Social cognitive views of learning.


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I was assigned to be a moderator for one week in the Psych.Foundations of Education course that I am taking this semester. I prepared this presentation as an overview of Social Cognitive Views of Learning, the topic that was discussed during that week.

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Social cognitive views of learning.

  1. 1. A theoretical perspective that focuses on how people learn by observing others and how they eventually assume control over their own behavior.Joan SchoenlingEDF 6211, Section 798Week 9, Chapter 10University of South Florida
  2. 2. Five Basic Assumptions Underlying Social Cognitive Theory (Ormrod, 2011, p. 324-325) •People can learn by observing others.• Learning is an internal process that may or may not leadto a behavior change.• Cognitive processes influence motivation as well aslearning.•People and their environments mutually influence eachother.• Behavior becomes increasingly self-regulated.
  3. 3. Learning by Observation  Educational ImplicationHelp students acquire new behaviors morequickly by demonstrating those behaviors yourself. ExampleDemonstrate appropriate ways to deal with andresolve interpersonal conflicts. Then ask students torole-play conflict resolution in small groups, andcompliment those who use pro-social strategies.
  4. 4. Learning As An Internal Process That May Or May Not Be Reflected In Behavior  Educational Implication Remember that new learning doesn’t always reveal itself immediately but may instead be reflected in students’ behaviors at a later time. Example When one student engages in disruptive classroom behavior, take appropriate steps to discourage it. Otherwise, classmates who have witnessed the mis- behavior, may be similarly disruptive in the future.
  5. 5. Cognitive Processes in Motivation  Education ImplicationsEncourage students to set productive goals forthemselves, especially goals that are challenging yetachievable. ExampleWhen teaching American Sign Language to helpstudents communicate with classmates who aredeaf, ask them to predict how many new words andphrases they can learn each week.
  6. 6. Reciprocal Influences AmongEnvironmental, Behavioral, and Personal Variables  Educational ImplicationEncourage students to make choices that will lead tobeneficial learning experiences. ExampleDescribe the benefits of taking an advanced writingcourse, not only as a means of enhancing writing skillsbut also as a way of discovering whether one mightenjoy a career in writing
  7. 7. Increasing Self-regulation With Age  Educational Implication Teach students strategies through which they can better control their own behavior and direct their own learning. Example Give students concrete suggestions about how they can remind themselves to bring needed supplies to school each day.
  8. 8. The Social Cognitive View ofReinforcement and Punishment Ormrod, 2011, p. 326) 
  9. 9. Learners’ Expectations are Influenced by What Happens to Other People  Vicarious Reinforcement Phenomenon in which a response increases in frequency when another person is observed being reinforced for that response. Vicarious Punishment Phenomenon in which a response decreases in frequency when another person is observed being punished for that response.
  10. 10. Difference Between Incentive and Reinforcer  IncentiveHoped-for but not guaranteed future consequence ofbehavior ReinforcerA reward or stimulus used to encourage an action inorder to increase the probability that it will berepeated
  11. 11. Nonoccurrence of Expected Consequence Can Have a Reinforcing or Punishing Effect  Follow through with the consequences students have been led to expect for certain behaviors With This Or This
  12. 12. Promoting Learning Through Modeling Ormrod, 2011, p. 329 – 334)  Live Model Currently living individual whose behavior is observed in person. Symbolic Model Real or fictional character portrayed in the media that influences an observer’s behavior
  13. 13. Behaviors That Can be Learned From Models  Observations of Others Enable People to Acquire A Variety Of Behaviors: • Academic Skills • Aggression • Interpersonal Behaviors
  14. 14. Albert Banderas Experiment With Children Who Observe Aggressive Behavior  and Schafer, July 17, 2012).
  15. 15. Characteristics of Effective Models • Competent• Prestige and Power• Exhibit Behaviors Relevant to Learners’ OwnCircumstances
  16. 16. Four Conditions Essential for Learning From Models  must pay attention to • “A”ttention – The learner the model • “R”etention – The learner must remember what the model does. • “M”otor Reproduction – The learner must be physically capable of reproducing the modeled behavior. • “M”otivation – The learner must be motivated. ARMoR
  17. 17. Nature and Origins of Self-Efficacy (Ormrod, 2011, p. 335-340) • A self-constructed judgment about his or her abilityto execute certain behaviors or reach certain goals.• Is more task or situation specific and involvesjudgments (rather than feelings) almost exclusively(e.g., “Do you believe you’ll be able to understandand apply educational psychology by readingEducational Psychology by Jeanne Ormrod?”).
  18. 18. How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior and Cognition  • Choice of Activities • Goals • Effort and Persistence • Learning and Achievement
  19. 19. Enhancing Students’ Self-Efficacy • A Learner’s Previous Successes and Failures• Messages from Others• Successes and Failures of Other Individuals•Successes and Failures as Part of a Group
  20. 20. Enhancing Teacher’s Self-Efficacy • Be willing to experiment with new teachingstrategies that can better help students learn.• Have higher expectations for – and thus set highergoals for students’ performance.• Put more effort into their teaching and are morepersistent in helping students learn.
  21. 21. Self-Regulated Behavior (Ormrod, 2011, p. 341-347) Self-chosen and self-directed behavior that leads to thefulfillment of personally constructed standards and goals
  22. 22. Components of Self-Regulated Behavior  Before the Response: • Self-Determined Standards and Goals During the Response • Emotion Regulation • Self-Instructions • Self-Monitoring After the Response: • Self-Evaluation • Self-Imposed Contingencies
  23. 23. Self-Regulated Learning (Ormrod, 2011, p. 347-348) Regulation of one’s own cognitive processes and studying behaviors in order to learn successfully
  24. 24. Components of Self-Regulated Learning  • Goal Setting • Planning • Self-motivation • Attention control • Flexible use of learning strategies • Self-monitoring • Appropriate help-seeking • Self-evaluation
  25. 25. Encouraging Self-Regulated Learning (Ormrod, 2011, p. 349-352) • Effective teachers provide a structure, or scaffolding to helpstudents acquire various components of self-regulation.• Scaffolding helps most students become increasingly capableof working independently as they move through grade levels.
  26. 26. Teacher Strategies For Self-Regulated Learning (Ormrod, 2011, p. 350-352) • Teach students the mental steps they can follow to solvecomplex problems more effectively.• Teach students strategies for effectively mediatingclassmates’ interpersonal conflicts.• Teach self-regulation strategies to students with specialneeds.
  27. 27. Reciprocal Causation (Ormrod, 2011, p. 352-355  A phenomenon that results fromenvironment, behavior, and person mutually influencing one another.
  28. 28. Bandura’s Model of Triadic Reciprocal Determinism The blue squares in the middle are the core of the model. The red circles are just some ofthe components of each squareThe red arrows are the key. Note they arent just pointing one way. People dont developalong a linear path. We arent affected by one thing, one time, and thats it. This modelshows how our personality and preferences, for example, influence the environments wechoose (and vice versa), which in turn influence how we behave in those situations (andvice versa).
  29. 29. Examples Of Reciprocal Causation Effect of Environment• On Behavior: Reinforcement and punishment affect future behavior.• On Person: Feedback from others
  30. 30. Examples of Reciprocal Causation (Cont’d) Effects of Behavior• On Environment: Specific behaviors affect the amount ofreinforcement and punishment received.• On Person: Success and failure affect expectations forfuture performance.
  31. 31. Examples of Reciprocal Causation (Cont’d) Effect of Person• On environment: Self-efficacy affects choices of activitiesand therefore also affects the specific environmentencountered.• On behavior: Attention, retention, and motivation affectthe degree to which a learner imitates behaviors modeledby others.
  32. 32. Compare/Contrast The Three Perspectives of Learning (Ormrod, 2011, p. 356)Issues Cognitive Psychology Behaviorism Social Cognitive TheoryLearning is defined as. . An internal mental A behavior change An internal mental phenomenon that may or phenomenon that may or may not be reflected in may not be reflected in behavior behaviorThe focus of investigation Cognitive processes Stimuli and responses that Both behavior andis on . . . can be readily observed cognitive processesPrinciples of learning People mentally process People’s behaviors are People’s observations ofdescribe how . . . new information and affected by environmental those around them affect construct knowledge from stimuli their behavior and their experiences cognitive processesConsequences of Behavior Are not a major focus of Must be experienced Can be experienced either... consideration directly if they are to directly or vicariously affect learningLearning and behavior are Primarily by cognitive Primarily by Partly by the environmentcontrolled processes within the environmental and partly by cognitive individual circumstances processes (people become increasingly self- regulating – and therefore less controlled by the environment – over time)Educational implications Process information in Acquire more productive Learn by observing othersfocus on how we can help effective ways and classroom behaviors and acquire effective self-students . . . construct accurate and regulation skills complete knowledge about classroom topics
  33. 33. Resources Ormrod, J.E. (2011). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners(7th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.“Sarah” (June 10, 2011 Blog). The Strangest Situation WherePsychology and YA Literature/Media Meet. Collide. Meld. Fightto the Death., L. and Schafer, K. (July 17, 2012). The ExperimentalDesign and Procedure of Banduras experiment on aggression