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Chapter2

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Chapter2

  1. 1. Chapter 2: The Founding of America<br />
  2. 2. Review:<br />Evidence that supports Elite Theory? <br />Evidence that supports Pluralist Theory?<br /> Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning <br />2<br />
  3. 3. Critically Analyzing the “Founding Fathers”<br />Option 1: “a group of self-interested wealthy men” (a “bad” thing)<br />Option 2: “a group of wealthy men of similar backgrounds & similar interests”<br />Not judging “goodness or badness”<br />Purely descriptive to explain/understand<br /> Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning <br />3<br />
  4. 4. Overview<br />Background on pre-Revolution America<br />Early American government<br />Early demographics<br /> Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning <br />4<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />The Colonial Background<br />Religious Freedom:<br />Separatists broke with the Church of England<br />Puritans & Quakers<br />The irony…<br />Economic Motivations:<br />Entrepreneurs & the poor<br />Varied by colony<br />(The Granger Collection)<br />
  6. 6. Early British Colonization<br />First permanent colony at Jamestown, VA (1607)<br />First representative assembly, Virginia’s House of Burgesses (1619)<br />By 1732, 13 colonies with governing institutions<br />6<br />
  7. 7. How the Colonies Were Governed<br /> Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning <br />7<br />
  8. 8. French & Indian Wars (1756–1763)<br />North American theater of Seven Years War<br />France vs. Britain (+allies)<br />Colonists<br />Britain won, but costly<br />New territory & financing of war<br /> Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning <br />8<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />British Restrictions & Colonial Grievances<br />In 1763, the British Parliament began to pass laws that treated the colonies as a unit. <br />(National Portrait Gallery)<br />
  10. 10. Economic Consequences of Interference<br />Cost of defending colonies & war debt lead to unpopular taxes<br />Renewed Enforcement of the Navigation Acts (limits trade)<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning <br />11<br />English Colonists Respond: the First Continental Congress<br /><ul><li>FOCUS: restore the political structure prior to interference by Parliament
  12. 12. “benign neglect”
  13. 13. With a compromise, future conflict may have been averted
  14. 14. April, 1775: hostilities begin!</li></li></ul><li>Declaration of Independence (1776)<br />Purpose: declare war & rally support<br />Asserts natural rights & equality<br />Social contract<br />12<br />
  15. 15. 13<br />Second Continental Congress<br />Established an army<br />Put Washington in charge<br />Directed the War<br />1/3 Rebelled, 1/3 Loyal, 1/3 Indifferent<br />Painting by John Trumbull, 1819, Library of Congress<br />
  16. 16. Revolutionary War (1775–1783)<br />14<br />
  17. 17. Refresher<br />Key question of the day:<br />What is the worst 3-D movie idea currently out there?<br /> Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning <br />15<br />
  18. 18. USA, Version 1.0: Articles of Confederation (1781-1789)<br />Recognized states as sovereign<br />Citizens loyal to their state<br />limits powers of central govt.<br />No common currency or national army<br />Hampered interstate commerce & tax collection<br />16<br />
  19. 19. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning <br />17<br />The Confederal Government Structure Under the Articles of Confederation<br />
  20. 20. Shay’s Rebellion (1786-1787)<br />High state taxation<br />High interstate trade competition led to high prices of goods<br />Rising personal debt<br />18<br />© Bettmann/Corbis<br />
  21. 21. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning <br />19<br />Weaknesses of the Articles<br />No way to resolve disputes between states<br />Need to organize the states for the collective good<br />Cooperative trade policy & national army<br />Addresses causes of and protects from outbreaks of rebellion<br />
  22. 22. 20<br />Accomplishments Under the Articles<br />Articles established to:<br />Organize the states so they could defeat the British forces<br />Gain independence from Britain<br />
  23. 23. Amending the Articles <br />Constitutional Convention (1787), called to amend the Articles<br />created new governing document instead<br />21<br />
  24. 24. 22<br />
  25. 25. Class Breakdown of Early America<br /> Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning <br />23<br />
  26. 26. 24<br />
  27. 27. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning <br />25<br />
  28. 28. 26<br />
  29. 29. Conclusion:<br />Framers shared similar backgrounds & interests<br />Limited diversity in U.S.<br />Past experience shapes new system:<br />Too much, too little power<br /> Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning <br />27<br />

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