STUDY GUIDE FOR MIDTERM
9th Grade Art, Review and Vocabulary,1stquarter, Fall 2010
Jaspreet Singh Nahal
1517 – Martin Luther posted 95 thesises.
Ignatius of Loyala (1491-1556)
1521 – Ignatius gets hit in the leg with a cannonball.
He gets a convalescenceand spiritual awakeningand goes on a pilgrimage.
1523 – Ignatius journeys to the Holy Land and is greatly inspired by the places where Christexperienced the
Passion (even though he gets robbed by some Turks and loses all hismoney.)
He goes to school and eventually onto the University of Paris.He writes the Spiritual Exercises and his ideas attract
a loyal group of followers.
Him and his followers get ordained and Pope Paul III allows Ignatiusto form an order in 1540 – The Society of Jesus
or The Jesuits.
Paul III approves The Spiritual Exercises and theJesuits become advisors duringthe Council of Trent.
SaintIgnatius said to organizeand run the Church likethe military.The two great weapons in the Reformation of
the Church areEducation and Art. (Teach the people this whilethey’re still young)
Duringthe Council of Trent, every point made by Martin Luther gets contested:
Martin Luther The Church
No relics The more bones the better
No saints The more the merrier
No Pope The Pope is Christ’s representation on Earth
No Church Hierarchy (Everyone has the ability to talk
Definite hierarchy with intercessors need between man
Eucharist is a symbol Eucharist is a literal transformation of bread and wine
into the body and wine of Christ
No art is Churches (Too Distracting) More art and music and incence to appeal to the
No rituals and traditions not in the Bible We need out rituals and tradition
Translate the Bible so everyone can read it in their own
Keep the Bible in Latin
Belief in Predestination (Predetermined Fate) Man can choose Salvation
The Church believed that purgatory sins compiled and had to be worked to be gotten rid of.
Religion (Christianity (Catholicism)) helped lead people in bad times. Hope came from eternal gifts that would be
given after death.
Martin Luther translated the biblefrom Latin to Greek/German. The Bible spread as the Greenburg Press was
invented, which allowed the Bibleto be printed instead of being hand-written.
Il Gesù, façade by Giacamo della Porta, c. 1575 (Rome)
Il Gesu, firstJesuitchurch in Rome,
Giacomo da Vignola -- designed interior,1568-73
Giacomo della Porta -- designed facade,1575-84
This JesuitChurch was the firstone to be called a BaroqueChurch (Il Gesù).
The Gesù was builtaccordingto the requirements of the Council of Trent.
In the Gesù, there is no narthex (the littlearea at the far end from the altar).The person is immediately projected
to the body of the church,which was a singlenave without aisles.This was becausethe congregation could be
assembled and all attention could focused on the high altar.
Transepts were reduced to small stubs so thatthe altars of their ends walls could beemphasized.
This was one of the firstCounter-reformation churches.It was put up after the Council of Trent had signaled the
determination of the Roman Catholic Church to fight back againstthe Reformed Protestant heretics.
The illusion of the 2-D frescoes on the ceilingbecoming3-D includethatof the Truimph of the Holy Name of Jesus.
The figures from this would represent the evil castout of Heaven seeming to be hurlingdown at the observer.
Most of the lightwould enter through the baseof the dome at the top and shineupon the altar.
Baroque Period = Counter-reformation
They used art to portray passion,emotion, and drama in order to bringpeople back to faith.
The works would often have a religious or classical theme.
They includemuch use of line,shadow, and color.
Individual become the subjectof art.
Mannerismwas characterized by odd poses and distorations.
Symmetrical arrangement of windows and doors
Extensive Use of Classical columns and pilasters
Arches and Domes
Niches with Sculptures
Twisted Columns, sometimes simply decorativeinstead of supportive
More curves instead of straightlines
Highly decorativedetails and ornaments
Apprearance of movement
Towers or domes
An abundanceof windows
Baroque Art (also characteristics of many of Carvaggio’s works)
Duringthis period, artwas very theatrical.In churches,priests would become the stars of the show.
Background is dark,figure would be lightened, creatingthe “spotlighteffect” (aka Tenebroso)
More interactiveart(making viewer important)
Going out of 2d of paintings,in motion, addressingthe viewer.
More details –painted exactly as shown
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1573-1610)
Italian,worked in Rome, dates: 1573-1610
* The Sick Bacchus,1598
* The Supper at Emmaus, 1597
* The St. Matthew series for the French church in Rome:
-- The Callingof St. Matthew, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi,Rome, 1600
* The Conversion of St. Paul,1601,Cerasi Chapel,Santa Maria del Popolo,Rome
* The Crucifixion of St. Peter, 1601,Cerasi Chapel,Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome
* The Death of the Virgin,1605-6
Caravaggio said thathis only teacher was nature.
He goes to Rome because itwas the center of artin the 1600s.
Caravaggio’s Police Record (Not really that important for the test, but still lol):
• Brawlingin the streets
• Pickingquarrels atsword point
• Carryingsword and dagger without permission;
• Givingoffense to a woman named Laura
• non-payment of rent
• Stoning landlady’s windows
• Assaultinga notary
• Insultinga policeofficer
• Throwing plate of artichokes in waiter’s face
• Sued for libel for writinga dirty poem about another artistand
* Then there was the infamous game of tennis in 1606
In many of his paintings,lightand color would symbolizethe depiction of two contrastingworlds.There would
often also be extreme contrastand detail,making the paintingdramatic.
He loved to use red.
Figures would be really realisticand painted exactly as they are there.
His paintings would attempt to interact with you and bringyou into the world of the painting.
He used the “spotlighteffect.” (showingan awareness of the viewer)
He called detail and to symbols.
Be familiarwith:Caravaggio’s style— his way of:
placingfigures in space(composition),
callingattention to detail and to symbols.
Also be familiar with:
the way Caravaggio satisfies thedemands of the Counter Reformation;
the meaning of the word “allegory”in art. How is The Bacchus an allegory?
Nicolas Poussin, French, worked in Rome, dates: 1594-1665
* Rape of the SabineWomen, 1636-7
Poussin = line Rubens = color
Based paintings on sculptures Live models
Crisp edges, defined edges Blurred edges and undefined forms
Unblended pure, colors (had a tendency to use primary
Ancient architecture and costumes Fantasy architectural details, modern dress
Horizontal “frieze” –like composition Diagonals in composition
Women statuesque, classical beauty “Rubensque women”
His stylewas “Classicist”.
Classical works influenced his paintings.
In Rome, some noble or official would providecommission for the artists.
Most of his artwork was idealized.
Most of the characters in his paintings werebased of sculptures.
Woman in his paintingwould havelighter skin becausethey were supposed to stay inside.
His paintings had a horizontal composition.
Giambologna, sculptore,worked in Italy
* Rape of the SabineWomen, 1583 (Late Renaissance-Manneristsculpture)
* Hellenistic Greek sculpture,1st century b.c.
Laocoon was a famous statue unearthed by a farmer that almostevery major artistpainted.
Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish, born in Germany, worked in Antwerp, dates: 1577-1640
* Rape of the SabineWomen, 1630s
* Self-portraitwith Glove and Sword, c. 1639
* Study after Michelangelo (charcoal sketch)
* Elevation of the Cross,1610
* Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus, 1617
* The Three Graces
* Series on the Life of Mariede' Medici, 1621-25
-- The Debarkation (Landing) in Marseilles,Nov. 1600
* Helene Fourment in her Wedding Dress,c. 1630
* The Garden of Love, c. 1632
* The Little Fur (Helene Fourment), 1638
Rubensque – women that were round, plump, full,attractive,and beautiful.
He used real people for his paintings.
The fabrics would be shiny and wrinkly.
Rubens would have a lot mixed colors and iteverything would look fuzzy and blurry.
the principleor practiceof a political systemin whichunrestricted power is vested in a monarch,dictator,etc;desp
Be familiarwith the followingnames and terms:
Academy – an association or institution for the advancement of art,literature,or science
Aeneas – A famous warrior of classical mythology;a leader in the Trojan
War on the Trojan side.After the fall of Troy, Aeneas fled with hisfather and son and was shipwrecked at Carthage
in northern Africa.There Dido, the queen of Carthage, fell in love with him andultimately committed suicidewhen s
he realized that Aeneas could
not stay with her forever. After many trials,Aeneas arrived in whatis nowItaly.The ancient Romans believed that t
hey weredescended from the followers of Aeneas.
Allegory – the visualization of an abstractconcept
"Baroque" – usingClassical forms in an unorthodox or untraditional manner.
Baroque characteristics – explained above
Chiaroscuro – this is characterized by strong contrasts between lightand dark and was used to achievea sense of
volume in modelingthree-dimensional objects such as the human body.
a semicircular or polygonal termination orrecess in a building,usually vaulted and used esp. at the endof a choir in
Crossing – the intersection of nave and transept in a church.
a vault, having a circular plan and usually in theform ofa portion of a sphere, so constructed as to exert anequal th
rustin all directions
Facade – the front of a building,esp.an imposing or decorativeone.
the principal longitudinal area of a church,extending from the mainentranceor narthex to the chancel,usually flan
ked by aisles ofless heightand breadth: generally used only by the congregation
Pilaster – a shallowrectangular column attached to the face of a wall
Reliquary chapels – a separatepart of the church specialized in storingrelics
any major transversepart of the body of a church,usuallycrossing thenave, at right angles,at the entrance to thec
Composition – the organization or grouping of the different partsof a work of artso as to achievea unified whole
the Christian sacramentin which Christ's LastSupper iscommemorated by the consecration of bread and wine
French Classicism - Art and architecture in Francein the early 17th century aregenerally referred to as Baroque.
From the mid to late17th century French art is more often referred to by the term Classicismwhich implies an
adherence to certain rules of proportion and sobriety uncharacteristicof the Baroque.
Helene Fourment – Ruben’s second wife
the use of highly illusory effects in artor decoration,esp theuse of perspective in painting to create an impression
of three-dimensional reality
Jesuits – A religious order of men in the Roman Catholic
Church; its officialnameis theSociety of Jesus. Founded by Ignatius of
Loyola in thesixteenth century, the society became the spearhead of theCounter Reformation.
La maniera magnifica (the Grand Manner) – an idealized aesthetic stylederived from classical art,and the modern
"classic art"of the High Renaissance. (appreciation of beauty, elite status)
Naturalism (Caravaggio) – A movement in literatureand the arts,and an approach to philosophy.Literary and
artistic naturalismaims ataccuracy and objectivity and cultivates realisticand even sordid portrayalsof peopleand
Romulus – brother of Remus, raised by a she-wolf, killed his brother in a quarrel,makinghim the soleruler of the
city he and his brother founded (Rome), and to populatehis city,gathered homicides and criminalsof all sorts.The
shortage of women was fixed with the rapeof the Sabinewomen.
Some common religious symbols:
apple – also known as the “forbidden fruit”. It was a symbol of knowledge, immortality,temptation, the fall of man
into sin,and sin itself.
bread – This represents life. Itis the nourishment that sustains lifeand the body of Jesus.
chicken (cooked meat) - vigilanceand betrayal
coins - human greed and avarice
grapes – the blood of Jesus and also for the win used in the Mass.
light – knowledge, the truth
pomegranate - resurrection and the hope of eternal life
water – purity and fertility
wine – blood of Jesus
white cloth (on Christ or on table in front of Christ) – purity, new life,clean