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Nuclear weapons


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Nuclear weapons

  1. 1. Nuclear Weapons
  2. 2. History of Nuclear Weapons <ul><li>1 st U.S. Test – ‘Trinity’ – July 16, 1945 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Number of ‘Official’ Nuclear Weapons Tests <ul><li>U.S. – 1,054 </li></ul><ul><li>Russia – 715 </li></ul><ul><li>France – 210 </li></ul><ul><li>UK – 45 </li></ul><ul><li>China – 45 </li></ul><ul><li>India – 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan – 6 </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea – 2 (only country since 1998 to test nukes) </li></ul>
  4. 6. History of Nuclear Weapons <ul><li>1 st Use of a Nuclear Weapon Against Another Country: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U. S. bombs Hiroshima, Japan - August 6, 1945 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Last Use of a Nuclear Weapon Against Another Country: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. bombs Nagasaki, Japan – August 9, 1945 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. History of Nuclear Weapons <ul><li>The Cold War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. vs. The Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. tries to contain the spread of communism and influence of the Soviet Union. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread fear among people that the conflict could lead to nuclear war. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 8. Cuban Missile Crisis - 1962 <ul><li>The Soviet Union built missile bases in Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States puts a naval blockade around Cuba to prevent nuclear missiles from arriving from the Soviet Union. The standoff lasts for 13 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Years later it was discovered that Cuba had operational nuclear missiles and Soviet approval to use them if the U.S. declared war on Cuba or the Soviet Union. </li></ul>
  7. 10. Culture of Fear
  8. 11. Solutions: Deterrence (1960s-1980s) <ul><li>Definition of Deterrence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The threat of nuclear retaliation could prevent a nuclear attack. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translation: Build as many nukes as possible so that the other side doesn’t dare attack because they would be wiped out too. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem with Deterrence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to a nuclear arms race. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 13. End of the Cold War – A Gradual Process <ul><li>Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between U.S. & Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President Reagan & Mikhail Gorbachev (U.S.S.R.) rethink deterrence and MAD and begin to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>December 25, 1991 – Soviet Union collapses with resign of Gorbachev </li></ul>
  10. 14. What is the issue/concern with nuclear weapons today? <ul><li>Cold War Arsenals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorized Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proliferation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The spread of nuclear weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul>
  11. 15. U.S. and Russia: Nuclear Arms Reduction Pact – April 8, 2010
  12. 17. <ul><li>Nuclear Weapons Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Arms Race </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Cafe </li></ul>