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Phases of the moon

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Phases of the moon

  1. 1. Phases of the Moon By Mr. Soso
  2. 2. Our Solar System • Solar System – Collection of 8 planets and their moons in orbit around the sun • The Sun is the center of our solar system • All of the planets including the planet earth move around the sun in paths…..called orbits • It takes our earth one full year or 365 days to orbit the sun
  3. 3. Our Solar System • As the earth moves around the sun the moon also orbits the earth • We usually say that the moon takes 29.5 days to orbit the earth (1 month) • Astronomers figured this out a long time ago and have therefore predicted the phases of the moon • Note: NASA says it only takes 27.3 days for the moon to orbit the earth
  4. 4. Moon • The moon is just a very large rock orbiting the earth • It is not like the sun that generates it’s own light. • In fact the moon does not generate any light at all • The reason we see the moon in the day/night is because if reflects the light from the sun
  5. 5. Moon • The moon is like a big round mirror that reflects light…..from the sun • No matter what phase the moon is in, half of it is always facing the sun. That half is always lit up and is the half that we see here on earth. • The other half of the moon is facing away from the sun and is always in darkness….hence the phrase: The dark side of the moon
  6. 6. Moon • Question: If half of the moon is always lit up by the sun. Why does it change to different shapes throughout the month? • Answer: The moon never really changes it’s shape! But as it orbits the earth, how we see it from our position on earth, changes in relation to the moons position, relative to the sun
  7. 7. Phases of the Moon • In other words – as the moon moves in its orbit, it just looks like different parts of it are lit up and these are called the Phases of the Moon. • Note: We will examine this question in greater detail during our group science project.
  8. 8. Phase 1 – New Moon • There are 8 phases of the moon, starting with one that is very hard to see. • The first phase of the moon is called the “New Moon” • This occurs when the moon is in between the sun and the earth
  9. 9. Phase 1 – New Moon con’t • The lighted side of the moon faces away from the earth. So the moon that we see looks very dark and hard to detect with our eyes • You can’t see a new moon because the sun’s rays cannot reach any part of the moon (from earth’s view) to light it up.
  10. 10. Interesting Facts • The moon is approximately ¼ the size of the earth • However the moon has less density than the earth…..if they were the same size • The first person to walk on the moon was Neil Armstrong…on July 20th, 1969 • They travelled from earth to the moon in 3 days. • His first step was with his left foot
  11. 11. Interesting Facts • “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind”
  12. 12. Phase 2 - Waxing Crescent Moon • Waxing… means growing (to its full moon stage) • A sliver of brightness is visible on the right. • The dark part of the moon is still what is most visible to Earth at this point.
  13. 13. Phase 3 - First Quarter or Waxing Quarter Moon • The moon is to the left of the earth and sun • This is what we call a half moon • It looks like half of the moon but really it is only a quarter because we only see half of the moon even when it is a full moon. • Here the right side of the moon appears lighted and the left side of the moon appears dark
  14. 14. Phase 4 - Waxing Gibbous Moon • The word Gibbous means “more than half full” • More than half of the moon can be seen on the right side • The bright surface is larger than the Half- Moon but smaller than a full Moon.
  15. 15. Phase 5 - Full Moon • The sun, earth, and moon are lined up, with the lighted side of the moon facing the earth • It happens 2 weeks after the new Moon • We call it a full moon even though it is only the front half of the moon that is lit up
  16. 16. Interesting Facts • The moon has no atmosphere, so it doesn’t have weather. There is no wind or rain on the moon. Because of this, the footprints on the moon left by the astronauts will stay for millions of years. • Atmosphere of Earth: Is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity
  17. 17. Interesting Facts • Clouds are formed in earths atmosphere…not so on the moon • Earths atmosphere protects us from extreme heat and cold….not so on the moon • Earths atmosphere protects us from being hit by meteors…not so on the moon. • The surface of the moon isn’t flat. It has lots of craters. They were formed by meteorites hitting the moon.
  18. 18. Phase 6 - Waning Gibbous Moon • Waning moon…means that the moon is decreasing in size • As the moon grows smaller, away from being a full moon, it is called a waning gibbous moon. • The right edge of the moon appears dark or invisible and more than half of the moon can now be seen on the left side
  19. 19. Phase 7 - Last Quarter Moon or Waning Quarter • The moon is to the right of the earth and sun • This is also called a half moon • This time the left side of the moon appears lighted and the right side of the moon appears dark (Opposite the First Quarter moon)
  20. 20. Phase 8 - Waning Crescent Moon • A sliver of brightness is visible on the left side of the moon….opposite the waxing crescent. • The dark part of the moon is still what is most visible to Earth but is now on the right side of the moon.
  21. 21. Moon Phase Summary • The complete phases of Moon are from the new moon to the full moon and then back to new moon again. • When the Moon is changing from new moon to full moon, it said to be waxing, or growing bigger.
  22. 22. Moon Phase Summary con’t • When the Moon is changing from full moon to new moon, it is said to be waning, or growing smaller. • During waxing, the right side of the Moon is illuminated. • In contrast, during waning the left side of the Moon is illuminated.
  23. 23. Lunar Month • A lunar month is the amount of time it takes for the Moon to pass through each of its phases (new moon, half, full moon), and then return back to its original position • Although we give names to certain phases, each night the change is actually gradual.
  24. 24. Interesting Fact • The gravitational pull of the Moon, though less than that of the Earth, is strong enough to causes water in the oceans to shift slightly toward the moon as it passes overhead. This is seen as a rise or fall in water levels along the oceans shores which we call the tide.
  25. 25. Tides • The level water on the beaches around the world rise and fall every twelve hours. • When the water level is the highest it is called high tide. • When it is the lowest it is called low tide.
  26. 26. High Tide - and - Low Tide

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