Ecology and ecosystems notes

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The Ecology and Ecosystems unit notes blend in Evolutionary adaptations and Evidence for Evolution along with standard E&E topics. The notes has examples of key content areas. Originally designed for Junior High and High School students, we use these for 7-8th grade students and warm ups for High School students. Includes basic concepts, food chain, webs, energy pyramids, matter cyclers, predator-prey, trophic levels; along with Ecosystem types, carrying capacity as well as Rules of the Environment.

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Ecology and ecosystems notes

  1. 1. jschmied©2016
  2. 2. Ecosystem & Ecology Unit Goals 1. Living & Non Living Factors in an Ecosystem I am able to predict what may happen to an ecosystem if one or more: a. abiotic factors change or b. biotic factors are added or removed from the ecosystem. 2. Flows of Matter & Energy within an Ecosystem I can analyze the flow of matter and energy in a local ecosystem with these three models: a. Energy pyramid b. Food web c. Matter cycler 3. Examining Environmental Issues I can thoroughly investigate environmental issues and properly evaluate the trade offs involved in solving each issue jschmied©2016
  3. 3. Unit E: Ecology - Learning Goals Name: Period: Instructions: Use the performance expectations sheet to help you assess your current level of understanding (1-4) for each learning goal once an activity is done. Unit E – Ecology Learning Goals Pre-assessment Activity72:Miracle Fish Act80WormRanching Pt.1-WormResearch FoodWebs,Matter Cyclers,&Energy Pyramids Activity78:Coughing UpClues Activity77:Ups& Downs FieldStudy Act80WormRanching Pt.2 Activity73: EndangeredSpecies Presentation Post-assessment Living & Non Living Factors in an Ecosystem 1. I am able to predict what may happen to an ecosystem if one or more: a. abiotic factors change or b. biotic factors are added or removed from the ecosystem. Flows of Matter & Energy within an Ecosystem 2. I can analyze the flow of matter and energy in a local ecosystem with these three models: a. Energy pyramid b. Food web c. Matter cycler. Examining Environmental Issues 3. I can thoroughly investigate environmental issues and properly evaluate the trade offs involved in solving each issue.
  4. 4. Unit D: Genetics Performance Expectations Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Learning Goal #1: I am able to predict what may happen to an ecosystem if one or more: a. abiotic factors change or b. biotic factors are added or removed from the ecosystem. I can accurately define:  Abiotic factors,  Biotic factors,  Carrying capacity  Carnivore  Competition  Decomposer  Ecosystem  Herbivore  Mutualism  Omnivore  Populations  Predator-prey relationship I can give examples of:  3 local ecosystems  5 biotic & abiotic factors in a local ecosystem.  3 specific abiotic or biotic factors that a particular organism depends upon. I can explain:  The varied strategies, or niches, organisms use to compete for the limited resources in their habitat.  How organisms and populations are affected by a change in the amount of resources in an ecosystem. I can describe to others, using examples, how:  Ecosystems are constantly changing.  Changes in biotic or abiotic factors increase or decrease populations.  The biodiversity of an ecosystem can be used to tell the health of the ecosystem. Learning Goal #2: I can analyze the flow of matter and energy in a local ecosystem with these three models: a. Energy pyramid b. Food web c. Matter cycler. I can accurately define:  Consumer  Energy  Energy pyramid  Food chain  Food web  Habitat  Matter cycling  Niche  Producer I can explain with examples:  How producers transform light energy into usable chemical energy by photosynthesis. I can create a:  Local food chain showing how energy & matter cycles through different organisms in the environment. Given data, I can show & analyze the flow of matter and energy in a local ecosystem using  A matter cycler  an energy pyramid and  a food web I can explain to others how:  Matter and energy can transfer between both living & nonliving things at any niche.  The atoms that make up organisms are cycled between living & nonliving parts of the ecosystem. Learning Goal #3: I can thoroughly investigate environmental issues and properly evaluate the trade offs involved in solving each issue. I can accurately define:  Biodiversity,  Ecosystem services  Endangered species  Threatened species  Species of concern  Trade-off I can give local examples of:  Endangered species  Threatened species  Species of concern I can give local examples of:  Ecosystem services that humans rely on. I can investigate with evidence, why a local species is endangered, threatened or of concern by:  Defining the problem  Understanding the natural history  Researching causes  Evaluating recovery issues & explaining the trade offs of using different solutions. I can explain to others, with examples, how changes in biodiversity can affect the: Resources available to humans & other living things Ecosystem services required to maintain a healthy ecosystem.
  5. 5. Abiotic Factor: Any non living factor in the environment that affect living organisms. . (Wind, Temperature, Light, Fire, Snow, Cloud cover etc) Adaptation: a change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment. Biotic Factor: Living factors in the environment. Plants, animals, fungi, protist and bacteria and other factors like competition, disease, and overpopulation are all biotic factors Biodiversity: The variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem. Biome: Areas on the earth with similar temperature, rainfall, soil, ex: Desert, tundra, tiaga, rainforest) Carnivore: An organism that gets energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly from animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging. Carrying Capacity: The maximum number of individuals of a given species that can be supported in an area…. sustainably . " Competition: Competition is also a situation in which the various organisms living in the same area try to compete for a limited supply of food, water, space, etc. Consumer : A organisms that eat food produced by another organism. (Ex: Rabbit eating grass) Ecosystems and Ecology Definitions 1 jschmied©2016
  6. 6. Decomposers Organisms that get energy by breaking down dead plant and animal material and wastes. The decayed matter is then released as energy and nutrients into the ecosystem for recycling. Ecology: The study of the relationships between organisms and their environment. Sometimes called the “Study of what goes on in our House” Ecological Relationships: The relationships between organisms within an ecosystem. All organisms in an ecosystem are connected. Each population interacts with one another in a complex web of relations. Ecosystem: A biological system consisting of all the living organisms or living factors (biotic) in an area and the nonliving factors (abiotic) that the organisms interact with, such as air, mineral soil, water and sunlight. Ecosystem Services: The benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Includes: Provisioning services such as food and water; Regulating services such as flood & disease control; Cultural services such as spiritual, recreational, and cultural benefits; and supporting services such as nutrient cycling that maintain the conditions for life on Earth. Energy Types: Forms of energy that do work in a system (e.g. Solar, Nuclear, Mechanical, Thermal, Electrical, Gravitational, etc) Energy Pyramid: An energy pyramid is a graphical model of energy flow in a community. The different levels represent different groups of organisms that compose a food chain. Ecosystems and Ecology Definitions 2 jschmied©2016
  7. 7. Food chain: A simple way of showing how energy passes through organisms in the environment Food Web: A series of overlapping food chains which show how energy moves through an ecosystem. Habitat: The physical location where an organism lives. ex: wetland, salt marsh, forest, lake, grassland Herbivores: A type of consumer that feeds directly on green plants (or another type of autotroph). Introduced, Endangered, Threatened or Species of Concern Lists: Two Federal or State cautionary lists. • The Endangered, Threatened, or species of concern list tells about organisms whose survival in the wild are of concern. • The Introduced species list tells about all non native organisms introduced (invasives) into an area that threaten the ecology of this area. Matter: A substance that occupies space and has mass Matter cycling: The circle of life. When matter goes through different forms in the environment. (Ex: Plant => Cow => Human => Worms => Robin => Hawk => Owl => Worms etc.) Mutualism: A relationship in which two or more different organisms benefit. (Anenome – Clownfish) Niche : The role of an organism in an ecosystem… how the organism gets its energy. ex: producer, herbivore, omnivore, carnivore, top carnivore, decomposer Ecosystems and Ecology Definitions 3 jschmied©2016
  8. 8. Omnivores: Organisms that feed on both plant and animal matter for energy. Plankton: any drifting organisms (animals, plants, archaea, or bacteria) that inhabit the open waters of oceans, seas, or bodies of fresh water. Photosynthesis: A process by which light energy is converted into chemical energy. A simplified formula for photosynthesis CO2 + H2O + sunlight → Sugar (C6H12O6)) + O2 Population: all the organisms that belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area Predator – Prey relationship: An interaction between two organisms of different species when one is the predator who captures & feeds on the other organism that serves as the prey. Example of the Predator-Prey relationship: • In ecology, predation is a mechanism of population control. • When the number of predators is scarce the number of prey should rise. When this happens the predators would be able to reproduce rapidly. • As the number of predators rises, the number of prey decline. T his results in food scarcity for predators that can eventually lead to the death of many predators. Producers: Organisms in an ecosystem (primarily green photosynthetic plants) that use the energy of the sun and other materials to make energy and grow. Ecosystems and Ecology Definitions 4 jschmied©2016
  9. 9. Ecosystems and Ecology Definitions Final System: A group of parts working together that forming a complex whole. (e.g. body systems, ecological systems, railroad system, Interstate highway system) Trade Off: An exchange of one thing for another, especially giving up of one benefit or advantage for another that is more desirable: (See example below) Wolf example: If wolves are reintroduced into an area where they weren’t for many years, there are many positive and negative trade-off Positive Negative Wolf eats sick & weak animals Wolf threat to ranchers, possibly eats cattle Food web has healthier, fitter animals Moose, Elk , Deer populations decrease overall Habitat restored with more vegetation Sheep and Cattle wary, gain weight slower More food for birds, small mammals Possible, though unlikely, threat to humans Possible hunting season for wolves Ecosystem more diverse jschmied©2016
  10. 10. What are we studying in this unit? Ecosystems and Ecology in Our House jschmied©2016
  11. 11. Ecology is the study of “our house” Kramer USFWS Topics • Habitats • Niches • Predatory -Prey Relationships • Matter Cycling • Food Chains & Food Webs • Energy Pyramids • Carrying Capacity jschmied©2016
  12. 12. What things are happening in our house?
  13. 13. We have introduced many invasive species … some on purpose, some not. … some were ok, others not!! Redworms Zebra Mussels Zebra Mussels spread throughout the US Clogging pipes and costing millions! Redworms decompose decaying matter , returning valuable nutrients to the soil! 4. Predict Future Ecosystem Changes: I can predict what may happen to an ecosystem if living or nonliving factors change jschmied©2016
  14. 14. Feral Swine & Wild Boar Bullfrog Russ Ottens, University of Georgia Tansy Ragwort We have introduced many invasive species. Each is changing the ecology of WA State. 4. Predict Future Ecosystem Changes: I can predict what may happen to an ecosystem if living or nonliving factors changejschmied©2016 Asian Carp http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Grass_Carp.jpg
  15. 15. Threatened & Endangered Species report Fisher Great Horned Lark Taylor’s Checkerspot Mardon Skipper Pygmy Rabbit5. Master an Environmental Issue: I can investigate a local environmental issue by: • defining the problem • researching causes, • explaining the underlying science, • evaluating the trade-offs of different solutions. jschmied©2016
  16. 16. jschmied©2016 8. References Reference all sources used in your report. (minimum of 3 resources) 7. Recovery Issues and Trade-offs a. Describe attempts that are being made to restore the species. b. Tell at least 2 positive and 2 negative trade-offs that have to be made to restore this species. 6. Reasons for becoming endangered: Explain, in detail, why this species has become endangered, etc. (e.g. habitat needs, role within ecosystem, development etc.) 3. Adaptations 4 or more adaptations your creature has and… How each adaptation helps the creature to survive/function better 4. Food web: What niche is species in the food web? (e.g. producer, consumer, second level consumer, etc... also herbivore, omnivore, carnivore, top carnivore,decomposer?) 5. Effects on ecosystems: Explain what the effect would be on the ecosystem if this species become extinct. 2. Distribution: a. Where is it located? b. How many of this species are in Washington State? 1. Comprehensive Description & Habitat Describe the organism and its habitat in a way others can understand Title Page
  17. 17. The Introduction of Nile Perch into Lake Victoria changed the lake’s ecology! 4. Predict Future Ecosystem Changes: I can predict what may happen to an ecosystem if living or nonliving factors change jschmied©2016
  18. 18. Introduction of Nile Perch showing the Effect on the lake’s food web jschmied©2016
  19. 19. Habitats vs Niches Habitat – The physical location where an organism lives ex: wetland, salt marsh, forest, lake, grassland Niche – The role of an organism in an ecosystem ex: producer, herbivore, omnivore, carnivore, top carnivore or decomposer. I can show & analyze the flow of matter & energy in a local ecosystem using an energy pyramid, food chain, food web or matter cycler jschmied©2016
  20. 20. Food Chain A food chain is a simple way of showing how energy passes through organisms in the environment 2. I can show & analyze flows of matter & energy in an ecosystem using an energy pyramid, food web or matter cycler, jschmied©2016
  21. 21. Food Chain and Population Dynamics Fern Snail Frog Large Mouth Bass Great Blue Heron G.H. Owl The populations of the organisms higher on a food chain decrease at each level… Why is this so? The populations of organisms higher on the food chain decrease at each level because they have less food energy available! jschmied©2016 …and (how) are the populations of decomposers affected?
  22. 22. Adaptations All creatures have evolved over time to “adapt” to their niche. 2. I can show evolutionary adaptations of organisms in an ecosystem. jschmied©2016 Long bill for catching fish quick. Long neck to extend reach Long legs for wading Eyes face forward to focus better Fast accelleration Camouflaged body Large mouth to catch prey Spiny fins to avoid being eaten Large eyes to detect movement Good jumper to escape Camouflaged body Moves fast to escape Slender body to get in small spaces Flexible Eats large variety of foods Protective shell Rasping “tongue” to scrape plants Antenna to feel, smell & see Hides during day Compound leaves increase surface area to catch light More light more photosynthesis, more food etc. Ferns connect with fungi via roots to get more water & give fungi sugars Extraordinary Eyesight Can twist head 270° Acute hearing Opposing Talons.. Etc.
  23. 23. What is the Basic Process of Evolution? The basic theory of evolution is surprisingly simple. It has three key parts: jschmied©2016 1. It is possible for the DNA of an organism to occasionally change, or mutate. A mutation changes the DNA of an organism in a way that affects its offspring, either immediately or several generations down the line. 2. The change brought about by a mutation is either beneficial, harmful or neutral. • If the change is harmful, then it is not likely the offspring will survive to reproduce, so the mutation dies out. • If the change is beneficial, then it is likely that the offspring will do better than other offspring and so will reproduce more. This is called an Adaptation. • Through reproduction, the beneficial mutation spreads. The process of culling bad mutations and spreading good mutations is called natural selection. 3. As mutations occur & spread over long periods of time new species form. Over the course of many millions of years, the processes of mutation and natural selection have created every species of life we see in the world today, from the simplest bacteria to humans and everything in between.
  24. 24. What types of evidence do we have that organisms adapted, or evolved, over time? Understanding Evolution - The history of living things is documented through multiple lines of evidence that converge to tell the story of life through time. - The lines of evidence include:  Fossil evidence  Homologies  Distribution in time and space  Evidence by example jschmied©2016
  25. 25. Photosynthesis Plants & some Bacteria Mitochondria converts glucose into Chemical Energy during Cell Respiration  O2 + Glucose (C6H12O6) In Chloroplast CO2 + H2O Air Roots & Air 3. I can explain how energy from the Sun is converted by producers via photosynthesis into chemical energy for all living things. Out Vacuole Storage jschmied©2016
  26. 26. Food Web jschmied©2016 A food web is a: • series of interlocking food chains • which show how energy moves through an ecosystem. 2. I can show & analyze flows of matter & energy in an ecosystem using an energy pyramid, food web or matter cycler.
  27. 27. Food Webs – The rest of the story Food webs are often simplified A predator’s prey varies with the time of the year, weather, age of predator & available food . Compare this food web to the data below: Great Horned Owl’s really eat: • Over 253 species of prey: Spiders, insects, crayfish, fish, frogs, salamanders, snakes, turtles, ducks, herons, pheasants, geese, rabbits, rats, mice, voles, skunks, opossum, muskrats & woodchucks. • Great Horned Owls mostly feed on: Rabbits, hares, squirrels, rats and muskrats. • Great Horned Owls prey on other owls Barred Owls, Barn Owls, Screech Owls, Saw-whet Owls, but not Snowy Owls. http://www.ecologyedu.com/ecology_education_resources/owls_of_new_jersey/great_horned_owl_fact_sheet.html jschmied©2016 http://mrsmaine.wikispaces.com/Southeast+1 2. I can show & analyze flows of matter & energy in an ecosystem using an energy pyramid, food web or matter cycler.
  28. 28. Trophic Level: The trophic level of an organism is the position the organism is in a food chain Trophic levels are based on the ways organisms get food. Here these are: Producer - plants or algae that use Carbon Dioxide and Water and Sunlight to make their own food using photosynthesis Consumer - animals who cannot make their own food and need to consume other organisms for energy. Three types: o Herbivores: Animals that eat primary producers (like plants) o Carnivores: Animals that eat other animals o Omnivores: Animals that eat both plant and other animals Decomposer – organisms that get energy by breaking down dead plant and animal material and wastes. The decayed matter is then released as energy and nutrients into the ecosystem for recycling. Trophic Levels – 10% of energy is passed on, 90% lost as heat etc. 1: Primary producers - Plants and algae 2: Primary consumers - Herbivores 3: Secondary consumers – Carnivores that eat herbivores 4: Tertiary consumers - Carnivores which eat other carnivores 5: Top predators - have no predators and are at the top of the food chain. jschmied©2016
  29. 29. A matter cycler shows how matter cycles in the environment & also shows niche & trophic level info. Matter Cycler jschmied©2016 Algae Producer Herbivore Phytoplankton 1st Level Consumer
  30. 30. Dinoflagellete Chinook Salmon (King) Bacteria Killer Whale (Orca) Sea Lion Sun Krill Euchalon (Smelt) 2. I can track Flows of Matter & Energy: I can show & analyze the flow of matter and energy in a local ecosystem using an energy pyramid, food web or matter cycler, while showing niches, relationships & transfers of energy. Use these organisms to create a Matter Cycler & an Energy Pyramid jschmied©2016
  31. 31. Dinoflagellete Primary Producer Krill Omnivore Euchalon Omnivore 1st Level Consumer 2nd Level Consumer Chinook Salmon Carnivore 3rd Level Consumer Sea Lion Carnivore 4th Level Consumer Killer Whale Top Carnivore 5th Level Consumer Bacteria Decomposer jschmied©2016 Aquatics Matter Cycler
  32. 32. • Start with 1,300,000,000 cal. at the Diatom (Producer)Level • Properly complete both Niche and Energy data. Energy Pyramids compare the energy available at each trophic level of a food chain in an ecosystem. 1,300,000,000 130,000,000 13,000,000 1,300,000 130,000 13,000 1,170,000,000 117,000,000 11,700,000 1,170,000 117,000 Producer Omnivore 1st level Consumer Omnivore 2nd level Consumer Carnivore 3rd level Consumer Carnivore 4th level Consumer Top Carnivore 5th level Consumer jschmied©2016
  33. 33. Symbiotic Relationships – Symbiosis: An interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, often to the advantage of both jschmied©2016 Example 1A: Mutualism (Win – Win) both benefit Lichens are made of a fungus in a mutualistic relationship with an alga. The algae provide : • Carbon • Energy to the fungi The fungi supplies: • Minerals & • Protection to the algae
  34. 34. jschmied©2016 Example 1B: Mutualism Mycorrhizal Interface (Win-Win) A Mycorrhizal interface occurs when a plant’s root network interconnects with the vast fungi networks in the soil. The plant roots provide : • Energy in the form of surplus sugars & starches The fungi supplies: • Nutrients • Water from the fungi network Fully-formed mycorrhizal networks can increase the water absorption of plant roots by a hundred to a thousand times! Symbiotic Relationships Conifer seedling Fungi Mycorrhizal interface
  35. 35. Symbiotic Relationships jschmied©2016 Example 2: Commensalism (Win – Not Harmed) One organism benefits, the other is not harmed Squirrels use hole in living tree chiseled by woodpecker. The Squirrels get: • Shelter from predators The Tree is: • Not harmed
  36. 36. Symbiotic Relationships jschmied©2016 Example 3: Parasitism (Win – Lose ) One organism benefits, the other is harmed! Mistletoe is a Tree parasite The Mistletoe gets: • Nutrients • Water from Tree The Tree Loses: • Nutrients & • Water
  37. 37. Predator - Prey Relationship Isle Royale Wolves vs. Moose Study jschmied©2016
  38. 38. Predator – Prey Relationships • There is often a lag in time after populations of predators decrease and populations of prey increase. • There is often a lag in time after populations of prey increase and populations of predators increase. jschmied©2016
  39. 39. What is an Ecosystem?  An ecosystem is a system containing:  A community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) and other biotic factors (living) (predation, mutualism…) and:  Abiotic (or nonliving factors) of the environment heat, cold, air, water, fire, wind, mineral soil etc…  Linked together through:  Nutrient cycles (Nitrogen, Carbon, Phosphorous…)  Energy flows jschmied©2016 1. Know what an Ecosystem is: I can explain that an ecosystem is an area with populations of organisms, other living (biotic) factors) & nonliving (abiotic) factors.
  40. 40. What do we study about Ecosystems  Location of local ecosystems  The limiting factors that govern each ( Desert = rainfall, Tundra = temperature…)  How each change over time. jschmied©2016
  41. 41. Ecosystems – Climate change jschmied©2016 Abiotic Factors affect the Earth’s systems. Massive amounts of CO2, CH4 (methane) & other chemicals released by burning fossil fuels are warming the atmosphere + disrupting the Earth’s entire temperature balance. A combination of Biotic and Abiotic Factors out of balance are challenging Earth’s Systems.
  42. 42. Ecosystems also be very small like a Worm Ranch! jschmied©2016
  43. 43. Know your local Ecosystems Atoms to Universe prezi I can give LOCAL examples of ecosystems and describe their boundaries and contents. Olympic National Forest, Columbia Plateau, Cascades, Palouse, Puget Sound, Skyview’s Environmental Center, a wetland pond, one square foot of lawn). jschmied©2016
  44. 44. Ecosystems are Changing! Presently our population is driving environmental change. Some reasons: • Resource Extraction & Uses • Mining, wells, timber harvest, soil loss • Climate Change • Burning of Oil, Gas, Nat’l Gas & Wood • Extinction – Introduced Species • Decrease in diversity, loss of genetic resources • Pollution • Water, Air, Soil • Need more space for humans means…. • Less space for other living things We are changing the face of the Earth, a little bit of a time jschmied©2016 6. Identify Factors that affect Ecosystem Health: 7. Predict Ecosystem Disruption: A combination of Biotic and Abiotic Factors out of balance are challenging Earth’s Systems.
  45. 45. jschmied©2016 The Earth is a limited system. The Earth’s systems are thrown off balance when people aren’t able to balance their personal “wants” with our community’s need to have a healthy, sustainable, environment
  46. 46. Carrying Capacity jschmied©2016
  47. 47. jschmied©2016 Act 86a - Abiotic Factors in the Center Field Study 6. Identify Factors that affect Ecosystem Health: I can Identify factors that reduce the ability of an ecosystem to support populations
  48. 48. Forest Structure jschmied©2016
  49. 49. Act 86 – SJHS Forest Ecosystem Field Study jschmied©2016 Figure One – Fill in the class keynote template: Organisms in the Trail Center Layer: Good Image of Organism here Organism Name: Niche: Eats: (two or more except Producers) Eaten by: (two or more) Adaptations: (two or more)
  50. 50. jschmied©2016 Figure One – Overall Layout: You can use the class template to save valuable layout time, or chose another. However, your figure should have at least 6 equal layers (excluding Title). Instruction sheet link. 1. Know what an Ecosystem is: I can explain that an ecosystem is an area with populations of organisms, other living (biotic) factors) & nonliving (abiotic) factors. • I can give LOCAL examples of ecosystems and describe their boundaries and contents. Common Name: Scientific Name: Niche: Important Fact 1: Important Fact 2: Draw Plant close up here Shrub Layer Papilio rutulus Niche: Herbivore Fact 1: Caterpillars eat leaves of willow, alder, cherry, ash, & cottonwood trees. Adults drink nectar of flowers. Fact 2: Predators are birds, spiders and amphibians. W. Tiger Swallowtails have an eyespot & makes a foul smell that helps to deter predators. Forest Layer Common Name Scientific Name Important Fact 1 Important Fact 2 Niche Image Western Tiger Swallowtail Act 86 – Fig 1 - SJHS Forest Ecosystem Field Study
  51. 51. Act 86: Fig 1 - SJHS Forest Ecosystem Field Study 2. Track Flows of Matter & Energy: I can show & analyze the flow of matter & energy in a local ecosystem using an energy pyramid, food chain, food web or matter cyclerjschmied©2016
  52. 52. 5 Rules of the Environment 1. Population drives most issues in our environment. 2. You can’t appreciate what you don’t understand… and If you don’t appreciate the environment, its easy to treat it with disrespect 3. The Tragedy of the Commons “exists” in everyone Air, Water, Soil, Oceans, Energy, Fish and Land Animals… People acting independently and in their own self-interest will ultimately deplete a shared limited resource… even when it is clearly not in anyone’s long term interest for this to happen …. Even though you may know that what you want to do is not good for future generations, you are inclined to do so because it is in your own best interest. 4. No one Silver Bullet (solution) can solve an environmental issue. The Lone Ranger quagmire – competing “goods” 5. With great power, comes great responsibility. The Spider Man dilemma jschmied©2016
  53. 53. 1. Population drives every issue in our environment. jschmied©2016
  54. 54. 2. You can’t appreciate what you don’t understand… and If you don’t appreciate our environment, its easy to treat it with disrespect Environmental Grounding Where does your…. Recycling Go? Yard Waste Go? Solid Waste Go? jschmied©2016
  55. 55. This 85-pound Chinook salmon, a true June hog, was caught at Astoria by fisher Tony Canessa (pictured) in 1925. Photo: Columbia River Maritime Museum 3. The Tragedy of the Commons The June Hog run jschmied©2016 Even though you know that what you want to do is not good for future generations, you are inclined to do so because ….. it is in your own best interest.
  56. 56. 4. No one “Silver Bullet” can solve an environmental issue The Lone Ranger quagmire – competing “goods Kramer USFWS jschmied©2016
  57. 57. 5. With great power comes great responsibility…. The Spider Man Dilemma jschmied©2016

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