Citing Sources


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  • No more than 20% of an academic paper should be in the form of direct quotes. Therefore, writers should take care to limit block quotes.
  • Otherwise the reader will not realize that you have switched.
  • Refer to both author (parenthetically) and speaker. The reader must be able to distinguish between the two so it’s a good idea to include some background information about the source.
  • Citing Sources

    1. 1. Modern LanguagesAssociation (MLA) 8
    2. 2.  In-text citations tell us which information came from which source.  For ALL information that has been quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.  Help readers distinguish between the writer’s thoughts and outside information.
    3. 3.  Book Format:  (Author’slastname page#). Use this format for ITW. ▪ (Krakauer 4)  InternetArticle Format  (Author’slastname). Use this format for any internet article. ▪ (Medred)
    4. 4.  In general, the period is placed after the parentheses.  For example, the SeniorThesis might be the greatest assignment ever created (Brinker 2).  However, after block quotes, the period goes before the parentheses.
    5. 5.  By comparing the time of a collision with the phone records, the researchers assessed the dangers of driving while phoning.The results are unsettling: We found that using a cellular telephone was associated with a risk of having a motor vehicle collision that was about four times as high as that among the same drivers when they were not using their cellular telephones.This relative risk is similar to the hazard associated with driving with a blood alcohol level at the legal limit. (456)
    6. 6.  The first time you credit a source, include author and page number.  The NationalTraumatic Stress Network proposes creating a new Institute of ChildAbuse and InterpersonalViolence within the National Institute of Health (NIH) to focus and coordinate research on the causes, consequences, treatment and prevention of child abuse (Almond 73).  The second time you credit the same source, just include the page number.  The information learned by this network will be disseminated to appropriate healthcare providers (74).
    7. 7.  But, anytime you switch a source, treat that source like it’s being cited for the first time. Refer to both author and page number again.
    8. 8.  As of December 2000, twenty countries were restricting use of cell phones in moving vehicles (Sundeen 8). In the United States, it is highly unlikely that legislation could be passed on the national level, since traffic safety is considered a state and local issue.To date, only a few counties and towns have passed traffic laws restricting cell phone use. For example, in Suffolk County, NewYork, it is illegal for drivers to use a handheld phone for anything but an emergency call while on the road (Haughney A8). The first town to restrict use of handheld phones was Brooklyn, Ohio (Sundeen 9). Brooklyn, the first community in the country to pass a seat belt law, has once again shown its concern for traffic safety.
    9. 9. Morgan’s mother, Patti Pena, reports that the driver “ran a stop sign at 45 mph, broadsided my vehicle and killed Morgan as she sat in her car seat.” A week later, corrections officer Shannon Smith, who was guarding prisoners by the side of the road, was killed by a woman distracted by a phone call (Besthoff).
    10. 10.  Use some of the information that would have gone in the parenthetical citation in the sentence instead.  The author can sympathize with Chris because he has attempted to live out similar dreams (Krakauer 135).  In his book, Into theWild, about McCandless, Krakauer can sympathize with Chris because he has attempted to live out similar dreams (135).  On page 135, Krakauer exposes his ability to sympathize with McCandless because he has attempted to live out similar dreams.
    11. 11. What goes in the parentheses?
    12. 12.  The information you give in your in-text citation must be the first thing in the correspondingWorks Cited entry (“MLA In- Text Citations”).The first thing is the item on the left margin.  *Whether your in-text citation is embedded or parenthetical.
    13. 13.  Use MLA 8 format.  Use the MLA 8 chart and create your citation by hand.  Use your planner as a guideline.  Use NoodleTools once you’re comfortable with MLA 8 format.
    14. 14.  Start on a new page.  Double-space everything.  Entries should appear in alphabetical order.  Indent the second and subsequent lines of each entry.  Center the wordsWorks Cited at the top of the page.
    15. 15.  Have a question that wasn’t answered in this presentation?  Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)  01/
    16. 16. "MLA In-Text Citations:The Basics." Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting and Style Guide, Purdue University, 23 March 2014.