Mobile devices drive ~ 15% of web trafficSource: Adobe Digital Index (http://blogs.adobe.com/digitalmarketing/digital-index/)
Mobile phones have accelerated the reach of information andservices more than any other innovation< 1800’s 1800’s 1900’sBillionsMillionsThousandsCommunity2000’sTIMEREACH(ACCESS)PaperRadioTrainCarPhoneInternet +BroadbandTVMobile Phoneswith InternetAccessTelegraphMail
–2 days• Change reservation• Reserve seat• View reservations–2 hr• Check gate• Departure time• Lounge access• UpgradeFlight• Arrival time• Food order• Movies• Wi-Fi+2 hr• Groundtransportation• Lost luggage• Navigation+ 2 days• Customer service• Mileage status• Reward travel• Upcoming reservationsContextual use of time will help prioritize home page contentAirline example based on user time
4. Adoption of mobile phones has explodedglobally, and will continue$12B€2.7
2. Architects will need to modernizeinfrastructure
Traits of A Modern Application RationaleAPIs everywhere APIs must be asynchronous and consumable across multipleplatformsUses asynchronous communication Event-driven architecture improves performance by eliminatingblocking at infrastructure layerUses lightweight processcommunication frameworks (e.g.REST, JSON, node.js, Nginx)Reduces resource consumption, effectively uses smallerprocessing instances, smaller thread poolsComposed of independent serviceendpointsIndividual service can change independently, applications cancontinue to function if an individual service failsUse of in-memory DBs Reduces latency between mobile clients and infrastructureServices deployed on elasticinfrastructureMakes is easier and cheaper to scale up and down on demandSharded SQL DBMSes or NoSQLDBMSesMakes it possible to support millions of customers withcommodity, scale-out hardwareUses dynamic languages in concertwith languages like Java and .NETSimplifies programming constructs. Allow applications to evolvewithout recompiling services.
Architecture patterns evolve to exploitscale outMVCData Source Filter (n) Data SinkPipes and FiltersPipes (n +1)ViewControllerModelBrokerMessageBusServiceServiceServiceBridgeClients(Web &Mobile)Gateway
Domain REST APIScreen-based REST APIWhat powers Linked-in Mobile› Node.js for high scale asynchronouseventing to clients› Mobile server intermediatesbetween client and LinkedIn platform› Screen API (JSON) – Domain API(Thrift)› Nginx for higher throughput ofmessagesCloud Native ElementsiOSJS/HTML +NativeAndroidNativeMobile WebJS/HTMLOtherWrapJS/HTMLLoad BalancerNginx NginxNode JSServerNode JSServerLinkedIn Core PlatformMongoDBLoggingServerTrackingServerMobileServer
The NPR API architecture› 43M pageviews in 2010 to88M – 30M mobile› Following a COPE strategy› Appservers, Java, JSP, Struts› MySQL as data managementlayer› NoSQL XML repository for APIstaging› PHP 5 /Linux in the APIhandling layer› Memcache to accelerateCloud Native Elements
3. There will be no “magic bullet” approachNativeToolsPerformanceCostAgilityExperienceConnected TasksFull JS FrameworkHybridMobileMiddlewareLight JSFrameworkResponsiveWeb
Mobile app strategies — WebDeveloping apps that use the device browser› Content centric experiences› “Glanceable” experiences› Situational applications› Use progressive enhancement, gracefuldegradation, or responsive design› Security, manageability concerns mirrorregular web apps› Best for tablet-centered experiences
Responsive design is on the rise43%28%14%9%15%Progressive enhancementResponsive designResponsive design plus server-sidecomponents (RESS)Graceful DegradationDont Know“Which of the following design philosophies best reflect how youdevelop websites?”N= 579 developers using HTML 5Source: 2013 Developer Forrsights Survey
Development considerations1. How extensive does offline support need to be? Rich media?2. Do you need cutting-edge platform features like GPU acceleration or NFC?3. Do you want to monetize your apps?4. Are you more interested in progressive enhancement or functional APIs?5. Do you need to support more than two platforms/form factors?6. What staff capabilities will you match up against mobile?7. How important are predictable costs?8. What type of information are you building your app around?9. How important is it to control the distribution of your apps?10. What must be done custom versus using package apps?10 questions to ask before choosing a client technology:
• Bar code scanning• Consumer reviews• Coupons• In-store navigation• Lists (e.g., weddingregistries)• Loyalty• Promotions• Shopping listsIn-store• Coupons• In-store inventory• Nearest “store”• Pricing• PromotionsCompetitor’s store• Coupons• How-to videos• In-store inventory• Research tools• Shopping listbuilding• Store hours• Store location• Weekly circularHomeRetail example based on user location2. Intelligence added to location will dictateconsumer experiences on mobileImage: Julie Ask
3. Pricing can and will vary by locationIf a retailer knows I am home,they may offer a priceassuming I won’t get in my carand drive.If a retailerknows I amin the store,they maypriceassuming Ineed theproductnow.
4. Industries with complex or datedbusiness models ….TaxiMedallion InsuranceDispatchCall IVRWaiting WaitingNo Transparency
… will be susceptible to disruption asmobile phones eliminate elements …TaxiMedallion InsuranceDispatchCall IVRWaiting WaitingNo Transparency
… and offer value add services• Value-add services include: choiceof car, electronic receipts, cartracking, driver ratings/reviews,timely information, etc.• Vehicles are identified quicklywithout lengthy IVR interactions or“hold” times• Mobile-first company/service
Business leaders anddevelopers must shifttheir focus together.
How to approach mobile services design:1. Think mobile first2. Focus on convenience3. Use feedback to rapidly evolve mobile services4. Organize around mobile service delivery5. Prepare for further technology disruption
The line between creepy andhelpful is thin, gray, and curvy.
Creepy or helpful?What your phone/Amex knows:• You have traveled to Mexico.• You have rented a car.• You are staying at the Westin.• The weather there is 92oF.“We suspect you are drivingto Chichen Itza today. Ourtravel partner is offering aspecial price on tours ifbooked with your Amex.”
Creepy or helpful?What your phone/AMEX knows:• You have traveled to Mexico.• You have rented a car.• You are staying at the Westin.• The weather there is 92oF.“We see your card was justused to purchase tickets toChichen Itza. Please enteryour 4-digit passcode toconfirm you have possessionof your card.”
Systems ofEngagement3. Use feedback to rapidly evolve servicesTime to SafetyTime to CertaintyTime to FeedbackSystems ofOperationSystems ofRecordLifecycle Focus
Adapt Agile principles for mobile› Use personas to drive insight› Create journey maps› Wireframes and prototypes build backlog› Feedback not requirements documents› Kanban boards to manage atomicdemand› Analytics built into applications
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecV 1.0(MVP)V 1.2.2V 1.2V 1.2.1Regression + EmergencyPatchNew OSversionreleasedV 2.0V 2.1Features +Defect fixesRegular Internal Sprint Cycle + Beta Testing (2 weeks)Move toward “release on demand”
Services will evolve in sophisticationLevelofmobilesophisticationHighLowEvolution of services over timeNothingMultichannel• Migrate services that arefrequently used onlineand are mobile.ConsistencyCross-channel• Mobile doesn’t have tobe a holistic replacementfor other channels ortouchpoints.EnhancementMobile-unique• New products,processes, andservicesBreakthroughAdvancedcontextualSimplicity
4. Organize around mobile service deliverySingle MobileChampionMobileGroup“We have a mobile center of excellence. They are tasked withunderstanding the mobile ecosystem plus key trends, developing bestpractices and educating our staff.”Organization“It [mobile group] was great early on because we needed a small groupto get attention. But then there wasn’t enough fire to make mobile go.Mobile need to be infused everywhere. We disaggregated mobile.”
4. Organize around mobile service delivery› Create a strategy for mobile services overall› Obtain appropriate senior buy-in, budget, andgovernance› Create “service teams” that combine business,development, testing, and operations› Put a plan in place to handle big data/analytics› Focus on communities of practice over centers ofexcellence
5. Prepare for further technology disruption› Today’s cutting edge device features will comm0ditize› New sensors will enrich context› Motion and voice will augment touch inputs› Moore’s law will enable more edge processing› Heads up interfaces will emerge› Larger touch surfaces (portable and static)› Wearable and connectables create local networks› Apps give way to platforms and services› Tension over economics of native/web vs. unique platformservices
Phones will have a host of new technologiesTechnology Opportunity (examples)• 3D cameras• Biometrics• Conversational voice recognition• Near field communications (NFC)• Distance measured, gesture control• Security, access cards, ID• Verbal command (e.g., Siri)• Payments, ticketing, and informationControls• 3D displays• High-resolution displays• Micromirrors• Touch inputs (fine-tuned)• Augmented reality, video output• Media consumption, bar codes• Image projection, picoprojectorsDisplays• Accelerometers (detects motion/tilt)• Chemical sensors• Gyroscopes• Magnetometers• Microbolometers (infrared)• Pressure sensors• Phone orientation as control, pedometer• CO detection, food freshness• Gesture control, navigation, games• Directions — “Is it over there?”• Night vision, heat, light/dark• Height in buildingsDatacollectionSource: A.M. Fitzgerald & Associates, Yole Développement, and interviews with Atmel, InvenSense, and Sharp Electronics
In summary – Pulling it all together› Think mobile first – the numbers demand it› Think beyond apps – to modern applications› Think omni-channel – tablets /= smart phones› Think context – local, historical, and extended› Think convenience – provide relevant, simple,personalized services› Think horizontal – organize around service delivery› Think flexible – the mobile shift is just getting started!