and cannot reliable ‘decode’ print accurately
Their reading is so slow and labored that they do not enjoy reading, and have difficulty concentrating on the meaning of what they read
Their background knowledge and vocabulary are so limited that it is hard for them to understand what they read</li></li></ul><li>Word Identification strategy: dissect<br /><ul><li> Discover the context
Comprehension monitoring</li></ul>After reading:<br /><ul><li>Summarize in own words
Ask clarifying questions </li></li></ul><li>5th Grade reading level<br />Contemplating this request, Monsieur l’Abbaye shook his head. “I’m ready to retire, so I’m not available for hire. I’m sorry, I simply cannot paint your portrait’. But seeing the disappointment in Senor Bartoli’s eyes, he continued, ‘Well, there’s a possibility if you can find it in your heart to allow me to explore the limits of my abilities. Not for money, mind you, but for food and a bed instead.’<br />
Student comprehension Issues<br />Contemplating this request, Monsieur l’Abbaye shook his head. “I’m ready to retire, so I’m not available for hire. I’m sorry, I simply cannot paint your portrait’. But seeing the disappointment in Senor Bartoli’s eyes, he continued, ‘Well, there’s a possibility if you can find it in your heart to allow me to explore the limits of my abilities. Not for money, mind you, but for food and a bed instead.’<br />
Comprehension issues<br />Vocabulary: (sight words) e.g. ‘contemplating’<br />Phrases and idioms: e.g. ‘find it in my heart’<br />Usage: e.g. ‘simply can’t paint’ or ‘mind you’<br />Understanding: ‘…explore the limits of my abilities’<br />
What can we expect from adults?<br />Most should be able to acquire beginning word analysis strategies relatively quickly (15-60 hours) depending on where they start, which will then start to increase their reading accuracy and independence<br />Reading fluency will take longer to acquire, and depends a lot on their willingness to practice<br />Comprehension will increase as their reading accuracy and fluency grows, and will also be helped as they learn to think actively while reading. <br />
What are ‘sight’ words?<br /><ul><li>Sight words include any word that readers have practiced reading sufficiently often to be read from memory
Adults must correctly pronounce words 5-10 times before they become sight words
To be a fluent reader, an adult must be able to recognize most words in a passage ‘by sight’</li></li></ul><li>Computer Software advantages<br /><ul><li>Infinite patience
Side by Side</li></li></ul><li>Tools for developing reading skills<br /><ul><li>Use ‘authentic’* reading whenever possible
Have students bring in examples of what they want to read
Use newspapers and newscasts to give students a reference frame</li></li></ul><li> Authentic Reading <br />Authentic Reading is reading a variety of text for real purposes. Authentic reading is most like that which occurs in everyday life.<br />Authentic Reading includes: <br />• reading that is meaningful, relevant, and useful to the reader; <br />• supporting readers with a print-rich environment; <br />• providing choice within a variety of forms and genres; <br />• focusing on communicating ideas or shared understandings; <br />• providing authentic meaning-making experiences: for pleasure, to be informed, or to perform a task. <br />
On authenticity:<br />“ Reading activities should parallel the ‘real world’ as closely as possible. Since language is a tool of communication, methods and materials should concentrate on the message and not the medium. The purposes of reading should be the same working with students one-on-one as they are in real life.”<br />Clark and Silberstein, 1977 5.1<br />
Today’s front pages<br />http://www.newseum.org/todaysfrontpages/<br />Each day, Washington DC’s Newseum ,museum site brings you front pages from around the world – almost 400 of them. See how the same story is covered in different places or compare what makes headlines in different regions. Students can read headlines from their hometown or country.<br />PDFs are available if you want to read the part of the article that is on the front page. <br />
Authentic News<br />http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/<br />These are ready to use lessons based on breaking news stories. Several news stories are presented each week at different levels and with wonderful links. <br />News articles can be viewed chronologically or by specific themes, including: Environment, Business English, Health, Issues, Famous People and Gossip, Technology, and World News. <br />Selections include a great variety of pre-reading activities to enhance vocabulary and overall comprehension. Discussion questions and answers are included. Listening is also available. <br />
Randall’s cyber Listening Lab<br />http://www.esl-lab.com<br />This site offers easy, medium and difficult listening exercises<br />
English Reading Database for adults<br />www.insightin.com<br />Vocabulary Test Answer 50 multiple choice vocabulary items and find out your approximate vocabulary size.<br />Vocabulary Profiler extract words between frequency of 7,000 and 20,000 from a Web page.<br />Online Dictionary a clickable online dictionary powered by WordNet database.<br />Reading Database Search reading materials by level of difficulty, subject of interest and type of writing.<br />Reading Online look up words and idioms while reading on the Web.<br />Learning Guide articles and links for learning and learning English <br />
Cielito’s ESL Literacy Website for Beginners<br />This site is created for beginning ESL literacy students. <br /> Click a topic on the navigation bar on the left to work on different basic skills activities.<br /> Click a topic on the table below to work on different basic grammar activities.<br /> The Preliteracy page is designed for students who are preliterate and low-literate learners in their first language. Most of the exercises there involve listening and reinforcing vocabulary learned in class.<br /> <br />There are also exercises in this website that are appropriate for the more advanced beginning literacy learners, indicated as High Beginner, and literacy students who learn at a faster pace. They can also be used for review by higher level students.<br />
Cielito’s ESL Literacy Website for Beginners<br />http://home.earthlink.net/~brekkmail/<br />
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