No more than 20% of an academic paper should be in the form of direct quotes. Therefore, writers should take care to limit block quotes.
Otherwise the reader will not realize that you have switched.
Refer to both author (parenthetically) and speaker. The reader must be able to distinguish between the two so it’s a good idea to include some background information about the source.
Modern LanguagesAssociation (MLA) 8
In-text citations tell us which information
came from which source.
For ALL information that has been quoted,
paraphrased, or summarized.
Help readers distinguish between the writer’s
thoughts and outside information.
(Author’slastname page#). Use this format for ITW.
▪ (Krakauer 4)
(Author’slastname). Use this format for any internet
In general, the period is placed after the
For example, the SeniorThesis might be the
greatest assignment ever created (Brinker 2).
However, after block quotes, the period goes before
By comparing the time of a collision with the
phone records, the researchers assessed the
dangers of driving while phoning.The results are
We found that using a cellular telephone was
associated with a risk of having a motor vehicle
collision that was about four times as high as
that among the same drivers when they were
not using their cellular telephones.This relative
risk is similar to the hazard associated with
driving with a blood alcohol level at the legal
The first time you credit a source, include
author and page number.
The NationalTraumatic Stress Network proposes creating a new
Institute of ChildAbuse and InterpersonalViolence within the National
Institute of Health (NIH) to focus and coordinate research on the
causes, consequences, treatment and prevention of child abuse
The second time you credit the same source,
just include the page number.
The information learned by this network will be disseminated to
appropriate healthcare providers (74).
But, anytime you switch a source, treat that
source like it’s being cited for the first time.
Refer to both author and page number again.
As of December 2000, twenty countries were restricting
use of cell phones in moving vehicles (Sundeen 8). In the
United States, it is highly unlikely that legislation could be
passed on the national level, since traffic safety is
considered a state and local issue.To date, only a few
counties and towns have passed traffic laws restricting cell
phone use. For example, in Suffolk County, NewYork, it is
illegal for drivers to use a handheld phone for anything but
an emergency call while on the road (Haughney A8). The
first town to restrict use of handheld phones was
Brooklyn, Ohio (Sundeen 9). Brooklyn, the first
community in the country to pass a seat belt law, has once
again shown its concern for traffic safety.
Morgan’s mother, Patti Pena, reports that
the driver “ran a stop sign at 45 mph,
broadsided my vehicle and killed Morgan as
she sat in her car seat.” A week later,
corrections officer Shannon Smith, who was
guarding prisoners by the side of the road,
was killed by a woman distracted by a phone
Use some of the information that would have
gone in the parenthetical citation in the
The author can sympathize with Chris because he has
attempted to live out similar dreams (Krakauer 135).
In his book, Into theWild, about McCandless, Krakauer can
sympathize with Chris because he has attempted to live out
similar dreams (135).
On page 135, Krakauer exposes his ability to sympathize with
McCandless because he has attempted to live out similar
The information you give in your in-text
citation must be the first thing in the
correspondingWorks Cited entry (“MLA In-
Text Citations”).The first thing is the item on
the left margin.
*Whether your in-text citation is embedded or
Use MLA 8 format.
Use the MLA 8 chart and create your citation
Use your planner as a guideline.
Use NoodleTools once you’re comfortable
with MLA 8 format.
Start on a new page.
Entries should appear in alphabetical order.
Indent the second and subsequent lines of
Center the wordsWorks Cited at the top of
Have a question that wasn’t answered in this
Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)
"MLA In-Text Citations:The Basics." Purdue
OWL: MLA Formatting and Style Guide,
Purdue University, 23 March 2014.