Carrie’s slide. When deciding what to major in during my under graduate degree, I followed the decision making process. I identified my goal, and brainstormed majors.
Carrie’s slide. After brain storming, I got information on the majors that were available, and then made the decision that was best, and felt the most right. I was pleased with the out come of that decision.
Conflict mgt & resolution
COM 516Shaneeka Perry-Lawson Karen Boyd John Shertliff Carrie Evans Stephanie Hezekiah January 6, 2012
Introduction There are many ways to make decisions and resolve conflict when working with a group. In this presentation we will discuss: Team Decision Making Effective/ Ethical Decisions Conflict: Sources/ Solutions Conflict and Cohesion in Groups
TeamDecisionMakingThe way a team decides tomake a decision is one of themost important decision itmakes. A team should decidein advance what decisionmaking technique will beused so that there are nosurprises when a problemoccurs.(Shaneeka)
Decision Making Techniques Consensus Decision making Advantages Useful in making serious, important and complex decisions in which all teammates are committed to Disadvantages Takes a lot of time and energy Majority Rule Decision Making Advantages Can be used when there is no time for a full consensus decision Disadvantages Usually leaves an alienated minority which can cause future team conflicts
Decision Making Techniques Minority Rule Decision Averaging Decision Making Making Advantages Advantages Can be used when Individual errors and everyone cannot get extreme opinions cancel together to make a each other out resulting in decision and the team is in a better outcome a time crunch mode Disadvantages Disadvantages Letting members with the Does not utilize the talents greatest expertise make of all team members the decision is better than the team averaging results
Decision MakingTechniquesExpert Decision Making Advantages Useful when expertise of one person is superior to all team members Disadvantages It is hard to determine the best expert and skills set and knowledge from other teammates are not implementedAuthority Rule without Discussion Decision Making Advantages Should be used when little time is available to make a decision Disadvantages One person cannot be a good resource for all decisionsAuthority Rule with Discussion Decision Making Advantages Gains commitment from all team members by discussion and using skill sets and knowledge of all team members Disadvantages Requires good communication skills from all team members and a leader is required to make a decision
ManagingLearning TeamConflict Conflict Conflict can be destructive or it can be constructive. Conflict arises from differences among individuals in a team. When different individuals with diverse backgrounds come together in a team they bring along with them their differences in terms of power, values, attitudes, and social factors which all contribute to team conflict. (Shaneeka)
Team Conflict Conflict often results in Personal three categories include individual’s self Communication esteem, personal goals, poor listening, insufficient values and need sharing of information, differences in interpretation and perception, and nonverbal cues Structural Size of the team and levels of participation
Handling Negative Team conflict Direct Approach Team leader confronts issue head on Bargaining an excellent technique when both parties have ideas on a solution yet cannot find common ground Enforcement This technique is only used when it is obvious that a member does not want to be a team player and refuses to work with the rest. Retreat By simply avoiding or working around the conflict, a leader can often delay long enough for the individual to cool off. De-emphasis This is a form of bargaining where the emphasis is on the areas of agreement
Conflict Resolution Approaches Avoidance If the conflict itself is not central to the work of the team, it may be best to set it aside so that the important work of the team can proceed. Accommodation one person gives in to another for the sake of getting along. Competition competition may best be described as a win-lose style of conflict resolution Compromise people compromise it is to accept a middle ground position Collaboration people in dispute would be able to collaborate to find a resolution that satisfies the needs of everyone involved.
Effective/ Ethical Decisions Steps of the decision making process: Identify the core issues Determine decision making approach Generate options Research options Evaluate alternatives Reach a decision Implement and monitor (Carrie)
Decision Making Process Identify Core Issues Clear and specific Log term goals Determine a Decision Making Approach Take a vote Flip a coin Defer to the leader Take turns Generate Options Brain storm Write it out Get all perspectives
Decision Making Continued Research Options Get information from experts Ask a teacher Evaluate Alternatives Pros/Cons Narrow the alternatives Prioritize factors Reach a Decision Visualize Is the result one I can live with? Implement and Monitor Was the out come expected?
Ethical Decisions Ethics applies principles or standards to moral dilemmas. Ethics and character reflect on our true inner self; they determine how we respond to …dilemmas (De Janasz, S. C., Dowd K. O., & Schneider B. Z. 2002 pg.383). Ethics are our inner compass, and give us the guide to make difficult decisions. When working with a group there are no right or wrong choices, and it is through effective decision making that the good of the whole is put over the good of the individual.
Conflict: Sources and Solutions Conflict between human beings in unavoidable. People making individual decisions which consequently affect others and/or the group they belong to is the primary contributor. Identifying, classifying, and understanding various types of conflict can lead to successful management. Conflict can even be positive in certain situations. Dealing with conflict through prevention, mediation, negotiation, and other methods is essential for maintaining relationships and organizational control. The increased popularity of team building and group design in contemporary times make effective communication in all of these efforts paramount to conflict resolution. (John)
Is Conflict Normal? Traditional View (twentieth century): All conflict is viewed as detrimental during this period. Firing managers to solve conflict was the primary solution. Human Relations View (1940-1970): Conflict is viewed as a natural byproduct of human interaction. The first identification of positive conflict surfaces during these years. Interactionist View (Contemporary): Present day theory holds conflict to be unavoidable. Constructive conflict is established and even intentionally integrated in human relations of many kinds. Managing conflict remains a challenge.
Sources of Interpersonal Conflict Limited Resources: Numerous people vying for a finite pool of goods. Differences in Goals/Objectives: Incongruent styles and attitudes slow organizational progress and achievement of results. Miscommunication: Damaging even when unintentional. Cultural, gender, and semantic differences exacerbate problem. Differing Attitudes, Values, and Perceptions: All are contributing factors to conflict. Personality Clashes: Inherent differences in human nature will yield conflict.
Five Interpersonal ManagementStrategies Avoidance: Consumes the least amount of time but often leaves problem unresolved. Accommodating: Occurs when the conflict issue is less important than the relationship. Compromising: When mutual sacrifice is necessary to achieve common goal. Competing: The end goal supersedes everything else including relationships. Collaborating: When both parties identify and put aside differences for end result. Communication is critical.
Tips forTemper and Emotions Control Managing Conflict Understand the Issues Pick Your Battles Search for Common Goal
Conflict Prevention Techniques Team Building: Concept gains popularity as organizations increase in size. Diversity Training: Finding value in differences. Open Communication: Newsletters, memos, and surveys are some examples. Resource Allocation: Increase transparency of resource distribution, and add incentives to their procurement.
Conflict and Cohesion in Groups Three Types of Conflict Substantive Conflict disagreement over members’ ideas and group issues. Procedural Conflict disagreement among group members about the methods or processes the group should follow in its attempt to accomplish a goal. Affective Conflict occurs when a member does not feel valued or is threatened by the group.(Karen)
Conflict Five Styles of ConflictAvoidance - avoid the conflictAccommodation - giving in.Competition - not concerned with group goalCompromise- meet halfwayCollaboration-look for other solutions
ConflictFive Approaches to Conflict Management 4Rs Method-reasons, reactions, results, resolutions AEIOU Model-assume, express, identify, outcome, understanding Negotiation-bargaining Mediation-third party facilitates Arbitration-arbitrator makes decision
CohesionCharacteristics of Cohesion Interaction Supportive Communication Conform to Group Expectations Successful Approaches to Achieving Goals Member Satisfaction
Balancing Conflict and CohesionPoorly managed conflicts do not develop cohesion.Too much cohesion while avoiding conflict leads to bad decision.Groups should engage in constructive conflict to balance conflict and cohesion.
ConclusionWhen working in Learning Teams, there can beconflict when it comes to making decisions.However, there are methods that can be used toresolve these conflicts. Following the appropriatemethod according to the type of conflict can be agreat benefit in aiding a team to make the rightdecision.
References Conflict and Cohesion in Groups. Retrieved from University of Phoenix Student Website Learning Team Toolkit.De Janasz, S. C., Dowd K. O., & Schneider B. Z. (2002). Interpersonal Skills inEd Rigsbee, “Conflict Management and Resolution,” Business Forms, Labels and Systems, Feb. 20, 2000, p. 62.Finley, M., & Robbins, H. (2000). (2nd ed.). (p. 271). Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Joseph Eby Ruin, “Six Factors in Conflict Management,” The New Press Times, June 14, 1997, p. 1-EXKenneth Thomas, “Conflict and Conflict Management,” in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976), pp. 889-935.Organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 371-393, 241-259Personal Decisions International, “Five Steps to Mediating Conflict,” Workforce, Feb. 1999, p.25.Porter, S. Team Decision Making. Retrieve January 5, 2012, from http://www.apollolibrary.com/Library/ltt/download/TeamDecisionMaking.pdfStephen Robbins, Organizational Behavior, Eight Ed. (Upper Saddle NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998), pp 435-436.Townsley, C. A. Resolving Conflict in Work Teams. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from http://www.innovativeteambuilding.co.uk/pages/articles/conflicts.htm