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Chp 9


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Chp 9

  1. 1. Chp. 9 Using Plain and Persuasive Style<br />
  2. 2. Georgina<br />What is style?<br />Writing Plain Sentences <br />Christian <br />Intercultural Style and Translation Software <br />Jorge <br />Writing Plain Paragraphs <br />Julio <br />When is Appropriate to Use Passive Voice? <br />Omar<br />Persuasive Style<br />Anaid<br />Balancing Plain and Persuasive Style <br />
  3. 3. What is style?<br />In your document, style expresses your attitude toward the subject.<br />It usually reflects your character by embodying your values, beliefs, and relationships you plan to share with your readers.<br />
  4. 4. Style=Quality<br />Certain computer softwares allow you to move text around and choose types of styles of text to make the document more appealing to the audience.<br />Examples :Microsoft word, and Microsoft Power Point<br />Here are different types of text sizes, styles, and colors. <br />Style, style, style, ,Style,Style<br />
  5. 5. Good style goes beyond superficial cosmetic changes… <br />It involves:<br />Choosing the right words and phrases<br />Structuring sentences and paragraphs for clarity<br />Using an appropriate tone for the context<br />Adding visual interest to the text<br />
  6. 6. Three Levels of Classified Style<br />Plain Style- basically stresses clear wording and simple structure. It is most often utilized to instruct, teach, or present information. Works best in documents like technical descriptions, instructions, and reports.<br />Persuasive Style- This style influences people to accept your ideas and to take some sort of action upon it. It allows you to add your vision to your writing piece. It works best with proposals, letters, articles, public presentations, and most reports.<br />Grand Style- This style stresses eloquence. Meaning that it is made well in order to move their audiences even if some choose to be reluctant to given topics.<br />Did you know? <br />Martin Luther King Jr. and John F. Kennedy used grand style in their time as leaders. <br />Plain and persuasive are the most commonly used styles in the technical workplace. Grand style is too ornate or better said formal for the common work place.<br />
  7. 7. <ul><li>Use Basic Sentences – Translation software typically tries to translate whole sentences</li></ul> rather than translating word-by-word. SOLUTION: USE SIMPLER SENTENCES.<br /><ul><li>Use Standard Punctuation – Periods, commas, and question marks are fine. Try to use less</li></ul> ellipses, dashes, colons, and semicolons. Using these will create difficulties for the translation<br /> software.<br /><ul><li>Use Consistent Words – In texts that will be translated, use the same word to mean the same</li></ul> thing. For example, if you called something an “animal” earlier in a document, you should avoid<br /> calling it a “mammal” or “critter.”<br /><ul><li>Avoid Metaphors, Sayings, and Cliques – These kinds of words require knowledge of the culture</li></ul> of the source of language. <br /> Example: The homework was a breeze. (This implies that the homework was very easy to do.)<br /> The translation software will come back with some very strange results.<br /><ul><li>Back Translate All Text- After you translate something, have the software translate it back into</li></ul> English. This helps identify and signal the places where the translation software completely<br /> missed the mark.<br />Intercultural Style and Translation Software<br />
  8. 8. FREE TRANSLATION WEBSITES<br /><br /><br />TRANSLATION SOFTWARE<br />BEST BUY<br />OFFICE DEPOT<br />STAPLES<br />WAL MART<br />TARGET<br />Intercultural Style and Translation Software<br />
  9. 9. Elements of a Paragraph<br />Paragraphs Contain:<br /><ul><li>Transitive sentence
  10. 10. Topic sentence
  11. 11. Detail sentences (support sentences)
  12. 12. Concluding sentence (point sentence)</li></li></ul><li>Writing Plain Paragraphs<br />When writing a paragraph it should be kept in mind that a long and complicated paragraph could discourage the reader from even trying to understand the materials. Shorter and plainer paragraphs are easier to read and understand.<br />
  13. 13. Transition Sentence<br />A transition sentence is optional and it should be used at the beginning of a paragraph. The purpose of any transition sentence is to show how the previous paragraph will influence on the following paragraph<br />Example of a transition sentence:<br />Paragraph A: Points that support that a new government is very democratic<br />Transition: Despite the previous arguments, there are many reasons to think that the new government in not as democratic as typically believed.<br />Paragraph B: Points that contradict the idea that the new government is very democratic<br />
  14. 14. Topic Sentence<br />A topic sentence is about introducing the main idea of the paragraph, not to give great detail or show a chronology of whatever the topic is. The topic sentence doesn’t have to be the first sentence in a paragraph, in fact it should be situated as the second or third.<br />
  15. 15. Detail Sentence(support sentences)<br />The body of a paragraph is made up of support sentences. These sentences support the main idea of the paragraph.<br />Support sentences contain:<br /><ul><li>Examples
  16. 16. Reasoning
  17. 17. Facts
  18. 18. Data
  19. 19. Anecdotes
  20. 20. Definitions
  21. 21. descriptions</li></li></ul><li>Point Sentences(concluding sentences)<br />A concluding sentence will restate the paragraph’s topic sentence using different words. It is recommended to have concluding sentences at the end of a long paragraph in order to refresh the reader’s mind about the original topic of the paragraph.<br />
  22. 22. Using Four Types of Sentences in a Paragraph<br />From the four types of sentences discussed before, only the topic and support sentences are required to construct a good paragraph. There must be from three to five support sentences in a paragraph. A transition sentence is only needed to show a logical relation between two paragraphs and a conclusion sentence is only needed to leave in the reader’s mind a final statement of the paragraph’s main idea.<br />
  23. 23. Using the Four Types of Sentences in a Paragraph<br />Example on how to use the different types of sentences in a paragraph, “Technical Communication Today, p217”:<br />How can we accomplish these five goals (transition sentence)? Universities need to study their core mission to determine whether distance education is a viable alternative to the traditional classroom (topic sentence). If universities can maintain their current standards when moving their courses online, then distance education may provide a new medium through which nontraditional students can take classes and perhaps earn a degree (support sentence). Utah State, for example, is reporting that students enrolled in its online courses have met or exceeded the expectations of their professors (support sentence). If, however, standards cannot be maintained, we may find ourselves returning to the traditional on-campus model of education (support sentence). In sum, the ability to meet a university’s core mission is the litmus test to measure whether distance education will work (point sentence).<br />
  24. 24. Aligning Sentence Subjects in a Paragraph<br />Refers to how one sentence should lead naturally and smoothly into the next one. The reader should be able to see how a point or piece of information made in one sentence relates to a point or piece of information in the next sentence. The best way to achieve this is to try not to change your subject with every new sentence.<br />
  25. 25. The Given/New Method<br />Describes the importance of comparing new information to information already known by reader, this will make the material easier to be understood.<br />Example “Technical communication today, p219”<br />10a. Santa Fe has many beautiful places. Artists choose to strike off into the mountains to work, while others enjoy working in local studios. The landscapes are wonderful in the area.<br />10b. Santa Fe offers many beautiful places for artists to work. Some artists choose to strike off into the mountains to work, while others enjoy working in local studios. Both the mountains and the studios offer places to savor the wonderful landscapes in the area.<br />
  26. 26. When is it appropriate to use passive voice?<br /><ul><li>Passive voice occurs when the subject of the sentence is being acted upon, so the verb is in passive voice.Ex:- Andy James heated the alloy to a temperature of 300°C (active).- The alloy was heated to a temperature of 300°C (passive). The subject receives the action of the verb
  27. 27. Passive voice is very common in technical communication. In some scientific fields, passive voice is the standard way of writing. </li></li></ul><li>When is it appropriate to use passive voice?<br /><ul><li>Passive sentence is fine if :- The readers do not need to know who or what is doing something in the sentence.- The subject of the sentence is what the sentence is about.
  28. 28. Ask your self: Do readers needs to know who did something in a sentence?, Do they expect you to use passive voice?</li></li></ul><li>Persuasive Style <br />When used properly, persuasive style adds emphasis, energy, color and emotion to your writing.<br />Elevating the Tone – you can influence the readers’ inner voice in ways that persuade them to read the document with a specific emotion or attitude. <br />
  29. 29. Use Similes and Analogies <br />Similes and analogies are rhetorical devices that help writers define difficult concepts by comparing them to familiar thing.<br />Similes - X is like Y<br />Analogies – A is to B as X is to Y <br /> Metaphors are used to create or reinforce a particular perspective that you want readers to adopt toward your subject or idea. <br /><br />
  30. 30. Changing the Pace <br />You can also control the readers’ pace as they read through your document. The longer sentences tend to slow down the reading pace while shorter sentences tend to speed it up. <br />
  31. 31. Balancing Plain and Persuasive Style<br />Plain<br />Minimal <br />Sentences clear and easy to read<br />Readers should not struggle<br />
  32. 32. Balancing Plain and Persuasive Style<br />Persuasive<br />Adds energy and color<br />Use tone, similes, analogies, and metaphors<br />Encourage readers to do what you want<br />
  33. 33. Works Cited<br />Johnson-Sheehan, Richard. Technical Communication Today (3rd Edition) (MyTechCommLab Series). 3 ed. New York: Longman, 2009. Print. <br />