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AIR POLLUTION CONTROL L 6

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AIR POLLUTION CONTROL course material by Prof S S JAHAGIRDAR,NKOCET,SOLAPUR for BE (CIVIL ) students of Solapur university. Content will be also useful for SHIVAJI and PUNE university students

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AIR POLLUTION CONTROL L 6

  1. 1. L-6 Effects of air pollution on human health (Part -I) Air Pollution and Control (Elective-I) 1
  2. 2. Contents of Unit-III Unito L-6 Effect of different air pollutants on man o L-7 Effect of different air pollutants on man (continued) o L-8 Animals, vegetation, property, aesthetic value and visibility o Air pollution episodes o L- 9 and L-11Global effects of air pollution1. Global warming 2. Ozone depletion 3. Acid rain 4. Heat island effect. 2
  3. 3. COMMON RESPIRATORY DISEASES RELATED TO AIR POLLUTION 3
  4. 4. Human respiratory system 4
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  6. 6. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease oChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which encompasses chronic bronchitis and emphysema is one of the commonest respiratory disease.. 6
  7. 7. oIn the western world, COPD is probably the fourth commonest cause of death in middle aged to elderly men after ischemic heart disease, lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. o According to 'Dutch Hypothesis', asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis are different manifestations of a single disease 7
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  9. 9. oBronchitis oBronchitis is a type of swelling in the bronchial tubes which are the air passages leading from the windpipe to the lungs. When these passages become clogged with thick mucus that prevent air from flowing freely to and from the lungs the body's natural reflex is to try to cough up this mucus to clear the airways. 9
  10. 10. o Acute Bronchitis oAcute bronchitis is usually a short, severe illness that may show up along with cold or follow other viral infections such as measles or whooping cough. 10
  11. 11. o Chronic Bronchitis oChronic bronchitis is a long term, serious condition characterized by frequent coughing and mucus production and often happens along with another lung disease called emphysema. In severe cases, when the bronchial tubes become narrowed and clogged with mucous, the resulting lack of oxygen in the blood may give the skin a bluish colour 11
  12. 12. o Emphysema oEmphysema is a condition in which there is over inflation of structure in the lungs known as alveoli or air sacs. This over inflation results from a breakdown of the walls of the alveoli, which causes a decrease in respiratory function and often breathlessness. Early symptoms of emphysema include shortness of breath and cancer. 12
  13. 13. oEmphysema begins with the destruction of air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs where oxygen from the air is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the blood. The walls of the air sacs are thin and fragile. Damage to the air sacs is irreversible and results in permanent 'holes' in the tissues of the lower lungs. 13
  14. 14. oAsthma o Asthma is a disease in which the breathing tubes (also known as airways or bronchi) get narrowed and the person experiences difficulty in breathing. What causes this process is a biologically active compound called Leukotriene which, in turn is formed by the oxidation of Arachiodonic acid (AA) . This phenomenon causes the asthmatic symptoms e.g., wheezing, coughing or difficulty in breathing. 14
  15. 15. o Asthma is one of the biggest worldwide public health problem. o As per WHO report 15 to 20 million Asthmatic cases are in India and over 150 million worldwide. o As per WHO report there has been about 40% increase in asthma cases during the last decade worldwide. Although asthma is considered primarily a disease of airways, virtually all aspects of pulmonary functions are compromised during an acute attack. 15
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  17. 17. Inhalers are used for ASTHAMA treatment 17
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  19. 19. Health Effects of Air Pollution Nose Removes particles greater than 10 microns Mouth Removes particles greater than 15 microns Smallest particles penetrate deepest in lungs! 19
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  22. 22. Common Health Effects of Air Pollution Respiratory System (Breathing Problems) Coughing Throat irritation Asthma Chronic bronchitis More difficult to breathe deeply and vigorously Increase susceptibility to respiratory infections Cardio Vascular System (Heart Problems) Triggers heart attacks, especially individuals with existing heart disease 22
  23. 23. General health effects on humans 1.Eye irritation 2.Nose and throat irritation 3.Irritation of respiratory tract 4.Gases like H2S, NH3 and Mercaptans cause odour nuisance even at low concentrations 5.Increase in mortality and morbidity rate 6.Variety of particulates especially pollen grains initiate asthma attacks 7.Carcenogenic agents cause cancer 23
  24. 24. 8. Chronic pulmonary diseases like asthma and bronchitis are aggravated by a high concentration of SO2 and NO2, particulates and photochemical smog 9. Carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin to form carboxy hemoglobin. Which is very harmful to human health. 10. HF causes disease of bones (Flourosis) and mottling of teeth. 11.Dust particles cause respiratory diseases – asbestosis, silicosis 12.Certain heavy metals like lead may enter into body and lungs and cause body poisoning 24
  25. 25. Dust (suspended Particulate Matter) Characteristics Major sources - Solid particles or 1. Asbestos factories liquid droplets 2. Mining activity including fumes, 3. Power plants smoke and 4. Ceramic industry aerosols 5. Cement industries - - can adsorb some chemicals 6. Road traffic 25
  26. 26. Types of Dusts 1.Inhalable dust:- The term is used to describe the dust that is hazardous when it is deposited anywhere in the respiratory tree including nose and mouth. 2.Thoracic dust:- It is used to describe those materials that are hazardous when deposited anywhere within the lung air way and gas exchange region. 3. Respirable dust: - It is defined as that fraction of dust reaching alveolar region of the lungs 26
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  28. 28. Typical effects 1. Respiratory diseases 2. Toxicity from metallic dust 3. Asbestosis 4. Silicosis 5. Lung cancer 28
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  31. 31. Type of Main health Target dust effect organ Particulate Fraction of interest Free Silicosis (lung Lungs, gas - Respirable fraction crystalline fibrosis), exchange Silica progressive and region, alveoli irreversible restrictive lung disease, also carcinogenic Coal dust Coal workers Lungs, gas- Reparable fraction pneumoconiosis, exchange, restrictive lung alveoli disease 31
  32. 32. Asbestos Asbestosis Lungs, Thoracic bronchial and and gas- respirable fraction exchange region Lead dust Systemic Through Inhalable intoxication respiratory fraction (blood and system into blood stream central nervous system) 32
  33. 33. Mangan Systemic Through Inhalable ese intoxication respiratory fraction (blood and system into central blood stream nervous system) Wood Certain hard Nasal Inhalable dust fraction woods cause airways nasal cancer Lungs Cotton Byssinosis, Thoracic dust fraction obstructive lung disease 33
  34. 34. Dried cane sugardust Lungs Bagassosis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) Respirable fraction Cement dust Dermatoses Any particle size Pentachlo Systemic rophenol poisoning Natural Dust Skin Through skin Any into blood particle size stream Restrictive lung Alveoli, lungs, Respirable fraction. disease, COPD, respiratory Asthma etc. system. 34
  35. 35. Objective Questions Q1. Acute bronchitis is usually _________________. Q2. Chronic bronchitis is usually ________________. Q3. Dust reaching to alveolar region of lungs is called as ____________________. Q4. Nose Removes particles greater than ____microns. Q5. Mouth Removes particles greater than _____ microns. Q6. __________ and __________ are caused by silica and asbestos particles respectively. 35
  36. 36. Theory Questions Q1. Write a short note on diseases caused by air pollution. Q2.Discuss general effects of air pollution. Q3. Give general characteristics of particulates. Q4. Write in detail effects of particulates in presence of SO2 on human health. Q5. Define 1. Inhalable dust 2. Thoracic dust 3. Respirable dust 36
  37. 37. oNEXT LECTURE 37

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