Chapter 3


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Chapter 3

  1. 1. Chapter 3<br />The Evolution of American Elites<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. How did we compare?<br />
  4. 4. Overview<br />Elites undergo gradual change<br />New elites form (circulation from below)<br />
  5. 5. Hamilton’s Federalist Views<br />Rule for public good<br />Only select few able to rule properly<br />Masses only self-interested<br />Strong govt. needed to protect rights of the many<br />
  6. 6. Centralization: 1789-1785<br />Sec. Treasury:<br />Strong govt. to protect property & promote business<br />Paid off federal & state debts<br />Why might this be controversial for the states?<br />Speculators profit!!<br />National Bank<br />
  7. 7. Who would most benefit from these policies?<br />
  8. 8. More on the National Bank<br />No direct Constitutional mandate<br />Used “necessary and proper” clause<br />AKA: “implied” or “elastic”<br />Functions: taxation, borrowing, issuing currency (enumerated powers)<br />Declared unconstitutional (1819)<br />Yet “implied powers” survived<br />
  9. 9. Downfall & Rivalry<br />Hamilton’s policies controversial<br />Energizes rival Anti-Federalist faction<br />Movement to discredit him<br />Hamilton resigns under pressure (1795)<br />Hamilton exits the political stage (1804)<br />
  10. 10. Jeffersonian Elites Respond<br />Economic Policies: little benefit to planters & landowners<br />Local & State elites oppose strong federal govt.<br />Become Anti-Federalists (later Republicans, Democratic Republicans)<br />
  11. 11. Jefferson as Champion of Elites<br />Preference for landowners & farmers <br />Disregarded the urban masses<br />Educated, wealthy landowners should rule<br />Influenced Louisiana Purchase (more land)<br />
  12. 12. Alien & Sedition Acts of 1798<br />Federalists respond to Republican public criticism<br />Limited speech against federal govt.<br />Jefferson leads call for state “nullification” powers<br />The irony: nullification nullified<br />
  13. 13. Jeffersonians in Power 1800-32<br />Once in office, expanded powers largely remain<br />While landowners benefit from change, previous financial elites continue to gain<br />By 1820, only one party<br />
  14. 14. Brain Break <br />,18056/<br />
  15. 15. Emergence of Western Elites<br />Opportunities for wealth!<br />Thus, rapid upward social mobility<br />Jackson represents new elites<br />Wanted more open elite system<br />Pushed for universal white (male) suffrage<br />Why open up the electorate?<br />
  16. 16. Elites Clash: the Civil War<br />Diverging Elite Economic Interests<br />Southern Elites: heavily dependent on slavery <br />Only ~7,000 large slave-owning families<br />Northern Elites: dependent on free labor<br />Differing visions on the West<br />Small farmers vs. slave economy<br />Match economic self-interest & become political allies<br />
  17. 17. The Civil War & Slavery<br />While there were clearly incompatibilities in economic interests between the North and the South, does this mean there were not other causes to the Civil War?<br />
  18. 18. New Industrial Elite<br />Industry won over agriculture<br />Rapid economic expansion<br />Into the West<br />Govt. support:<br />Protectionism; infrastructure<br />
  19. 19. Social & Economic Consequences<br />Social Darwinism (favored elites)<br />Concentration of wealth (monopolies)<br />Industrialists wield most political influence<br />
  20. 20. Elite Response<br />Increase in govt. regulation<br />Anti-trust, child labor, food quality<br />FDR’s response to Great Depression<br />Work towards greater public good<br />elite responsibility over the masses<br />Why would these changes be in the interest of elites?<br />
  21. 21. Leadership Failures: Vietnam<br />Vietnam: won the battle, lost the war<br />No clear objectives<br />Shift over time<br />Did not rally popular support<br />Consequences: public distrust & weakened govt. legitimacy<br />America becomes “gun shy” about war<br />
  22. 22. Gulf War I: Leadership restored<br />Quick war + international support + public support = improved public confidence<br />America becomes less “gun shy”<br />What are consequences of the Second Gulf War regarding confidence in elite leadership?<br />
  23. 23. Analyzing Concepts<br />The idea of upward mobility and the American dream of “making it” are entrenched in US history and culture. How does this legitimate the elite system?<br />