Logic hand outs#3

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Logic hand outs#3

  1. 1. Judgment <ul><li>The second operation of the human mind </li></ul><ul><li>a mental process of transferring from the ideal order to the real order </li></ul>
  2. 2. Judgment <ul><li>the act whereby the intellect compares two ideas noting their agreement or disagreement and either combines or separates them </li></ul>
  3. 3. Judgment <ul><li>defines as the act by which the mind affirms or denies something about something else </li></ul><ul><li>that which is denied or affirmed by the other </li></ul><ul><li>that to which it is said to belong or not to belong </li></ul>known as Attribute known as subject
  4. 4. Components of Judgment <ul><li>Existence of two concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Pronouncement of agreement & disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of two concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Take the form of Subject & a predicate in a proposition </li></ul><ul><li>Manifest the process of knowing the relationship b/w two concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Embodies the principle behind the true essence of judgment </li></ul>
  5. 5. Proper Definition of Judgment <ul><li>the act by which the mind affirms or denies an attribute of a subject </li></ul>
  6. 6. Judgment <ul><li>express in sentence known as proposition, the product of judgment </li></ul><ul><li>needs simple apprehension since without ideas to be compared NO judgment can take place </li></ul>
  7. 7. Proposition <ul><li>the external sign of judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Defines as a statement which affirms or denies something about a certain reality or object. </li></ul><ul><li>Often formulated in declarative form </li></ul><ul><li>A triangle is a three-sided figure </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reasoning <ul><li>The third operation of the human mind </li></ul><ul><li>a mental process wherein the intellect arrives at new judgment or at a new truth by using judgment previously known </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reasoning <ul><li>in this act or mental process, the mind or the intellect advances from one thing understood to another- ( engaged in mental discussion) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Two Methods of Reasoning <ul><li>the reasoning from the particular to universal; from specific instances to the formulation of general principles; from cause to effects </li></ul>Induction <ul><li>a.k.a. A POSTERIORI reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>methods of reasoning employed by physical sciences; chemistry, biology, medicine </li></ul>
  11. 11. Two Methods of Reasoning <ul><li>the reasoning from the universal to the particular; from laws to their operations principles; from causes to effects </li></ul><ul><li>a.k.a A PRIORI reasoning </li></ul>Deduction <ul><li>method used in mathematical & philosophical sciences </li></ul>
  12. 12. … thanks for listening!

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