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AIR POLLUTION CONTROL course material by Prof S S JAHAGIRDAR,NKOCET,SOLAPUR for BE (CIVIL ) students of Solapur university. Content will be also useful for SHIVAJI and PUNE university students

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  1. 1. L-8 Effects of air pollution on plants and materials and air pollution episodes Air pollution and control (Elective –I)
  2. 2. Contents Today’s Lecture • Effects of air pollutants on plants • Effect of air pollutant on materials • Air pollution episodes
  3. 3. Some important definitions 1. Necrosis :- Necrosis is the killing or collapse of tissues
  4. 4. 2. Chlorosis :- is the loss or reduction of the green plant pigment, chlorophyll. The loss of chlorophyll usually results in a pale green or yellow pattern.
  5. 5. 3. Abscission :-Leaf abscission is dropping of tree leaves
  6. 6. 4. Epinasty :- is a downward curvature of the leaf due to higher rate of growth on the upper surface.
  7. 7. 5. Defoliation • Defoliation is a term which is used to describe the removal or loss of leaves. People usually use it to mean “total defoliation” meaning that all of the leaves on a plant are lost.
  8. 8. Effects of Air Pollutants on Vegetables Pollutants Effects on Vegetables Aldehydes The upper portions of Alfalfa (is a flowering plant in the pea family) etc. will be affected to Narcosis if 250 ppm of Aldehydes is present for 2 hrs duration. Ozone (O3) All ages of tobacco leaves, beans, grapes, pine, pumpkins and potato are affected. Fleck, stiple (several dots), bleaching, bleached spotting, pigmentation, growth suppression, and early abscission are the effects.
  9. 9. Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate (PAN) Young spongy cells of plants are affected if 0.01 ppm of PAN is present in the ambient air for more than 6 hrs. Nitrogen dioxide Irregular, white or brown collapsed region (NO2) on intercostals tissue and near leaf margin. Suppressed growth is observed in many plants. Ammonia & Sulfur dioxide Bleached spots, bleached areas between veins, bleached margins, Chlorosis, growth suppression, early abscission, and reduction in yield and tissue collapse occur.
  10. 10. Chlorine (Cl2) If 0.10 ppm is present for at least 2 hrs, the epidermis(skin of plants) and mesophyll of plants will be affected. Hydrogen Epidermis and mesophyll of grapes, fluoride, large seed fruits, pines are affected Silicon tetra and fluorosis in animals occur if fluoride 0.001 ppm of HF is present for 5 weeks. Pesticides & Herbicides Defoliation, dwarfing(size reduction), curling, twisting, growth reduction and killing of plants may occur.
  11. 11. Particulates Affects quality of plants, reduces vigor (plant growth) & hardness and interferences with photosynthesis due to plugging leaf stomata and blocking of light. Mercury Greenhouse crops, and floral (Hg) parts of all vegetations are affected; abscission and growth reduction occur in most of the plants.
  12. 12. Trees damaged by acid rain
  14. 14. Effects on material
  15. 15. Mechanism of deterioration in polluted atmosphere 1. Abrasion :- solid particles of sufficient size and travelling at high velocities can cause abrasive action. Also large sharp edged particles imbedded in fabric can accelerate wear
  16. 16. 2. Deposition and removal :- solid and liquid particles deposited on the surface may not damage the material itself but may spoil its surface appearance. However removal of these particles may cause deterioration. Although single washing or cleaning may not cause deterioration but frequent can cause.
  17. 17. 3. Direct chemical attack:- Some air pollutants can react with materials directly or indirectly to cause deterioration. e.g. :- Bleaching of marble by SO2 Tarnishing of silver by H2S Etching of metal surfaces by acid mist
  18. 18. 4. Indirect chemical attack :- certain materials absorb some pollutants and get damaged when pollutant undergo chemical changes. e.g.:- SO2 absorbed by leather converted to H2SO4, which deteriorates the leather
  19. 19. 5. Corrosion :- Atmospheric deterioration of ferrous metals is by electrochemical action i.e. corrosion . This is because of air pollutants and moisture present in the atmosphere.
  20. 20. Material Type of damage Principal air pollutants Other environmental factors influencing rate of attack Metals Corrosion, soiling and tamishing SOx and other acid gases Moisture , temp., air, salt Building materials Surface erosion, discoloration, leaching and corrosion SOx and other acid gases Acid mist and sticky PM Moisture , freezing temp.,
  21. 21. Paints Discoloration, SO2, H2S, softened finish, O3, Sticky Surface erosion particulate Textiles Soiling, spotting, reduces tensile strength Weakening, powdered surface Leather Moisture, sunlight, fungus and other microorganisms SOx, NOx, Moisture , sun other acid light, physical gases, ware particulates SOx, other Physical ware acid gases,
  22. 22. Paper Embrittlement SOx, other Moisture , sun acid gases light, physical ware Dyes Fading , colour NOx, Moisture , change Ozone and sunlight oxidantrs Ceramics Changes in HF, other Moisture surface acid gases appearance Rubber Cracking, weakening Ozone oxidants Sunlight
  24. 24. Pollutant Welfare Effects Carbon Monoxide Contribute to the (CO) formation of smog. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Contribute to the formation of acid rain, visibility impairment, plant and water damage, aesthetic damage.
  25. 25. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Contribute to the formation of smog, acid rain, water quality deterioration, global warming, and visibility impairment. Ozone (O3) Plant and ecosystem damage.
  26. 26. Particulate Matter (PM) Visibility impairment, atmospheric deposition, aesthetic damage. Lead (Pb) Affects animals and plants, affects aquatic ecosystems.
  28. 28. Air Pollution Episodes
  29. 29. Meuse Valley-Belgium, 1930 • About 60 died (mostly elderly) • Sore throats, shortness of breath, cough, phlegm, nausea, vomiting • SO2, sulfur dioxide • H2O (water vapours) • SO4 , sulfuric acid mist • Cattle, birds and rats died • Got little news coverage
  30. 30. Cont……. Fumigation of a valley floor caused by an inversion layer that restricts diffusion from a stack
  31. 31. Donora, Pennsylvania—Oct. 1948 • Monongahela River Valley • Industrial town—steel mill, sulfuric acid plant, freight yard, etc. • Population—14,000 • Steep hills surrounding the valley • Oct 26—temperature inversion (warm air trapping cold air near the ground) • Stable air, fog, lasted 4.5 days • 20 died and 7000 ill
  32. 32. Environs of Donora, Pennsylvania. Horseshoe curve of Monongahela River is surrounded by mountains. Railroad tracks are located on both sides of the river. Low-lying stretch of Monongahela valley between railroad and river is natural trap for pollutants.
  33. 33. Poza Rico, Mexico 1950 • • • • • • • Single source– high sulfur crude oil Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) Flare went out Inversion in valley 22 sudden deaths, 320 hospitalized All ages affected Forerunner of Bhopal
  34. 34. • • • • • • • December 1952 Great London Smog Cold front, Londoners burned soft coal Factories, power plants Temperature inversion 5 days of worst smog city had ever seen Public transportation stopped Indoor concerts had to be cancelled because no one could see the stage, etc. 4000 died
  35. 35. London smog repeats • Repeated in 1956 and 1962 respectively • 1000 and 700 dead respectively
  36. 36. London smog pictures
  37. 37. Weekly death registered from diseases of the lungs and heart in the London Administrative County around the time of the severe fog in December, 1952.
  38. 38. Total death in Greater London and air pollutants levels measured during the fog of December 1952
  39. 39. Seveso, Italy --Dioxin • July 10, 1976, north of Milan • A valve broke at the Industry Chimichee Meda Societa Azionaria chemical plant • Cloud of 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzopara-dioxin (TCDD) traveled southwest through Seveso toward Milan • Contaminant of herbicide • 200 people suffered skin diseases and liver problems
  40. 40. Bhopal, India Dec. 3, 1984 • Union Carbide pesticide plant leak kills up to 2,000 with up to 350,000 injured and 100,000 with permanent disabilities • Methyl isocyanate (MIC)—used as an intermediary in manufacture of Sevin (Carbaryl) • CO + Cl = phosgene • Phosgene + methylamine = MIC • MIC—irritant to the lungs---edema, fluid (cause of death, corneal opacity (blindness)
  41. 41. • MIC is heavier than air • 25 km2 area covered • MIC is water soluble gas • Leak was stopped after 40 minutes by hosing down the tank with cold water. • Disaster management plan was not in existence
  42. 42. Hundreds Troubled by 'World Trade Center Cough‘ NYC fire fighters, school workers have 9/11 breathing problems, new studies say
  43. 43. Objective Questions Q1. ___________ is the killing or collapse of tissues. Q2. ____________is the loss or reduction of the green plant pigment, chlorophyll. Q3. _________________is dropping of tree leaves. Q4. ________________is a downward curvature of the leaf due to higher rate of growth on the upper surface. Q5. Solid particles with sufficient size and high velocity causes _________________.
  44. 44. Q6. _____________ is electrochemical process. Q7. Toxic gas ___________ was responsible for Bhopal gas tragedy in 1984. Q8. MIC is formed by combination of ____________ and ______________. Q9._____________ causes cracking of rubber. Q 10.__________________ is affected by pollution because of refineries.
  45. 45. Theory Questions Q1. Define 1. Epinasty 2. Abscission 3. Chlorosis 4. Necrosis Q2. Write Effects of following pollutants on plants 1. Aldehydes 2. Ozone 3. Particulates 4. NO2
  46. 46. Q3. Write short notes on 1. Mechanisms of deterioration in polluted atmosphere. 2. London smog 3. Bhopal gas tragedy 4. Air pollution episodes Q4. Give tabular format w r t • Pollutant • characteristics • Sources • Health Effects • Welfare Effects for SO2, CO and O3