Body works notes

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Human body systems unit notes, Primary emphasis is two fold. First on the digestion, respiratory, and circulatory systems and associated subsystems. Second, on Lifestyle choices and environment affects on the human body. These topics include Sleep, Obesity, Diabetes and Asthma and the Puget Sound Environment. Complete with systems diagrams, data tables and explanatory figures

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Body works notes

  1. 1. Human Body Systems Unit Notes v2.0 schmied2016
  2. 2. Human Body Systems Learning Goals Pre-Assessment Act1–HowcanSleep, AffectMemory&Learning? Act2–Exploringyour DigestiveSystem Act3–Whatdoeseating FastFoodhavetodowith Diabetes? Activity4-BreakdownLab Act5-ObesityinAmerica Act6-TheCirculatory SystemModel Act7–Howyour RespiratorySystemWork? Act8-Whatarethe Respiratoryhazardsinour PugetSoundEnvironment? PostAssessment 1. I can explain how the parts (subsystems) of my digestive system work together to get nutrients and get rid of wastes. 2. I can explain how the parts (subsystems) of my respiratory system work together to bring oxygen (O2) into my body and remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from my body 3. I can explain how the parts (subsystems) of my circulatory system work together to deliver nutrients and take away wastes. 4. I can explain how my lifestyle choices and our environment can directly affect my body systems. schmied2016
  3. 3. Human Body Systems Performance Expectations Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Learning Goal #1: I can explain how the parts (subsystems) of my digestive system work together to get nutrients and get rid of wastes. I understand these terms: Teeth Liver Salivary Glands Pancreas Esophagus Gallbladder Nutrients Large intestine Stomach Anus Small intestine Rectum Mechanical Breakdown Chemical Breakdown I can:  Identify the parts (subsystems) of my digestive system.  describe what each part of my digestive system does. I can explain how the parts (subsystems) of my digestive system work together to get nutrients and get rid of wastes. I can explain what my digestive system gives to and gets from other systems in my body so I can function properly. Learning Goal #2: I can explain how the parts (subsystems) of my respiratory system work together to bring oxygen (O2) into my body and remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from my body I understand these terms: Nose & Mouth Trachea Bronchial Tubes Lungs Bronchioles Alveoli I can:  Identify the parts (subsystems) of my digestive system  I can describe what each part of my respiratory system does. I can explain how the parts (subsystems) of my respiratory system work together to take in oxygen (O2) and take away carbon dioxide (CO2). I can explain what the respiratory system gives to and gets from other systems in the body so my body functions properly. Learning Goal #3: I can explain how the parts (subsystems) of my circulatory system work together to deliver nutrients and take away wastes. I understand these terms: Right Side of the Heart Left Side of the Heart Heart Valves Arteries Capillaries to body cells Capillary / Alveoli interface in lungs Veins I can:  Identify the parts (subsystems) of my digestive system  describe what each part of my circulatory system does. I can explain how the parts (subsystems) of my circulatory system work together I can explain what the circulatory system gives to and gets from other systems in the body so my body functions properly. Learning Goal #4 I can explain how my lifestyle choices and our environment can directly affect my body systems. I understand these terms: Asthma Obesity Diabetes Sleep deprivation I can explain how asthma, obesity, diabetes, and lack of sleep affects the human body. I can explain how my lifestyle choices directly affects my body systems. I can explain how our environment can directly affect my body systems. schmied2016
  4. 4. schmied2016 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS VOCABULARY BY LGTeeth - Hard structures in the mouth that breakdown food by chewing. Salivary Glands - glands that discharge digestive enzymes into the mouth to break down food. Esophagus - the tube that carries food, liquids and saliva from your mouth to the stomach. Nutrients - A substance that provides nourishment essential for the maintenance of life and for growth Stomach - a muscular hollow organ that takes in food from the esophagus mechanically mixing it and chemically breaking the food down, then passes it on to the small intestine. Small intestine - the place where 90% of the digestion & absorption of food occurs. Main function of is absorption of nutrients and minerals from food. Mechanical Breakdown – Breaking down food by chewing, grinding or squeezing Chemical Breakdown – Breaking down food using acid and enzymes Liver – organ that cleans the blood. Produces a digestive liquid called bile that breaks down fats. Stores energy. Pancreas - Make enzymes to break down food in the small intestine. Also produces insulin. Gallbladder – Stores bile, a digestive enzyme, & delivers it to the small intestine Large intestine – Water & vitamins are reabsorbed here. Maintains healthy bacteria to breakdown food. Anus - the opening at the lower end of the digestive tract that expels digestive wastes. Rectum - temporary storage for wastes before they are expelled Nose & Mouth - Filters & Warms incoming air/O2. CO2 & H20 are breathed out here. Trachea – the “windpipe” Takes in, filters, warms and exhausts air from the lungs Bronchial Tubes – tubes distributes air in and out of your lungs. Connects trachea and bronchioles.
  5. 5. schmied2016 HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS VOCABULARY BY LGLungs - main organs of the respiratory system, CO2 and O2 exchange occurs in this organ. Bronchioles – small air passages connecting the alveoli to the bronchial tubes. Alveoli - tiny sacs in the lungs that allow CO2 and O2 to move between the lungs and bloodstream. Right Side of the Heart – CO2 rich side of the heart, contains two pumping chambers, each w/its own valve. CO2 rich blood moves through the chambers & out to the lungs to release CO2 & pick up O2 Left Side of the Heart - O2 rich side of the heart, contains two pumping chambers, each w/its own valve. From here O2 rich blood moves through the chambers & out the heart to the body Heart Valves – separates each of the 4 heart chambers that collect & pump blood, & control direction of blood flow. Arteries - transport blood containing O2 and nutrients from left side of heart to the cells in the body Capillaries to body cells - carry blood from the arteries to exchange nutrients, waste, CO2 and O2 with the cells. Connect to the veins where they return CO2 rich blood to the heart & wastes to the liver & kidneys. Capillary / Alveoli interface in lungs – where CO2 & O2 are exchanged from the blood to the lungs via the alveoli. Veins - transport blood containing CO2 and nutrients to the right side of the heart Asthma - a chronic (long-term) lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. Obesity – usually considered to be when a person's bodyweight is at least 20% higher than normal. Diabetes - condition in which the body is unable to absorb sugar into the cells. Sugar then builds up in the blood, creating many harmful side effects. Sleep deprivation - not having enough sleep. Chronic sleep-deprivation causes fatigue, daytime sleepiness, clumsiness, weight loss or weight gain. Negatively affects brain function, including attention, learning, data/concept processing, etc.
  6. 6. WHAT SHOULD I KNOW ABOUT MY BODY SYSTEMS?  Know the functions of the 3 Key “Gateway” Body Systems (Digestive, Circulatory & Respiratory)  1a. Explain what “services” each system provides to and gets from the other systems.  1b. Know the subsystems within each key system  Tell the order of each subsystem in that system  Know the function of each subsystem in that system schmied2015
  7. 7. HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS & FUNCTIONS schmied2015
  8. 8. WHAT DO THE 3 “GATEWAY” BODY SYSTEMS DO?  Respiratory System What this system does:  Provides O2 for digestive system cells  Gives off CO2 that is transferred by the circulatory system from all body cells  Circulatory System What this system does:  Transports O2 to & CO2 from cells (Respiration)  Delivers nutrients to cells (Nutrition)  Takes wastes & toxins from cells for disposal  Key part of immune system  Digestive system What this system does:  Breaks down food  Releases nutrients (sugars, fats, protein, vitamins &water) to body so all cells get energy & other nutrients to function properly  Removes some wastes & toxins schmied2015
  9. 9. DIGESTIVE VS RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS INTERACTIONS  Digestive system Provides these services for the Respiratory system  Breaks down food  Converts food into nutrients (sugars, fats, protein, vitamins and water)  Releases nutrients for Respiratory system (via circulatory system) so all cells get energy and other nutrients to function properly  Removes some wastes & toxins  Respiratory System Provides these services for the Digestive system  Provides O2 for digestive system cells  Exhausts CO2 from cells of digestive system (transferred via circulatory system) I can show and explain how key human body systems (Digestive, Respiratory & Circulatory) work together. schmied2015
  10. 10. DIGESTIVE VS CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS INTERACTIONS Digestive System Provides these things for the Circulatory System  Breaks down food  Converts food into nutrients (sugars, fats, protein, vitamins & water)  Provides nutrients to Circulatory system so all cells get energy & other nutrients to function properly  Removes some wastes & toxins  Circulatory System Goods and Services for Digestive system  Transport O2 to & CO2 from cells (Respiration)  Delivers nutrients to cells (Nutrition)  Takes wastes & toxins from cells for disposal  Key part of immune system I can show and explain how key human body systems (Digestive, Respiratory & Circulatory) work together. schmied2015
  11. 11. CIRCULATORY & RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS INTERACTIONS  Circulatory system Goods and Services for Respiratory system  Transport O2 to & CO2 from cells (Respiration)  Delivers nutrients to cells (Nutrition)  Takes wastes & toxins from cells for disposal  Key part of immune system  Respiratory System Goods and Services for Circulatory system  Provides O2 for circulatory system cells  Exhausts CO2 from cells of the circulatory system I can show and explain how key human body systems (Digestive, Respiratory & Circulatory) work together schmied2015
  12. 12. Goal 1a - I can show and explain how key human body systems work (Digestive, Respiratory & Circulatory) together. O2 Wastes + Toxins O2 + Nutrients CO2 Central System Circulatory RespiratoryDigestive Open System Be able to create, show & explain the interconnections for these 3 systems schmied2015
  13. 13. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM schmied2016 What is/are the: a. Names of each part? b. Functions of each part? Tell if the part does: • Mechanical Breakdown • Chemical Breakdown • Both types of Breakdown • Neither type of Breakdown
  14. 14. Test Your Knowledge! Identify the function For each of these structures. Then hit return to see the answer.. 1.Digestive System I can explain how the parts (subsystems) of my digestive system work together to get nutrients and get rid of wastes. schmied2015
  15. 15. Test Your Knowledge! Identify the function For each of these structures. Then hit return to see the answer. Tear, rip and grind food = Mechanical breakdown Chemicals in saliva begin the Chemical breakdown of food Muscles contract to help food reach stomach Muscles in stomach help mix food = mechanical breakdown Hydrochloric Acid continue chemical breakdown = MUCUS! Completes process of chemical breakdown Absorbs nutrients – go to circulatory system! surface _area Produces chemical to reduce acid level Produces chemicals to help breakdown proteins & fatsBreaks down alcohol and some medicines Processes nutrients into forms that are easier for the rest of your body to use. Produces Bile = Chem Breakdown Carbohydrates converts into sugars villi of the small intestine Circulatory systems in the blood all parts of body - cells blood Excretes liquid wastes and dissolved toxins Absorbs… water and some vitamins Time to go through? 18-24 hours Stores solid waste Solid waste pushed out here! 1.Digestive System I can explain how the parts (subsystems) of my digestive system work together to get nutrients and get rid of wastes. schmied2013
  16. 16. 4. LIFESTYLE CHOICES AND THE ENVIRONMENT I CAN EXPLAIN HOW MY LIFESTYLE CHOICES AND OUR ENVIRONMENT CAN DIRECTLY AFFECT MY BODY SYSTEMS.  A. Sleep  Know how much sleep a teen should get for maximum learning  Understand what happens during REM sleep  Be able to explain the effect lack of sleep has on learning and memory consolidation. Resource:  See Teen Sleep, Memory & Learning  Sleep, Memory & Learning video schmied2015
  17. 17. 4. LIFESTYLE CHOICES AND THE ENVIRONMENT I CAN EXPLAIN HOW MY LIFESTYLE CHOICES AND OUR ENVIRONMENT CAN DIRECTLY AFFECT MY BODY SYSTEMS.  A. Obesity  Know the causes of obesity  Understand the trends in obesity over time  Be able to explain how obesity affects the three key human body systems Resource:  See Obesity in America schmied2015
  18. 18. 4. LIFESTYLE CHOICES AND THE ENVIRONMENT I CAN EXPLAIN HOW MY LIFESTYLE CHOICES AND OUR ENVIRONMENT CAN DIRECTLY AFFECT MY BODY SYSTEMS.  B. Fast Food & Diabetes  Know the effects of a fast food diet on key human body systems.  Know what diabetes is  Know what cardiovascular disease is and how it affect key systems. Resource:  See Fast Food and Diabetes  AND  See Obesity in America schmied2015
  19. 19. DIABETES Not enough Insulin Too much blood glucose Type I Diabetes Type 2 DiabetesInsulin Resistance Usually young children Immune system destroys beta cells in Pancreas Treatment Diet Drugs Insulin Used to be adults 30-40 Pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin Treatment Diet Drugs Insulin Body cells resist the insulin “signal” Result Cells need even more Insulin to take in glucose! schmied2016
  20. 20. 1979 to 1980 2003 to 2006 2005 to 2006 2007 to 2009 2020 est (11.2%) (25.9%) (29.5%) (25%) (36.8%) PREDIABETES DATA PreDiabetes is a “pre-diagnosis” of diabetes—you can think of it as a warning sign. It’s when your blood glucose level (blood sugar level) is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough to be considered diabetes. schmied2016
  21. 21. 4. LIFESTYLE CHOICES AND THE ENVIRONMENT I CAN EXPLAIN HOW MY LIFESTYLE CHOICES AND OUR ENVIRONMENT CAN DIRECTLY AFFECT MY BODY SYSTEMS.  C. Asthma  Know how asthma occurs and how asthma affects key body systems  Know suspected causes of asthma.  Be able to explain what environmental factors trigger asthma attacks. Resource: Asthma & the Puget Sound Environment schmied2015
  22. 22. 2. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM I CAN EXPLAIN HOW THE PARTS (SUBSYSTEMS) OF MY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM WORK TOGETHER TO DELIVER NUTRIENTS AND TAKE AWAY WASTES. A. Subsystems of the Circulatory System  Know the name of each subsystem of the Circulatory System  Know what each subsystem does  Know what each subsystem brings Is Does, Brings B. Subsystems of the Heart subsystem  Know the name of each subsystem within the heart  Know what each subsystem does  Know what each subsystem “brings” schmied2015
  23. 23. 2. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM I CAN EXPLAIN HOW THE PARTS (SUBSYSTEMS) OF MY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM WORK TOGETHER TO DELIVER NUTRIENTS AND TAKE AWAY WASTES Subsystems of the Circulatory System – Is, Does, Brings Name What does it do? What does it bring? Heart Arteries Capillaries Veins Pumps blood to lungs & body. • O2 rich blood to body CO2 rich blood to lungs Brings blood to the body from heart • O2 rich blood to body • CO2 rich blood to lungs Brings supplies to & from every body cell • O2 and Nutrients to cells • CO2 & Wastes from cells Brings blood to the heart from body • CO2 rich blood to heart • O2 rich blood from lungs to heart Things to Know – General schmied2015
  24. 24. 2. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM I CAN EXPLAIN HOW THE PARTS (SUBSYSTEMS) OF MY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM WORK TOGETHER TO DELIVER NUTRIENTS AND TAKE AWAY WASTES Follow the blood flow through subsystems in the Circulatory System – (In order from left side of heart) Structure Function Left side of Heart Arteries Capillaries Veins Right side of Heart Pulmonary Artery Pulmonary Vein O2 and Nutrients to cells CO2 & Wastes from cells Pumps O2 rich blood to body Brings O2 rich blood to the body from heart Brings CO2 rich blood to the right side of the heart from body CO2 rich blood to lungs fm right side heart O2 rich blood to left side heart fm lungs CO2 rich blood to lungs via Pul. Artery schmied2015
  25. 25. 2. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM I CAN EXPLAIN HOW THE PARTS (SUBSYSTEMS) OF MY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM WORK TOGETHER TO DELIVER NUTRIENTS AND TAKE AWAY WASTES Things to know  Be able to:  Know where the valves are located,  What the valves do,  What would happen if the valves weren’t working properly schmied2015
  26. 26. Things to know  Be able to:  Track the blood flow from the body, through the heart, to the lungs & back  Show which areas have O2 rich blood  Show which areas have CO2 rich blood 2. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM I CAN EXPLAIN HOW THE PARTS (SUBSYSTEMS) OF MY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM WORK TOGETHER TO DELIVER NUTRIENTS AND TAKE AWAY WASTES schmied2015
  27. 27. Things to know  Be able to:  Track the blood flow from the body, through the heart, to the lungs & back  Show which areas have O2 rich blood  Show which areas have CO2 rich blood 2. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM I CAN EXPLAIN HOW THE PARTS (SUBSYSTEMS) OF MY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM WORK TOGETHER TO DELIVER NUTRIENTS AND TAKE AWAY WASTES schmied2015
  28. 28. GOAL 1B – I AM ABLE TO SHOW, DESCRIBE & EXPLAIN HOW THE SUBSYSTEMS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM WORK TO ALLOW THIS SYSTEM TO FUNCTION PROPERLY Respiratory Be able to: • tell subsystems in order • what each subsystem does http://www.pc.maricopa.edu/Biology/pfinkenstadt/BIO202/202LessonBuilde r/Respiratory/alveoli.jpg schmied2015
  29. 29. 3. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM I CAN EXPLAIN HOW THE PARTS (SUBSYSTEMS) OF MY RESPIRATORY SYSTEM WORK TOGETHER TO TAKE IN OXYGEN (O2) AND TAKE AWAY CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2). Data Table 2 – Structures & Functions of the Respiratory System Structure Function – Tell what each organ does! Nose & Mouth Trachea Lungs Bronchioles Alveoli Know the Structures & Functions of the Respiratory System schmied2015
  30. 30. Data Table 2 – Structures & Functions of the Respiratory System Structure Function – Tell what each organ does! Nose & Mouth Trachea Lungs Bronchioles Alveoli Know the Structures & Functions of the Respiratory System Covers Bronchioles and Alveoli Takes in, filters, warms and exhausts air from the lungs Filters & Warms incoming air/O2, breathe out CO2 & H20 Spreads air out to every part of the lungs. 1. Take in, then exhaust, CO2 from blood (capillaries) 2. Gives O2 to blood cells (capillaries) 3. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM I CAN EXPLAIN HOW THE PARTS (SUBSYSTEMS) OF MY RESPIRATORY SYSTEM WORK TOGETHER TO TAKE IN OXYGEN (O2) AND TAKE AWAY CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2). schmied2015
  31. 31. Be able • to tell how & where CO2 and O2 are exchanged in the lungs • as well as where CO2 and O2 are exchanged in the body • also where the blood supply comes from & goes in the body http://ykonline.yksd.com/distanceedcourses/Courses/Biology/le ssons/ThirdQuarterLessons/Chapter08/8-3/images/alveolus.gif 3. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM I CAN EXPLAIN HOW THE PARTS (SUBSYSTEMS) OF MY RESPIRATORY SYSTEM WORK TOGETHER TO TAKE IN OXYGEN (O2) AND TAKE AWAY CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2). schmied2015
  32. 32. Be able • to tell how & where CO2 & O2 are exchanged in the lungs • where CO2 & O2 are exchanged in the body & where flow • where the blood supply comes from & goes in the body 3. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM I CAN EXPLAIN HOW THE PARTS (SUBSYSTEMS) OF MY RESPIRATORY SYSTEM WORK TOGETHER TO TAKE IN OXYGEN (O2) AND TAKE AWAY CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2). schmied2015
  33. 33. Basics of how matter is transported to & used by cells An Animal Cell O2 + C6H12O6 CHEMICAL REACTION ENERGY! CO2 + H2O + Waste O2 C6H12O6 CO2 INSULIN H2O MITOCHONDRIA Vein to Heart, Lungs Mouth Kidneys CAPILLARY WALL FROM ARTERY HEART, LUNGS & MOUTH GLUCOSE FROM SMALL INTESTINE schmied2015
  34. 34. schmied2015 Be able to show how • Nutrients (food) • Wastes • CO2 & O2 • & Energy flow in and out of the body using a Systems Diagram. I can show and explain how key human body systems work (Digestive, Respiratory & Circulatory) together.

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