The Culture of Recovery in America:  Recent Developments &  Their Significance  Bill White Chestnut Health Systems Email: ...
Presentation Goals  <ul><li>Provide a historical update of the culture of recovery in America to include a review of diver...
The Handsome Lake Movement <ul><li>Handsome Lake’s conversion (1799) </li></ul><ul><li>The Code of Handsome Lake  </li></u...
Other Abstinence-based Religious Revitalization Movements <ul><li>The Shawnee Prophet </li></ul><ul><li>The Kickapoo Proph...
The American Temperance Movement  <ul><li>Early recovery biographies (1830s) </li></ul><ul><li>Washingtonian Movement  </l...
 
 
Blue Ribbon Reform Club Pledge Card
 
 
Faith-based Recovery
Early Treatment Institutions
Early Treatment Institutions
The Collapse (1900-1920) <ul><li>Expos é s of fraud and patient abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Schisms within the field </li></ul...
The Transition Period <ul><li>Mutual Aid </li></ul><ul><li>United Order of Ex-boozers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Harlem Club ...
Mid-Twentieth Century Rebirth  <ul><li>Alcoholics Anonymous  </li></ul><ul><li>The Modern Alcoholism Movement </li></ul><u...
AA Shared with Earlier Groups (Not Derivative) <ul><li>Problem admission </li></ul><ul><li>Public or semi-public commitmen...
AA Innovations <ul><li>Self-surrender versus self-assertion </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on long-term recovery maintenance vers...
AA Innovations <ul><li>Maintained its closed meeting framework </li></ul><ul><li>--import of identification in recovery pr...
AA Remains Standard by which Pre-AA and Post AA Groups are Judged <ul><li>Size (2.1 million members) & Geographical Disper...
Recovery Mutual Aid, 1970-2000 <ul><li>Growth of Twelve Step groups </li></ul><ul><li>Growing varieties of Twelve Step exp...
Spiritual Frameworks of Recovery  <ul><li>Twelve-Step Groups, e.g., -AA (1935) and NA (1947, 1953, 1959)  </li></ul><ul><l...
Further Specialization  <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Anon (1951), Alateen (1957), Families Anonymous (1971), Recove...
Further Specialization  <ul><li>Occupational  </li></ul><ul><li>International Doctors in Alcoholics Anonymous (1949), Lawy...
Further Specialization  <ul><li>Co-Occurring Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Disorders Anonymous (1982), Dual Recovery Anon...
Meeting Specialization  <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Age or duration of sobriety  </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity  </li></...
Secular Recovery Support Groups <ul><li>Women for Sobriety (1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Secular Organization for Sobriety  / S...
Religious Recovery Support Groups <ul><li>Calix Society (1947) </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholics Victorious (1948)  </li></ul><...
Important Resource  <ul><li>Mutual Support Resources regularly updated at Faces and Voices of Recovery Web Site  </li></ul...
Current Trends <ul><li>From recovery community to communities of recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural & political awakening...
Culture of Recovery Update <ul><li>Diversification of Peer-based Recovery Support Societies </li></ul><ul><li>New Recovery...
New Recovery Advocacy Movement <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Recovery Summit in St. Paul </li></ul><ul><li>Nation...
Movement Goals  <ul><li>Political/Cultural Mobilization of Communities of Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery-focused Publ...
 
 
 
Cultural Consciousness; Cultural Development  <ul><li>Reconstruction of History </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Reconstruction ...
Recovery School Movement  <ul><li>High School and Collegiate Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Association of Recovery Schools (200...
Grassroots Recovery Community Organizations (RCOs) <ul><li>Organized by and on behalf of communities of recovery </li></ul...
Recovery Home Movement <ul><li>Halfway Houses (1950s) to Social Model Rehabilitation Programs (1970s) </li></ul><ul><li>Ox...
Recovery Industries <ul><li>Formats range from “recovery friendly” (Zingerman’s Deli, Venturetech) to “recovery exclusive”...
Recovery Ministries, Churches & Colonies <ul><li>“ Recovery friendly churches”  </li></ul><ul><li>Mega-churches with  a “r...
Cultural Development Between (rather than within) Communities of Recovery  <ul><li>Identity Reconstruction  </li></ul><ul>...
The Recovery Home Movement: 2010 Oxford House Convention
Recovery & Education
Recovery within Faith Communities
Cultural Visibility & Advocacy (with Anonymity)
Recovery-focused Community Education
Recovery Community Centers
Recovery Media
Recovery & Community Service: Baltimore Recovery Corps
Recovery Arts: Philadelphia Recovery Murals
Recovery Sports:  Phoenix Multisport
Recovery & Music
Implications  <ul><li>AOD arena at personal/family levels no longer limited to Tx and mutual aid  </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanc...
Implications  <ul><li>Greater focus on role of community in recovery </li></ul><ul><li>* Greater focus on community recove...
Primary References <ul><li>White, W. (2008) The culture of recovery in America:  Recent developments and their significanc...
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Transformation of the Culture of Recovery in America by William L. White - October 2011

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"Transformation of the Culture of Recovery in America" was presented on Tuesday October 18, 2011; by William L. White, MA; Senior Research Consultant, Chestnut Health System. For almost three centuries, people recovering from severe alcohol and other drug problems have found ways to help each other initiate and sustain their recovery journeys. Today, recovering people, their families, and visionary professionals have responded to the stigma, criminalization, and lack of appropriate medical care associated with severe alcohol and other drug problems by creating an unprecedented growth in new structures of recovery support. This presentation will explore recent recovery community building activities and the influence they will exert on the future of addiction treatment and recovery in America. William White is one of the world’s best-know and most influential advocates, authors and public speakers on the subject of recovery from addiction. He has authored or coauthored more than 350 articles and monographs and fifteen books, including "Let's Go Make Some History: Chronicles of the New Addiction Recovery Advocacy Movement," "Pathways From The Culture of Addiction to the Culture of Recovery," and "Slaying the Dragon: The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America" which received the McGovern Family Foundation Award for the best book on addiction recovery. This program is part of the FREE, annual Dawn Farm Education Series. The Education Series is organized by Dawn Farm, a non-profit community of programs providing a continuum of chemical dependency services. For information, please contact Matt Statman, LLMSW, CADC, Education Series Coordinator, at 734-485-8725 or info@dawnfarm.org, or see http://www.dawnfarm.org/programs/education-series.

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Transformation of the Culture of Recovery in America by William L. White - October 2011

  1. 1. The Culture of Recovery in America: Recent Developments & Their Significance Bill White Chestnut Health Systems Email: [email_address]
  2. 2. Presentation Goals <ul><li>Provide a historical update of the culture of recovery in America to include a review of diverse communities of recovery and the emergence of new recovery culture institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the implications of these changes for the future of addiction treatment and recovery. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Handsome Lake Movement <ul><li>Handsome Lake’s conversion (1799) </li></ul><ul><li>The Code of Handsome Lake </li></ul><ul><li>The rejection of alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>The Longhouse Religion </li></ul>
  4. 4. Other Abstinence-based Religious Revitalization Movements <ul><li>The Shawnee Prophet </li></ul><ul><li>The Kickapoo Prophet </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian Shaker Church </li></ul><ul><li>The Native American Church (Quanah Parker) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Indianization of AA” </li></ul><ul><li>Wellbriety Movement </li></ul>
  5. 5. The American Temperance Movement <ul><li>Early recovery biographies (1830s) </li></ul><ul><li>Washingtonian Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery-focused Fraternal Temperance Societies </li></ul><ul><li>Ribbon Reform Clubs </li></ul><ul><li>Institution-based Recovery Support Groups (e.g., Ollapod Club, Godwin Association, Keeley Leagues) </li></ul>
  6. 8. Blue Ribbon Reform Club Pledge Card
  7. 11. Faith-based Recovery
  8. 12. Early Treatment Institutions
  9. 13. Early Treatment Institutions
  10. 14. The Collapse (1900-1920) <ul><li>Expos é s of fraud and patient abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Schisms within the field </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of scientific foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Aging out of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Rising therapeutic pessimism & drive toward alcohol/drug prohibitions </li></ul>
  11. 15. The Transition Period <ul><li>Mutual Aid </li></ul><ul><li>United Order of Ex-boozers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Harlem Club of Former Alcoholic Degenerates </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives following Collapse of Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Inebriate Penal Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>State Psychiatric Hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Private Sanitaria & Hospitals </li></ul>
  12. 16. Mid-Twentieth Century Rebirth <ul><li>Alcoholics Anonymous </li></ul><ul><li>The Modern Alcoholism Movement </li></ul><ul><li>New Alcoholism Treatment Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>New Addiction Treatment Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Addicts Anonymous, Hypes & Alcoholics, Narcotics Anonymous </li></ul><ul><li>Stage set for rise of modern addiction treatment </li></ul>
  13. 17. AA Shared with Earlier Groups (Not Derivative) <ul><li>Problem admission </li></ul><ul><li>Public or semi-public commitment to sobriety </li></ul><ul><li>Sober fellowship </li></ul><ul><li>Experience-sharing meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling (3-part style) </li></ul><ul><li>Peer mentoring </li></ul>
  14. 18. AA Innovations <ul><li>Self-surrender versus self-assertion </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on long-term recovery maintenance versus recovery initiation </li></ul><ul><li>Middle spiritual path between religious and secular pathways of recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Codification of program in writing prior to explosive growth </li></ul>
  15. 19. AA Innovations <ul><li>Maintained its closed meeting framework </li></ul><ul><li>--import of identification in recovery process </li></ul><ul><li>Unique organizational structure (that all external advisors predicted could not work) </li></ul><ul><li>Creative management of the 5 Ps: personality—particularly charismatic leadership, power/privilege, possessions (money and property), press and passion </li></ul><ul><li>Twelve Traditions were/are key to AA’s survival </li></ul>
  16. 20. AA Remains Standard by which Pre-AA and Post AA Groups are Judged <ul><li>Size (2.1 million members) & Geographical Dispersion (150 Countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Longevity as an Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Number & Methodological Rigor of AA Research </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation to Other Problems of Living </li></ul><ul><li>Influence on Addiction Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Influence on Culture </li></ul>
  17. 21. Recovery Mutual Aid, 1970-2000 <ul><li>Growth of Twelve Step groups </li></ul><ul><li>Growing varieties of Twelve Step experience </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic growth in total membership </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical dispersion in U.S. and internationally </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification of recovery frameworks </li></ul>
  18. 22. Spiritual Frameworks of Recovery <ul><li>Twelve-Step Groups, e.g., -AA (1935) and NA (1947, 1953, 1959) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Drug Adaptations: marijuana (1968, 1989), prescription drugs, (1975, 1998), cocaine (1982) nicotine (1985), benzodiazepine (1989), methamphetamine (1995), heroin (2004), persons in recovery on methadone (1991) & generic groups i.e., Recoveries Anonymous (1983) Chemical Dependent Anonymous (1988) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Twelve Step, Spiritual Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>--The Red Road to Wellbriety </li></ul>
  19. 23. Further Specialization <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Anon (1951), Alateen (1957), Families Anonymous (1971), Recovering Couples Anonymous (1988) & Teen-Anon (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of Concept of “Family Recovery” </li></ul>
  20. 24. Further Specialization <ul><li>Occupational </li></ul><ul><li>International Doctors in Alcoholics Anonymous (1949), Lawyers (1975), Anesthetists (1984), Nurses (1988), Veterinarians (1990), etc. </li></ul>
  21. 25. Further Specialization <ul><li>Co-Occurring Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Disorders Anonymous (1982), Dual Recovery Anonymous (1989), Double Trouble in Recovery (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal Justice </li></ul><ul><li> Inner Circle </li></ul><ul><li> Winner’s Circle/Community </li></ul>
  22. 26. Meeting Specialization <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Age or duration of sobriety </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking status </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of religiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Endless varieties of meeting formats </li></ul>
  23. 27. Secular Recovery Support Groups <ul><li>Women for Sobriety (1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Secular Organization for Sobriety / Save Our Selves (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Rational Recovery (1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Men for Sobriety (1988) </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Recovery® (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Moderation Management (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>LifeRing Secular Recovery (1999) </li></ul>
  24. 28. Religious Recovery Support Groups <ul><li>Calix Society (1947) </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholics Victorious (1948) </li></ul><ul><li>Teen Challenge (1961) </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholics for Christ (1976) </li></ul><ul><li>JACS (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate Recovery, Free N’ One, Ladies Victorious, Overcomers in Christ, Liontamers Anonymous, Mountain Movers, Millati Islami </li></ul>
  25. 29. Important Resource <ul><li>Mutual Support Resources regularly updated at Faces and Voices of Recovery Web Site </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.facesandvoicesofrecovery.org </li></ul>
  26. 30. Current Trends <ul><li>From recovery community to communities of recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural & political awakening across religious, spiritual & secular frameworks of recovery </li></ul><ul><li>New recovery support institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural development </li></ul>
  27. 31. Culture of Recovery Update <ul><li>Diversification of Peer-based Recovery Support Societies </li></ul><ul><li>New Recovery Advocacy Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of Grassroots Recovery Community Organizations & Recovery Support Centers </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery Home Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery School Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery Ministries, Churches & Colonies </li></ul>
  28. 32. New Recovery Advocacy Movement <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Recovery Summit in St. Paul </li></ul><ul><li>National Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Faces and Voices of Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>NCADD </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Action Center </li></ul>
  29. 33. Movement Goals <ul><li>Political/Cultural Mobilization of Communities of Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery-focused Public & Professional Education </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy of Pro-recovery Laws & Social Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Push for Recovery-focused Redesign of Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of Peer-based Recovery Support Services </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery Celebration </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of Recovery Research </li></ul>
  30. 37. Cultural Consciousness; Cultural Development <ul><li>Reconstruction of History </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Language Audit & Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Values Definition </li></ul><ul><li>New Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Musical Anthems </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul>
  31. 38. Recovery School Movement <ul><li>High School and Collegiate Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Association of Recovery Schools (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Key Elements </li></ul><ul><li>--Active recruitment of people in recovery </li></ul><ul><li>--Scholarships </li></ul><ul><li>--On-campus recovery support </li></ul><ul><li>--Academic mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>* Early Evaluations (high rates of continuous recovery & academic excellence) </li></ul>
  32. 39. Grassroots Recovery Community Organizations (RCOs) <ul><li>Organized by and on behalf of communities of recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on advocacy, education and peer support services </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing Recovery Support Centers, e.g., CCAR’s Network of RSCs in CT </li></ul><ul><li>Some contracting to do telephone-based, post-treatment recovery checkups </li></ul>
  33. 40. Recovery Home Movement <ul><li>Halfway Houses (1950s) to Social Model Rehabilitation Programs (1970s) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford House (1975) (1,200 homes, 48 states, 24,000 residents per year) </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 (Loan Fund) </li></ul><ul><li>Broader Recovery Home Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia Survey (21 funded; 250 unfunded) </li></ul>
  34. 41. Recovery Industries <ul><li>Formats range from “recovery friendly” (Zingerman’s Deli, Venturetech) to “recovery exclusive” employers (Recovery at Work) </li></ul><ul><li>Preparatory or Permanent Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Core Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>--Skill training </li></ul><ul><li>--Work-based peer recovery coaching </li></ul><ul><li>--Linkage to recovery communities </li></ul><ul><li>--Establishment of legitimate work history </li></ul>
  35. 42. Recovery Ministries, Churches & Colonies <ul><li>“ Recovery friendly churches” </li></ul><ul><li>Mega-churches with a “recovery pastor” </li></ul><ul><li>Lay leaders of recovery support groups </li></ul><ul><li>recovery-focused worship services and workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery Churches, e.g., Central Park Recovery Church in St. Paul </li></ul><ul><li>Faith-based recovery colonies, e.g., Dunklin Memorial Camp in Okeechobee, Florida </li></ul><ul><li>National Association for Christian Recovery </li></ul>
  36. 43. Cultural Development Between (rather than within) Communities of Recovery <ul><li>Identity Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction of History </li></ul><ul><li>A New Language </li></ul><ul><li>Values Definition </li></ul><ul><li>New Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Musical Anthems </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul>
  37. 44. The Recovery Home Movement: 2010 Oxford House Convention
  38. 45. Recovery & Education
  39. 46. Recovery within Faith Communities
  40. 47. Cultural Visibility & Advocacy (with Anonymity)
  41. 48. Recovery-focused Community Education
  42. 49. Recovery Community Centers
  43. 50. Recovery Media
  44. 51. Recovery & Community Service: Baltimore Recovery Corps
  45. 52. Recovery Arts: Philadelphia Recovery Murals
  46. 53. Recovery Sports: Phoenix Multisport
  47. 54. Recovery & Music
  48. 55. Implications <ul><li>AOD arena at personal/family levels no longer limited to Tx and mutual aid </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Tx Effectiveness via potent combinations of Tx, mutual aid and participation in new recovery support institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Increased recovery without treatment </li></ul>
  49. 56. Implications <ul><li>Greater focus on role of community in recovery </li></ul><ul><li>* Greater focus on community recovery capital </li></ul><ul><li>* Growing interest in concept of community recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Coyhis “Healing Forest” Metaphor </li></ul>
  50. 57. Primary References <ul><li>White, W. (2008) The culture of recovery in America: Recent developments and their significance. Counselor , , 9(4), 44-51. </li></ul><ul><li>White, W. (2009). The mobilization of community resources to support long-term addiction recovery. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 36, 146-58. </li></ul><ul><li>White, W. (2009). Peer-based Addiction Recovery Support: History, Theory, Practice, and Scientific Evaluation. Chicago, IL: Great Lakes Addiction Technology Transfer Center. </li></ul>

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