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Storm Protection


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Storm Protection for the Luxury Home
Solutions for Coastal Living

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Storm Protection

  1. 1. Storm Protection For the Luxury Home
  2. 2. AIA Continuing Education Program <ul><li>This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. </li></ul><ul><li>As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any product or material. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Solutions for Coastal Living <ul><li>Luxury residences are frequently located in coastal environments. Discerning owners and architects expect their unique designs to integrate interior and exterior views without compromising the beauty or safety of their home. </li></ul><ul><li>Luxury fenestration manufacturers must meet and exceed these coastal design needs by offering integral solutions for this premium market. </li></ul><ul><li>According to FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), 75% of all US homes are in coastal areas that are often affected by hurricanes, flooding, and wind-born debris. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Storm-Resistant Luxury Fenestration Architects need to ensure that the products they specify will meet or exceed their customer’s needs in coastal applications. Storm-resistant luxury products should meet the following criteria. <ul><li>Certification - Windows & Doors have to be weather resistant & code compliant </li></ul><ul><li>Design Flexibility - multiple product styles, shapes, and glazing options </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal Maintenance - extruded aluminum, copper and bronze cladding, durable paint finish </li></ul><ul><li>Component Durability - stainless steel hardware options </li></ul><ul><li>Warranty - guarantee of product </li></ul>
  5. 5. Design / Build Factors <ul><li>There are 3 major Design factors prevalent in the Coastal marketplace: </li></ul><ul><li>I. Code Application </li></ul><ul><li>II. Storm Protection </li></ul><ul><li>III. Customization </li></ul><ul><li>Each factor addresses key architectural and functional decision making criteria of luxury fenestration products in coastal design/ build applications. </li></ul>
  6. 6. I. Code Application “ Driven by Strong Storm Activity ”
  7. 7. Hurricane Destruction
  8. 8. Enhanced Product Background <ul><li>The demand for enhanced building products has been driven by the destructiveness of coastal storms. Hurricane Andrew’s devastation of the Florida Coastline in 1992 forced governments, manufacturers, and insurance companies to re-evaluate building products and construction methods. The result was an implementation of stricter codes, raising the level of construction, building materials, and standards for maximum protection against severe weather conditions – hurricanes, tropical storms, high winds, driving rain and wind-borne debris. </li></ul><ul><li>Fenestration selection in coastal regions is dependent on: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glazing Requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design Pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High Velocity Wind Zones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer Awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers of storm resistant, luxury windows and doors must meet this criteria without impeding the creative freedom of architects and designers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Code Requirements <ul><li>International Residential Code (IRC) – per ASCE-7 </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern United States Implementation – refer to chart </li></ul><ul><li>Impact Resistant Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect windows & doors in all Coastal Areas from windborne debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum U-value requirements (insulated impact glazing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zones 3 & 4 – meet D-Missile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zones 1 & 2 – meet C-Missile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Pressures – vary by area </li></ul></ul>Source: International Code Council
  10. 10. High Velocity Hurricane / Wind Zones <ul><li>Zone 4 (Areas w/ greater than 140 mph) </li></ul><ul><li>D Missile – Monolithic Glazing </li></ul><ul><li>Miami-Dade </li></ul><ul><li>Broward </li></ul><ul><li>Small Coastal Areas of Fla./ La. Panhandle, </li></ul><ul><li>Carolinas, Louisiana & Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Zone 3 (Areas w/ 130-140 mph or 120-140 Within 1 mile from coast) </li></ul><ul><li>D Missile – IG Impact Glazing </li></ul><ul><li>Part of NE USA / Central Florida, Fla. Panhandle </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Georgia Coastline </li></ul><ul><li>Carolinas Coastline </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana & Texas Coastal regions </li></ul><ul><li>Zone 2 (120-130 mph > 1 mile from coast) </li></ul><ul><li>C Missile – IG Impact Glazing </li></ul><ul><li>Portions of Central/ NE Florida </li></ul><ul><li>Areas across GA- Carolinas coasts </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana & Texas Coastal regions </li></ul><ul><li>Zone 1 (110-120 mph + Hawaii) </li></ul><ul><li>C Missile – IG Impact Glazing </li></ul><ul><li>Large areas of Mass & Rhode Island </li></ul><ul><li>“ GA- Carolinas Inner Coastal Areas </li></ul><ul><li>“ Northeast Coastline VA-Maine </li></ul><ul><li>“ Louisiana & Texas Coastal regions </li></ul>ASTM E-1996 Zones where impact glazing is mandated Source ICC, ASTM
  11. 11. Design Pressure (DP) <ul><li>Design pressure is the lower value between a building’s or product’s ability to withstand structural wind loading and its resistance to water penetration under wind load. Measured in pounds per square foot, wind loading is considered in both the positive and negative directions. </li></ul>Positive Pressure Negative Pressure Structural Performance Water Penetration
  12. 12. Design Pressure (DP) <ul><li>DETERMINING DP </li></ul><ul><li>Identify wind speed velocity (V) in MPH (ASCE 7 wind map) . </li></ul><ul><li>Determine building height. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine nature of occupancy to establish importance factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine geographic location to identify exposure category. </li></ul>Note: Colored bands represent ranges of winds speeds but not necessarily “Wind Zones” which also depend on distance from coastline Source: International Code Council Building professionals need to consider additional factors such as Building Shape and Gust Factors according to the applicable local building code or ASCE Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures to arrive at the final DESIGN PRESSURE required. UNITED STATES WIND SPEEDS
  13. 13. Tornado Activity Source: FEMA
  14. 14. II. Storm Protection “ Withstand hurricane forces, and deliver uncompromising aesthetics…”
  15. 15. Impact and Cycle Testing C-Missile certified products are tested to withstand impact from a 4 1/2 pound 2 x 4 stud, 4 feet in length, at an impact speed of 40 feet/second. Products are then tested to withstand 4,500 positive and 4,500 negative pressure cycles. D-Missile certified products are tested to withstand impact from a 9 pound 2 x 4 stud, 8 feet in length, at an impact speed of 50 feet/second. Products are then tested to withstand 4,500 positive and 4,500 negative pressure cycles. Please wait for animation to load
  16. 16. Impact and Cycle Testing Summary Wind Zone 4 Test Specimens Wind Zones 1,2,3 Test Specimens 3 Impacts, 1 unit (D Missile) 1 Impact, 3 units (C Missile for Zones 1 and 2) (D Missile for Zone 3)
  17. 17. Storm Protection Luxury window and door manufacturers offer products that incorporate intelligent design, while maximizing safety and protection. Non-luxurious structural upgrades. <ul><li>Visible structural upgrades are not acceptable (unsightly brackets or locks). </li></ul><ul><li>Brackets or locking hardware that requires engagement is not acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Styling (solid Douglas Fir or Mahogany with choice of cladding; extruded aluminum, copper, or bronze. Primed wood or clear finish wood exterior should also be available </li></ul><ul><li>Superb energy efficiency performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum protection against severe conditions. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Storm Protection Solutions <ul><li>Enhanced Design Pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structurally enhanced for coastal environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet and/or exceed Design Pressure + 50 IRC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact Resistant Insulated Glazing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy efficient and impact resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet and/or exceed ASTM E-1996 for C & D missile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximum Protection from Hurricane Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tested to withstand “Category 5” Hurricanes for impact resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets Miami-Dade Code for D missile </li></ul></ul>Superior glazing options designed to withstand extreme weather conditions
  19. 19. Enhanced DP Key Performance Criteria: Must be designed to withstand minimum positive and negative design pressure of 50psf (2400pa). Structural enhancements for high pressure environments and coastal applications Standard SU
  20. 20. Impact Resistant Thermal Glazing C & D Hurricane Missile Certified Insulated Windows & Doors 0.090” Interlayer – D Key Performance Criteria: Withstand the impact of a C or D Missile to simulate windborne debris followed by a total of 9,000 pressure cycles that simulate a hurricane. Laminated glass 0.060” Interlayer – C Standard glass
  21. 21. Monolithic Hurricane Glazing D Missile Hurricane Certified Windows & Doors Key Performance Criteria: Withstand the impact of a C or D Missile to simulate windborne debris followed by a total of 9,000 pressure cycles that simulate a hurricane. Laminated glass 0.090” interlayer Laminated glass
  22. 22. Interlayer
  23. 23. III. Customization “ Allow freedom of style and functionality…”
  24. 24. Customization <ul><li>Coastal Product Selection Deliverables: </li></ul><ul><li>Full Range of Certified products </li></ul><ul><li>Ample Design Options </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion Resistant Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Warranty and after sales service </li></ul>
  25. 25. Windows Bow & Bay Access Hung Custom & Specialty Transoms Casement Picture Awning
  26. 26. Doors Swinging Terrace Sliding Patio Transoms Sidelites
  27. 27. Wood Species <ul><li>Coastal Douglas Fir (standard) </li></ul><ul><li>Mahogany (optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Grain Douglas Fir interior on all Sliding and Swinging Patio Doors </li></ul><ul><li>Wood species selection based on strength, durability, beauty and fastener retention </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Base material </li></ul><ul><li>When selecting a species of wood, consider the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A dense, tight grain is ideal for milling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woods with a natural resistance to moisture absorption and decay are preferred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A factory applied preservative treatment is more effective than a site applied treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luxury manufacturers and/or harvesters should have an abundant supply of timber and practice sustainable forestry and recycling methods. FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) certified timber should be an option </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FSC material is the only certified wood accepted in LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent test results for density, fastener retention, strength and impact resistance should be made available </li></ul></ul>Wood Species
  29. 29. <ul><li>Base material </li></ul>Wood Species 800 550 580 1,233 0.48 0.45 0.40 0.45 Douglas Fir Western Hemlock Ponderosa Pine Mahogany Resistance to decay * The Western Wood Products Association has slightly different values: Douglas Fir .50, Western Hemlock .43 and Ponderosa Pine .36. Specific Gravity* (density) Impact strength height of drop causing complete failure Compression strength (parallel to grain) Compression strength (per- pendicular to grain) Hardness (load per- pendicular to grain) Weight over Volume Inch Psi Psi lbf USFS Grade 31.0 23.0 19.0 n/a 7,230 7,200 5,320 6,773 710 540 420 809 Moderate Slightly to nonresistant Slightly to nonresistant n/a From United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Wood Handbook, 1999, Tables 4-3b & 4-5a Wood Species
  30. 30. <ul><li>Base material </li></ul>Wood Species Douglas Fir Nail 189 98 Screw 527 392 Hinge 743 486 Source: MacMillian Bloedel Research – PSL 300 Technical Manual This chart shows the force required to remove fasteners (in lbs). Ponderosa Pine Comparing the fastener retention of Douglas Fir and Ponderosa Pine
  31. 31. Long-Life Cladding Systems <ul><li>Extruded aluminum cladding - .050” </li></ul><ul><li>AAMA approved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt Spray Test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Durable Kynar based paint finish </li></ul><ul><li>Ample standard and custom clad options </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy gauge Copper & Bronze (.040”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural and pre-patina options </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Aluminum Cladding </li></ul><ul><li>Options in aluminum metal cladding include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roll-formed aluminum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extruded aluminum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extruded aluminum offers several core benefits over roll-formed (stability, resistance to color fading, and durability) and is generally preferred in the luxury market </li></ul><ul><li>The minimum thickness of extruded aluminum in a luxury application is 0.050” (about the thickness of a quarter) </li></ul>Aluminum Cladding
  33. 33. Aluminum Clad Palette Standard Palette & Architectural Palette - Aluminum (36 colors)
  34. 34. <ul><li>In addition to aluminum cladding, luxury manufacturers will provide more exotic alloys such as copper and bronze. </li></ul>Copper and Bronze Cladding
  35. 35. Patina Palette <ul><li>Copper & bronze are materials that will age and change over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Cladding thickness should be a minimum of 0.040” </li></ul><ul><li>Applied finishes provide a pre-aged appearance. Cotton gloves should be worn when handling and installing these units to prevent fingerprints and staining (particularly on natural units) </li></ul><ul><li>3 Patina Options from factory </li></ul><ul><li>- Natural (unfinished) </li></ul><ul><li>- Antique Brown </li></ul><ul><li>- Green </li></ul>
  36. 36. Hardware Options <ul><li>Stainless steel/ corrosion resistant operating hardware for windows and doors </li></ul><ul><li>High performance options for extreme environments standard on Terrace Doors </li></ul><ul><li>Door hardware should have PVD (physical vapor deposition) finishes for maximum protection against corrosion in coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Limited lifetime warranty available (2000 hr salt spray test) </li></ul><ul><li>Stainless steel strikeplates and concealed, stainless steel bearing hinges </li></ul>Resists rust and corrosion, even in demanding coastal environments
  37. 37. <ul><li>Window Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Joinery and cladding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortise and tenon joints milled into a tightly grained wood provide extra strength and durability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both single and double joints can be manufactured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitre joints are inferior as they are structurally weaker and less aesthetically appealing </li></ul></ul>Product Design
  38. 38. <ul><li>Fit and Finish, Design </li></ul><ul><li>Is there excess caulking (“squeeze out”)? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the metal clad joints and wood components fit tightly? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there thermal bridges that may negatively affect comfort and thermal performance? </li></ul><ul><li>Sash warpage is minimized by laminating sash components with opposing grains </li></ul><ul><li>Optimizing wood fibre to reduce waste and manufacturing costs </li></ul>Product Design
  39. 39. Warranty <ul><li>Luxury window and door manufacturers have warranties that provide: </li></ul><ul><li>20 years of coverage on sealed units </li></ul><ul><li>Laminated glass warranty of 5 years against distortion and obstruction of vision </li></ul><ul><li>10 year limited warranty for components </li></ul><ul><li>2 year warranty on labor </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Miami-Dade </li></ul><ul><li>National Fenestration Rating Council </li></ul><ul><li>Window and Door Manufacturer’s Association </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Star </li></ul>Certification Canadian Standards Association Efficient Windows Collaborative British Fenestration Rating Council Japanese Industrial Standards Committee Luxury window and door manufacturers have certification from the following associations:
  41. 41. Q & A New American Home 2006