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Presentation from the International Space and Development Conference 2009 in Orlando, FL.

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  1. 1. Liquid Bi-Propellant Rocket Development for Lunar Lander<br />Presenters:<br />Sarah Baber – Impulse Rocketry Technology, Project Manager 2008-2009<br />Johann Schrell – Team Cynthion, Project Manager & Performance Director 2007-2008<br />1<br />
  2. 2. The Challenge<br />Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge<br />Tasked in 2007 with creating design for viable university entry<br />Design the propulsion system for a separately designed lunar lander vehicle<br />Must be capable of propelling vehicle:<br />Minimum 50 meters vertical<br />Minimum 100-120 meters translation<br />Minimum 90 seconds hover<br />Into a soft landing<br />Propulsion was designed around these requirements and the requirements of the vehicle designers<br />Team acted as subcontractor to vehicle designers<br />2<br />
  3. 3. The Teams<br />Two years, two teams<br />Team Cynthion 2007-2008<br />Worked from requirements set forth by vehicle designers and competition<br />Developed detailed designs and analysis<br />Completed manufacture of parts<br />Impulse Rocketry Technology 2008-2009<br />Worked from requirements set forth by competition<br />Developed detailed designs and analysis<br />Completed manufacture and assembly of all engine components<br />Completed detailed design and assembly of test equipment and feed system<br />Teams consisted of undergraduate aerospace engineering seniors<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Learning Experience<br />Real-world engineering environment<br />Design process<br />Team interaction <br />Customer interaction<br />Outsourcing<br />Communicating with Machinists<br />Research Skills<br />Engineering Software<br />MatLab<br />Catia CAD<br />NEiNastran FEA<br />STAR CCM+ with CFD<br />NASA CEA Thermochemical analysis<br />LabView<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Economics<br />Common materials<br />No exotic materials means a cheaper solution<br />Simple machining<br />Components designed for ease of manufacture to cut machining costs<br />Non-aerospace grade parts<br />Components purchased from suppliers such as McMaster<br />Components purchased rated high for large operating safety margins<br />Money saved and reliability maintained<br />Common propellants<br />High performance achieved without exotic costly propellants and storage equipment<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Propellants<br />Propane<br />Pros:<br />Readily available, stable, must be pressurized to ignite without open flame or spark, inexpensive<br />Cons:<br />Difficult to arrange for a high pressure certified tank to be filled, flammable when in unconfined space as a gas, little rocketry data available<br />Methanol<br />Pros:<br />Readily available in jugs, easy to fill a high pressure tank, stays liquid at standard atmosphere<br />Cons:<br />Flame spreads on ground if leaked, volatile if ingested or inhaled, little rocketry data available<br />Nitrous Oxide<br />Pros:<br />Readily available from race shops, self pressurizes, lots of data available, stable, non-toxic, non-cryogenic<br />Cons:<br />Difficult to purchase pure N2O (most has SO2 additive), not as capable as LOX or peroxide<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Team Cynthion<br />The Engine<br />Approx 1000 lbf max thrust<br />Fuel: Liquid Propane (C3H8) Oxidizer: Nitrous Oxide (N2O)<br />Common grade materials<br />Designed for restart and throttle capability<br />Full regenerative cooling system for thermal protection<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Team Cynthion<br />Performance<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Team Cynthion<br />Analysis<br /> Highest stresses in cooling jacket CFD confirms flow velocity<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Team Cynthion<br />Components and Materials<br />Chamber<br />Copper<br />Nozzle<br />Copper<br />Cooling Sleeve<br />Low Carbon Steel<br />Injector Plate and Oxidizer Dome<br />Stainless Steel<br />Connector Plates<br />Low Carbon Steel and Copper <br />Fuel Intake Manifold<br />Brass<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Team Cynthion<br />Unique Design Aspects<br />Cooling Jacket<br />Single Channel Full Jacket<br />Less Time and Money for Manufacturing<br />Fewer Welding/Braising Points<br />Allows Side Injection<br />Low Voltage Glow Plug Ignition<br />Weight savings on power systems<br />Safer operation<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Impulse Rocketry Technology<br />The Engine<br />Approx 850 lbf max thrust as designed<br />Approx 250 lbf max thrust as built for subscale testing<br />Fuel: Methanol (CH3OH) Oxidizer: Nitrous Oxide (N2O)<br />Common grade materials<br />Designed for restart and throttle capability<br />Ablative and regenerative cooling system for thermal protection<br />$3500 manufacturing and testing budget<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Impulse Rocketry Technology<br />Performance<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Impulse Rocketry Technology<br />Components and Materials<br />Chamber<br />Low Carbon Steel<br />Nozzle<br />Graphite<br />Nozzle Holder<br />Low Carbon Steel<br />Injector Plate<br />Low Carbon Steel<br />Connector Plate<br />Low Carbon Steel <br />Gasket Rings<br />Copper<br />Ablative<br />ITC Ceramic Coatings<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Impulse Rocketry Technology<br /> Stress Analysis<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Impulse Rocketry Technology<br />Unique Design Aspects<br />Chamber Cooling Jacket (Similar to Cynthion)<br />Graphite Converging Diverging Nozzle<br />Using off the shelf products wherever possible<br />ITC Paint<br />Nuts, Bolts, and Washers<br />Spark Plug<br />Feed System Plumbing<br />Impinging Oxidizer Injectors <br />Modular parts for easy alteration<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Application of Work<br />Implications outside the student project environment.<br />Affordable small propulsion systems for soft landers<br />Space privatization<br />X-prize<br />Low complexity systems<br />Easy troubleshooting<br />Quick installation<br />Less training required for technicians<br />Low toxicity household name chemicals as propellants<br />Safe handling<br />Environmentally friendly combustion relative to solids, hypergolics, and Kerosene based fuels<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Praise and Questions<br />Thanks to all that have made this project possible<br />Dr. Eric Perrell, ERAU<br />Dr. Geoffrey Kain<br />Dr. Frank Radosta, ERAU<br />Bill Russo, ERAU<br />Rich Hedge, ERAU<br />Michael Potash, ERAU<br />Mohammad Naraghi, ERAU<br />Advanced Machining, New Smyrna, FL<br />Questions and discussion<br />18<br />