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One of the primary reasons of the optimism for new nuclear
plant construction progress in the U.S. is the significant
increase in plant reliability and availability over the last 40
years. This paper provides insights on how the nuclear
industry worked to improved the capacity factor and
efficiency of nuclear power stations and ultimately reduce
the cost to operate nuclear power plants in the U.S..

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  1. 1. 19th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering May 16-19, 2011, Chiba, Japan ICONE19- 43791 IMPROVING NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCES IN THE USA Joseph S. Miller Bob Stakenborghs Dr. Robert Tsai President and Principal General Manager Fuel Design Manager EDA, Inc. ILD Power, Inc. Exelon Nuclear 2015 Woodford Rd 8867 Highland Rd, #378 4300 Winfield Road Vienna, Va 22182 Baton Rouge, LA 70808 Warrenville, IL 60555 +01 703 356 4149 +01 225 769-2780 +01 630-657-3367ACRONYMS operation, Watts Barr, came online in 1996) the percentageALARA - As Low As Reasonably Achievable of nuclear power in the national energy mix has increased, asBOP - Balance of Plant shown in the Figure 1. (data from EIA)BWR - Boiling Water ReactorCLTP - Current Licensed Thermal Power Although a number of new plants came on-line in the 1970sEBR-1 - Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 1 and 1980s, a significant part of the increase in nuclearEIA - Energy Information Administration generation was achieved by a substantial increase in theEPRI - Electric Power Research Institute overall capacity factor of the U.S. plants from about 60% inEPU - Extended Power Uprates 1980 to over 90% today.IAEA - International Atomic Energy AgencyINPO - Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Figure 1 Percent of Total Electric Power Generated byLAR - License Amendment Request Nuclear Power Plants in the U.S.MUR - Measurement Uncertainty Recapture forPower Uprate Percent Nuclear ElectricityMWe - Mega Watt ElectricNRC - Nuclear Regulatory Commission 25.0NEI - Nuclear Energy InstituteOLTP - Original Licensed Thermal Power 20.0O&M - Operation and Maintenance 15.0PCI-SCC -Pellet Cladding Interaction - StressCorrosion Cracking 10.0PWR - Pressurized Water Reactor 5.0ROI - Return on InvestmentSCRAM-Safety Control Rod Axe Man 0.0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010TMI-2 - Three Mile Island Unit 2 YearU.S. - United StatesABSTRACT This large increase in capacity factor was achieved by reducing outages, extending fuel cycles, using higher burnupOne of the primary reasons of the optimism for new nuclearplant construction progress in the U.S. is the significant fuel, reducing unplanned outages and reducing the numberincrease in plant reliability and availability over the last 40 of fuel failures. This increase in capacity factor combinedyears. This paper provides insights on how the nuclear with increases in power in various plants (power uprates)industry worked to improve the capacity factor and allowed nuclear power plants to maintain and increase theirefficiency of nuclear power stations and ultimately reduce share of electricity generation. Such an increase in nuclearthe cost to operate nuclear power plants in the U.S.. power generation is the equivalent of having built 25-30 nuclear power plants during that period.While the number of nuclear power plants in the UnitedStates has remained relatively constant for the past several The improvement of planned outage duration and unplanneddecades, (the last nuclear reactor to begin commercial outage frequencies improved during the last 30 years. Copyright © 2011 by ASME
  2. 2. Figure 2 shows the reduction of unplanned outages from extended the operating life of a power plant beyond 40about 9 to 3 events per year from the time period of 1976- years, provided more electrical power to be generated at a1979 to 1986-91, subsequently. Figure 3 shows the length reduced total production cost.of the planned outages reduced from 106 days for an averageoperating plant in 1991 to 38 days in 2008. The reduction in These initiatives and other cost and performance basedplanned outage length and the number of unplanned outages programs improved the overall performance of nuclearrepresents a significant improvement in the reliability, cost power generation in the U.S. and has provided adequateand safety of nuclear power plants. improved cost and safety justifications for building more reactors in the U.S..Figure 2 Unplanned Outages and Unplanned Scrams 1.0 INTRODUCTION One of the reasons for the optimism for new nuclear plant construction and operation in the U.S. is the significant increase in plant reliability and availability over the last 40 years. This paper provides insights on how the nuclear industry worked to improve the capacity factor of nuclear plants and ultimately reduce the cost to operate nuclear power plants. The Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 1 (EBR-I) in Arco, Idaho produced the world’s first electricity from nuclear technology in December 1951. In the next two decades, nuclear power demonstration plants and test reactors were built and operated in the U.S. and worldwide to bring nuclear technology to commercial acceptance. This nuclear power technology development was supported by the successful construction of the large number of U.S. Navy ships, particularly submarines, using nuclear reactor propulsion. By the late 1960s, large nuclear power plants were being ordered, constructed, and placed in operation by the U.S. electric utilities at an increasing rate. In the early 1970s, the Scrams for 47 Sample U.S. Plants (Ref. 1) nuclear industry in the U.S. was just beginning to develop experience in the operation of nuclear power plants. The early U.S. commercial nuclear power plants were, by 1972, Figure 3 U.S. Nuclear Refueling Outage Days (Ref. 2) the least expensive sources of electricity. By 1978, more than 200 large nuclear power units were operating, under construction, or were awaiting construction permits in the U.S.. Two significant events caused the waning of nuclear power in the U.S. in the early 1980s. The first significant event was the nuclear accident that occurred at TMI-2 in 1979 and the second significant event was the severe U.S. recession that began in 1981. These events along with new regulatory requirements as a result of the TMI-2 event caused the cost of building the nuclear reactors to increase dramatically. Instead of the cheapest form of electricity, nuclear became the highest priced electricity to produce. Therefore, numerous plants were cancelled and none were ordered for many years. While the number of nuclear power plants in the UnitedAdditionally, power uprate, which allowed plants to operate States has remained relatively constant for the past severalat a higher power, and power plant life extension, which decades, (the last nuclear reactor to begin commercial Copyright © 2011 by ASME
  3. 3. operation, Watts Barr, came online in 1996) the percentage An unplanned outage is probably one of the worst situationsof nuclear power in the national energy mix has increased, as for a utility where a plant outage occurs due to an unplannedshown in the Figure 1. A significant portion of the increase scram or reactor trip of the reactor or due to some technical,in nuclear generation was achieved by a substantial increase safety or regulatory reason that the plant has to stopin the overall capacity factor of the U.S. plants from about generating electrical power. The utility does not have much60% in 1980 to over 90% today. This large increase in time to plan and resources have to be mobilized quickly.capacity factor was accomplished by reducing outages, Usually the unplanned outage does not require theextending fuel cycles, using higher burnup fuel, reducing movement of fuel; therefore it is normally short in duration.unplanned outages and fuel failures. This increase incapacity factor combined with increases in power in various Over the last 30 years the utilities have spent significantplants (power uprates) this allowed nuclear power plants to resources on eliminating unplanned outages such asmaintain and increase their share of electricity generation. increasing scram reliability; identifying root causes of theSuch an increase in nuclear generation is the equivalent of unplanned events and fixing them; and training operatorshaving built 25-30 nuclear power plants during that period. and maintenance in proper techniques to ensure reliableClearly such gains are no longer available as the capacity operation. Figure 2 shows the reduction of unplannedfactors cannot increase much more and new nuclear base outages from about 9 to 3 events per year from the timeload capacity will be needed to maintain nuclear power period of 1976-1979 to 1986-91. This reduction inpercentage of electric generation. In addition, the ability to unplanned outages represents a significant improvement injustify to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) the nuclear plant reliability, cost and safety of nuclear powerplant life extensions allows current plants to continue plants.operation past their original planned life cycle, whichlessens the need for new plant construction, but does not Planned outage management is very complicated since iteliminate the critical requirement for new plant construction. integrates the plant directives, the coordination of available resources, safety, regulatory and technical requirements and,The following sections present the most notable ways that all activities and work before and during the outage. Eachthe efficiencies of nuclear power plants were improved over plant develops its strategy for short term, middle term andthe last 30 years. long term outage planning. Extensive efforts are usually directed towards detailed and comprehensive preplanning to2.0 IMPROVING PLANNED AND UNPLANNED minimize outage duration, avoid outage extensions, ensureOUTAGES future safe and reliable plant operation and minimize personnel radiation exposures. Planning and preparation areThe competitive environment for electricity generation has important phases in the optimization of the outage durationcaused utilities to look for ways to improve power plant which should ensure safe, timely and successful execution ofoperation and maintenance requirements, including the all activities in the outage. The post outage review providesefficient use of resources, efficient management of plant important feedback for the optimization of the next outageevolutions such as on-line maintenance, unplanned and planning, preparation and execution.planned outages. The fundamental basis for outages during the lifetime of aNuclear power plant outage management is a key factor for nuclear power plant are strongly affected by plant design andgood, safe and economic nuclear power plant performance. layout. The choice of fuel cycle length, desired mode ofGood outage management involves many aspects, which operation, operational strategies, maintenance periods for theinclude utility administration, co-ordination of available different components, requirements of the NRC and theresources, nuclear safety, regulatory and technical electricity market affect the duration and frequency ofrequirements and, all activities and work hazards, before and outages.during the outage (Ref. 3). Plant outages (planned andunplanned) are shutdowns in which activities are carried out In the medium and long term planning, it has become a goodwhile the unit is disconnected from the electrical grid. The practice to categorize the outages in three or four types withoutage is the period where significant resources are spent at the objective to minimize the total outage time. The outagesthe plant, while replacement power must be purchased to may be categorized into four different kinds:meet the utility’s supply obligations. Therefore, the outage  Refueling only, which could be worked out in 7 tohas a significant impact on unit availability and net income 10 days,for the utility. A planned outage is where the utility  Refueling and standard maintenance, which couldschedules an outage to replace fuel and support other be worked out in 2 to 3 weeks,maintenance activities. Typically, the utility has adequate  Refueling and extended maintenance, which cantime to plan resources and events during the outage to last for one month,optimize outage execution to minimize cost and duration of  Specific outage for major back fittings or plantthe outage. modernization which could take more than one month. Copyright © 2011 by ASME
  4. 4. When the utility operates several nuclear power plants, a  Final scope of work/activities,reference outage is defined as a generic outage including  Outage schedule, including the main outagecommon activities to all outages. The reference outage could schedule and work and safety relatedbe, for instance, a refueling and standard maintenance schedules (separate schedules for systems,outage. Since the utility has several plants, the standard reactor, turbine, startup, etc.). Thoseoutage process can be used by all of the plants as a basis for schedules shall comply with the main outagedeveloping the outage plan for a particular plant. schedule. For each activity in the criticalAdditionally, outages can be planned not to coincide with path, a separate schedule should be created.other plants in the fleet, thereby allowing the plants to share  Work packages, including work orders andresources. The use of a standard outage plan and shared permits, instructions and procedures,resources can save the multi-plant utility significant money. materials, spare parts, consumables, human and material resources, special tools, postOutages can be optimized by different initiatives that can maintenance testing and startup programs, etc.include the following: By implementing the strategies discussed above, utilities  Ensure that all work that can be performed while on have shortened the outage time significantly from 1990 to line is completed prior to the outage. 2000, as shown in Figure 3. After 2000, a plateau has been reached for outage duration since the fuel reload and Many U.S. Utilities have a modification group required maintenance are generally of fixed length. Until composed of individuals from operations, fuel reload and required maintenance time durations can be maintenance, schedule and planning, design and shortened, the 33 to 40 day outage time plateau will remain. system engineering, reactor engineering, nuclear licensing, quality control and assurance and Figure 3 shows the improvements in shortening the average contracts, which develop modification priorities outage in the U.S from 1980 through 2009.. This decline in (usually set by operations and maintenance) that are outage length from an average of 106 days in 1991 to 38 implemented while the plant is still on-line. days on 2008 represents a significant saving to the utilities Working together in a highly functional team, the and ultimately to the U.S. consumer. modification group has the clout to identify a modification that is needed to make the plant more 3.0 FUEL COST IMPROVEMENTS AND IMPROVED reliable, ensure that the modification improves FUEL RELIABILITY plant safety, ensure that necessary resources are provided, ensure necessary design engineering is 3.1 Fuel Costs and Efficiencies performed in a timely manner, and that the modification is scheduled and planned in an This is the total annual cost associated with the "burnup" of optimum manner. By performing this work on-line, nuclear fuel resulting from the operation of the unit. This the utility not only improves reliability and safety cost is based upon the amortized costs associated with the of the plant in a timely manner, but also eliminates purchasing of uranium, conversion, enrichment, and work that may be required during the outage, fabrication services along with storage and shipment costs, thereby shortening the length of the outage. and inventory (including interest) charges less any expected salvage value.  Make sure that all maintenance activities that can be accomplished on-line are performed before the For a typical 1,000 MWe BWR or PWR, the approximate planned outage. cost of fuel for one reload (replacing one third of the core) is about $40 million, based on an 18-month refueling cycle  Plan Plan Plan (Ref. 4). The average fuel cost at a nuclear power plant in 2009 was 0.57 cents / kWh. A successful outage always has a plan that was rehearsed and reviewed many times over. In the Utilities have strived to achieve minimum fuel cost detailed planning and preparation, the following associated with reload fuel by soliciting several fuel vendors items should be considered: to bid on the fuel reload. During this process, the utility will  Pre-outage milestones including planning, also solicit special cost saving features such as power uprate materials, schedule development, external services and extended plant analyses. By soliciting these services contracts, clearance preparation, As services through the fuel bid, the utilities will typically get Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) the best price for these services. reviews, design issues, regulatory issues, etc., Because nuclear plants refuel every 18-24 months and the  Outage duration for all 3 phases: shutdown, utility buys about 3 reloads at a time, they are not subject to execution of work and startup, fuel price volatility like natural gas and oil power plants. Copyright © 2011 by ASME
  5. 5. There are a number of research projects that are exploring The total number of fuel failures, for both BWR and PWRways to improve fuel efficiency. In a three-year project plants combined, is significantly lower today than in pastcompleted recently for the U.S. Department of Energy, decades. However, while the industry has moved in the rightHejzlar and Kazimi of MIT teamed up with Westinghouse direction, the number of fuel failures since 1990 has notand other companies to look at making a fuel for one kind of markedly decreased (see Figure 4). This reduction in thereactor, the pressurized water reactor (PWR), 30 percent number of fuel failures can be attributed to utilities beingmore efficient while maintaining or improving safety more conscientious about fuel failures and by the utilitiesmargins. applying. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)They changed the shape of the fuel from solid cylinders to guidance in their day to day operational activities in thehollow tubes. This added surface area that allows water to nuclear power plant.flow inside and outside the pellets, increasing heat transfer. In 2006, the INPO set an ambitious goal to achieve zero fuelBased on preliminary findings, the fuel may be easy to failures by 2010. In response, U.S. nuclear owners andmanufacture and capable of boosting the power output of operators backed a fuel integrity initiative that emphasizedPWR plants by 50 percent. the development of fuel reliability guidelines. In the first instance, INPO led the development of guidance documents3.2 Operation & Maintenance (O&M) Costs summarizing current industry information to assist utilities in improving fuel integrity and performance. ContinuedThis is the annual cost associated with the operation, emphasis on reducing fuel failures will pay a high dividendmaintenance, administration, and support of a nuclear power in the final cost evaluations of a nuclear power plant.plant. Included are costs related to labor, material &supplies, contractor services, licensing fees, and EPRI has developed a series of guidelines to help eliminatemiscellaneous costs such as employee expenses and fuel failures at nuclear power plants, with the aim ofregulatory fees. The average non-fuel O&M cost for a achieving INPO’s goal of zero fuel failures by 2010 (Ref. 5).nuclear power plant in 2009 was 1.46 cents / kWh. Figure 4 Number of U.S. Fuel Failures Since 19803.3 Production CostsProduction costs are the O&M and fuel costs at a powerplant. Since 2001, nuclear power plants have achieved thelowest production costs between coal, natural gas and oil(Ref. 4).3.4 Fuel FailuresFuel failures in operating nuclear power stations can lead toa power derate of the plant to protect the fuel from morefailures, the shutdown of the plant due to too many fuelfailures and in all cases higher radiation levels in the plant.The cost associated with the loss of power is obvious, butthe higher radiation levels can lead to maintenance andoperation issues that will cause higher cost for operation &maintenance and possibly a lower capacity factor for the 4.0 POWER UPRATEunit. The NRC regulates the maximum power level at which aFuel failures have been traced to several different causes commercial nuclear power plant may operate through theincluding crud/corrosion, debris, grid fretting, PCI-SCC and plants’ license. This power level, along with other plantunknown causes. The most common of these fuel failure specific parameters, forms the basis for the specific analysescauses are corrosion and crud, mechanical fretting wear that demonstrate that the facility can operate safely. The(foreign material such as a piece of wire vibrating against maximum allowed reactor thermal power appears in thethe fuel rod surface), and pellet cladding interaction (PCI – plant license, or technical specifications, and is commonlystress buildup on the cladding due to contact with the fuel referred to as the Current Licensed Thermal Power (CLTP).pellets and interaction with the aggressive radioactive Since this power level appears in the plant license, it canenvironment on the inside of the fuel rod). only be changed by a License Amendment Request (LAR) that must be approved by the NRC prior to implementation. This process of requesting operation at thermal power levels above the current licensed power level is referred to as a Copyright © 2011 by ASME
  6. 6. Power Uprate. The notion of power uprate has been around more aggressive form of power uprate, the extended powersince the late 1970’s. In fact, the first power uprate applied uprates. In fact, several plants that already operate at stretchfor and granted by the NRC occurred at Calvert Cliffs in levels are pursuing or have been granted extended uprates.1977 and 1978. Since then the NRC has reviewed and This is due to the favorable cost benefit for increased powerapproved some 135 license amendments for operation at at these facilities.power above the original licensed thermal power (OLTP)(Ref. 6). 4.3 Extended power uprates (EPU)There are three types of power uprates, which are described Extended power uprates are typically greater than stretchbelow. power uprates and have been approved for increases as high as 20 percent of the OLTP. These uprates may still be within4.1 Measurement uncertainty recapture (MUR) power the original design limitations of the nuclear safety systemsuprates and require little or no modification to those systems, but in most cases there is typically a large amount of reanalysis required for these uprates and the engineering effort toThis increase in licensed power takes advantage of the support the EPU can be formidable.requirement in 10CRF50 Appendix K that all safety analysismust be performed at 102% of licensed reactor power. The Since the power output after an EPU is substantially higher,additional 2% in thermal power accounts for measurement they are typically accomplished with major modifications touncertainty when calculating reactor power. Since the 2% the BOP systems. For example, a new High Pressure turbinerequirement appears in 10CFR50 Appendix K, this uprate is is required to support EPU. Extended power upratessometimes referred to as an Appendix K uprate. typically also require major changes to condensate, feedwater, feedwater heaters, and electrical generation An MUR is accomplished by adding high precision systems. These modifications make extended power upratefeedwater flow measurement devices, which reduce the projects large and difficult to manage. Project costs canuncertainty in the feedwater flow measurement thereby normally run in the hundreds of million dollars. However,allowing the plant to operate at a higher power level. even at these large project costs, they still deliver moreFeedwater flow is used as a basis for reactor power in nearly kilowatts per dollar than new build of similar power levels.all nuclear plants. An MUR always results in an uprate ofless than 2% of thermal power, since it is impossible to Each utility evaluates the potential for a power uprate basedeliminate all measurement imprecision, and it typically adds on the total local economic environment in its sales territory.1.5% to 1.7% of CLTP. Since the new power level is within The potential for increased revenue is balanced by the costthe currently analyzed limits, it requires little or no of the uprate and an economic decision is reached based onreanalysis and no modifications to nuclear safety systems. the projects return on investment (ROI). In most instances,Also, because of the relatively minor change in power, an the ROI for a power uprate is favorable even in the currentMUR is usually well within the capabilities of the Balance economic downturn. This is particularly true in the case ofOf Plant (BOP) systems and requires little or no changes to large EPUs. For example, a 20% EPU at a 1,000 MWethose systems. Therefore, it is usually accomplished for a power plant results in a 200 MWe gain. Even at projectrelatively small effort and reasonable cost. costs that approach $500 Million, a $2,500 per KW cost is still acceptable when compared to new build for fossil4.2 Stretch power uprates plants. When incremental fuel costs and cost stability are accounted for, nuclear power uprates have an economic andThe second type of power uprate is referred to as the stretch environmental advantage.power uprate. Stretch uprates are typically 5% to 7% ofCLTP. Stretch uprates take advantage of the margin that isinherent in the design and construction of most power plants. Utilities perform detailed cost/benefit analyses to ascertainTypically, a stretch uprate was selected at a level where no the best power uprate category to pursue for their particularchanges were required to the plant nuclear safety systems regulatory and financial situation. The NRC has approvedand minimal changes, if any, were required for the BOP side. 135 power uprate applications to date (Ref. 7).This made the stretch uprate relatively easy and inexpensiveto implement. Since the power level is higher than an MUR, The cumulative additional electric power from all powerthe system evaluation required for a stretch uprate is more uprates approved since 1977 is about 5,700 megawatts,complex. which is the equivalent of more than five large new reactors added to the grid. The NRC currently has 16 power uprateA large percentage of the early power uprate requests were applications under review, comprising a total of about 1,145stretch uprates. There are currently no requests for stretch megawatts of electric power. The NRC expects to receive 39uprates on the docket and very few expected requests for new power uprate applications in the next five years for astretch uprates. The desire for additional nuclear power total of about 2,400 megawatts of additional electric powercapacity has replaced the stretch uprates with the last and output (Ref. 7). Copyright © 2011 by ASME
  7. 7. Uprating nuclear units is costly and technically challenging industry more effectively, which helps the utilities be morebut it has been proven that owners can potentially receive a efficient.significant ROI with their uprate projects. Even so, theindustry is looking for ways to reduce costs and project time On the industry side, the Institute of INPO was formed afterwithout compromising quality and safety. Careful planning the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. A number of U.S.and common sense strategies must be put in place by all industry leaders recognized that the industry must do a betterinvolved in uprate projects and to do that, many challenges job of policing itself to ensure that such an event shouldmust be faced (Ref. 8). never happen again. INPO was formed to establish standards of performance (Ref. 10) against which individual5.0 PLANT LIFE EXTENSION plants could be regularly measured. An inspection of each member plant is typically performed every 18 to 24 months.The NRC is the government agency established in 1974 tobe responsible for regulation of the nuclear industry, notably It is difficult to quantify the amount of improved reliabilityreactors, fuel cycle facilities, materials and wastes (as well that these improved procedures and processes haveas other civil uses of nuclear materials) (Ref.9). provided, but the improved understanding for the operation and maintenance staff of the plant has been enormous.In an historic move, the NRC in March 2000 renewed theoperating licenses of the two-unit Calvert Cliffs nuclear 7.0 CONCLUSIONSpower plant for an additional 20 years. The applications toNRC and procedures for such renewals, with public The increase in nuclear generation has been achieved by ameetings and thorough safety review, are exhaustive. The substantial increase in the overall capacity factor of the U.S.original 40-year licenses for the 1970s plants were due to plants from about 60% in 1980 to over 90% today. Thisexpire before 2020, and the 20-year extension to these dates large increase in capacity factor was achieved by reducingmeans that major refurbishing, such as replacement of outage durations, extending fuel cycles, using higher burnupsteam generators, can be justified. fuel, and by reducing unplanned outages and fuel failures. Combined with increases in power in various plants (powerAs of the end of 2009 the NRC had extended the licenses of uprates), allowed the nuclear power option to maintain and59 reactors, over half of the U.S. total. The NRC is increase its share of electricity generation. Such an increaseconsidering license renewal applications for further units, in nuclear generation is the equivalent of having built 25-30with more applications expected by 2013. In all, about 90 nuclear power plants during that period.reactors are likely to have 60-year lifetimes, with ownersundertaking major capital works to upgrade them at around The reduced length of the planned outages from 106 days for30-40 years of age. an average operating plant in 1991 to 38 days in 2008 and the reduced number of unplanned outages improved plantExtended lifetime from 40 to 60 years will add 20 years of availability and cost. The reduction in planned outageoperational abilities for all of these power plants at an length and the number of unplanned outages represents aadditional cost that is small compared to building new significant improvement in the nuclear plant availability,plants. This represents a significant savings to the U.S. cost and safety of nuclear power plants.consumer. Additionally, power uprate, which allows plants to operate at6.0 IMPROVED NRC OVERSIGHT AND UTILITY a higher power, and power plant life extension, whichMAINTENANCE AND SURVEILLANCE extended the operating life of a power plant beyond 40 yearsPROCEDURES AND PROCESSES allowed more electrical power to be generated at a reduce total production cost and construction cost, respectively.The NRC has a new oversight and assessment process for Also, fuel performance has improved to a very high levelnuclear plants. Having defined what is needed to ensure over the last 20-30, the NRC now has a better-structured process toachieve it, replacing complex and onerous procedures which These initiatives improved the overall performance ofhad little bearing on safety. The new approach yields nuclear power in the U.S. and has provided adequatepublicly-accessible information on the performance of plants justifications to building more reactors in the 19 key areas (14 indicators on plant safety, two onradiation safety and three on security). Performance againsteach indicator is reported quarterly on the NRC web site 8.0 REFERENCESaccording to whether it is normal, attracting regulatoryoversight, provoking regulatory action, or unacceptable (in 1. "Learning by Accident? Reductions in the Risk ofwhich case the plant would probably be shut down). These Unplanned Outages in the U.S. Nuclear Power Plantsnew processes help the NRC manage the nuclear utility After Three Mile Island", Journal of Risks and Uncertainty, 13-175-198, (1996). Copyright © 2011 by ASME
  8. 8. 2. NEI; eliableandaffordableenergy/graphicsandcharts/refueling outagedays/3. IAEA-TECDOC-1315, "Nuclear power plant outage optimisation strategy", October 20024. NEI; costs5. EPRI; NRC Power uprate applications. uprates/status-power-apps/approved-applications.html7. SECY-10-0070, May 20, 20108. The Nuclear Power Uprate Conference, uprate-conference/9. WNA, World Nuclear Association, "Guidelines for the Conduct of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Stations", INPO Guideline 97-013, December 1997. Copyright © 2011 by ASME