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Woods Presentation

  1. 1. Introduction to Wood Working Part 1 Trees, Lumber & Terminology
  2. 2. Types of Trees <ul><li>Hardwoods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciduous trees have leaves. The leaves fall and are replaced each year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard woods are called Hard Woods because their wood is more resistant to wear and impact (It’s Harder!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Softwoods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coniferous trees that bear needles and remain green all year around. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coniferous means cone bearing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally softwoods are used in residential construction. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Cross Section of a Tree Outer Bark Inner Bark Cambium Sap Wood Wood Ray Heartwood Pith
  4. 4. Making Lumber from Logs <ul><li>Quarter sawed lumber. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarter sawed lumber has a better grain pattern than flat sawed lumber. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarter sawed lumber doesn’t warp, twist or splinter as easily as plain sawed lumber. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is more waste from the log when making Quarter sawed lumber . </li></ul></ul>Wood Ray Saw Cut
  5. 5. Making Lumber from Logs <ul><li>Plain Sawed Lumber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called “Flat Sawed”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is less waste from the log from plain sawed lumber. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is faster to saw plain sawed lumber. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plain sawed lumber tends to have more checks, splits and warping than quarter sawed lumber. </li></ul></ul>Wood Ray Saw Cut
  6. 6. Lumber Terminology <ul><li>When talking about the size of lumber you always speak in terms of Thickness, Width and Length. (TxWxL) </li></ul><ul><li>When talking about lumber, the width is always across the grain and the length is always with or along the grain. </li></ul>
  7. 7. TxWxL Grain T W L
  8. 8. Lumber Terminology <ul><li>The unit of size for lumber is called a Board Foot. </li></ul><ul><li>A board foot is a piece of lumber that measures 1 inch thick, 12 inches wide and 12 inches long. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Board Foot 1” 12” 12”
  10. 10. Lumber Terminology <ul><li>Rough vs. Finished or Dried Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>When lumber is first cut a 2 x 4 is cut to exactly 2 inches thick and 4 inches wide. </li></ul><ul><li>When the lumber is cut the saw leaves rough “saw marks” on the lumber. </li></ul><ul><li>This full sized lumber with saw marks is called “Rough Sawn” lumber. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lumber Terminology <ul><li>Rough vs. Finished or Dried Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>A machine called a Surfacer is used on the rough sawn lumber to remove the saw marks. This makes the lumber size smaller and gives it a smooth surface. </li></ul><ul><li>When surfaced, the lumber is called “Finished” lumber. </li></ul><ul><li>A rough 2 x 4 will measure 2 inches by 4 inches. A finished 2 x 4 measures 1 ½ inches by 3 ½ inches. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Kinds of Hardwood <ul><li>Poplar </li></ul><ul><li>Walnut </li></ul><ul><li>Oak </li></ul><ul><li>Cherry </li></ul><ul><li>Ash </li></ul><ul><li>Maple </li></ul>
  13. 13. Kinds of Softwoods <ul><li>Spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Pine </li></ul><ul><li>Fir </li></ul><ul><li>Cedar </li></ul>
  14. 14. End of Part 1
  15. 15. Woods Module Work Sheet One <ul><li>1) Two classes of trees used for making lumber are: </li></ul><ul><li>Name two characteristics of quarter sawn lumber. </li></ul><ul><li>Maple is considered a ________ wood. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between heart wood and sap wood. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the “board foot” unit. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Woods Module Work Sheet One <ul><li>6) How is rough sawn lumber different from finished lumber? </li></ul><ul><li>7) If you look at a board and you see that the grain is very straight with a lot of lines close together, the board was probably _____ sawn. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw, show dimensions, and show the direction of the grain on a 1x4x6 board. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw, show dimensions, and show the direction of the grain on a 1x6x3 board </li></ul>
  17. 17. Woods Module Work Sheet One <ul><li>Label the arrows in the following drawing. </li></ul>Label the arrows in the following drawing. 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 11) 12)
  18. 18. Introduction to Wood Working Part 2 Manufactured Panels
  19. 19. Manufactured Panels <ul><li>Common names are: Veneers, Ply woods, Oriented Strand Board (OSB), Wafer boards, Composite Panels and Particle board. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Composite Panels <ul><li>Veneers: made of a solid wood core and a covering (Veneer) of the desired wood. </li></ul><ul><li>Plywood: made of alternating layers of heavy veneer glued up to a specific thickness. (1/2, ¾ etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>OSB: is made in layers like plywood, but each layer is made of veneer that has been chopped into long strands. The strands on one layer are glued at a 90 degree angle to the strands of the second layer. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Composite Panels <ul><li>Wafer board: (Sometimes called “Flaked” board), flat flakes of veneer are spread out and glued up to a set thickness. Flake board is the weakest of the laminates. </li></ul><ul><li>Composites: (Particle board and Masonite) made from chips or powdered wood glued up to a specific thickness. These composites are very dense because of the amount of glue in them. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Composite Panels Plywood Waferboard Composite Panel Structural Particleboard Oriented Strand Board
  23. 23. Cutting Veneer <ul><li>The three methods of cutting Veneer are Rotary, Flat sliced and Quarter sliced. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Rotary Knife Angle
  25. 25. Flat Sliced Knife Angle
  26. 26. Quarter Sliced Knife Angle
  27. 27. Woods Module Work Sheet Two <ul><li>What does the term “veneer’ mean? </li></ul><ul><li>What are three ways of cutting a veneer? </li></ul><ul><li>Name and describe the characteristics of three different “sheet” wood products. </li></ul><ul><li>What is OSB? </li></ul><ul><li>What do the letters OSB stand for? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the term “Ply-wood” mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the four samples of manufactured panels. </li></ul>
  28. 28. End of Part 2
  29. 29. Introduction to Wood Working Part 3 Planning and Tools
  30. 30. Project Planning <ul><li>Select the project first. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheese cutter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key rack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book rack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small shelf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clip board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter holder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bird feeder </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Project Planning <ul><li>Define the problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using your own words, define what is the goal of your project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sketch possible solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sketch 3 possible solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select best solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explain why you chose this solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop working drawings </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. General Safety Rules <ul><li>Keep your work area clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear eye protection at all times while in the lab. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear hearing protection when working with loud power tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not wear jewelry or loose fitting clothing while operating machines. </li></ul><ul><li>No open toed shoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry a sharp tool pointed downward. </li></ul><ul><li>Report any damaged equipment to the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Never operate a machine with the guards removed. </li></ul>
  33. 33. General Safety Rules <ul><li>Don’t talk to people while they are operating equipment. Wait until they are done to get their attention. </li></ul><ul><li>No yelling in the lab, no running in the lab and no horseplay in the lab. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure the machine you are working on comes to a complete stop before leaving it. </li></ul><ul><li>Report all injuries to the teacher. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Hand Layout Tools <ul><li>Rulers (Rules) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinist’s Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bench Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angular Measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sliding T-Bevel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Center Square </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combination Set </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Pictures of Hand Layout Tools <ul><li>Insert pictures of the hand tools </li></ul>
  36. 36. Hand Layout Tools <ul><li>Squares </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tri-square </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination Square </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing Square </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T-Square </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialty Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trammel Points </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Pictures of Hand Layout Tools <ul><li>Insert pictures of the hand tools from slide above. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Hand Cutting Tools <ul><li>Saws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crosscut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dove-tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coping </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Pictures of Hand Cutting Tools <ul><li>Insert pictures of the hand tools from slide above. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Hand Cutting Tools <ul><li>Files </li></ul><ul><li>Rasps </li></ul><ul><li>Planes </li></ul><ul><li>Chisels </li></ul><ul><li>Coated Abrasives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum Oxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emery </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Pictures of Hand Cutting Tools <ul><li>Insert pictures of the hand tools from slide above. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Power Wood Working Tools <ul><li>Power Miter box (Chop Saw) </li></ul><ul><li>Band Saw </li></ul><ul><li>Jointer </li></ul><ul><li>Surfacer (Planer) </li></ul><ul><li>Table Saw </li></ul>
  43. 43. Dust Collection Bag Handle Guard Blade Motor Fence Table Angle Gauge Blade Slot
  44. 44. Blade Upper Blade Guard Table Insert Table Power Switch
  45. 45. Tilting Fence Infeed Table Infeed Table Adjustments Power Switch Outfeed Table Cutter Guard
  46. 46. Feed Roller Lever Lower Feed Rollers Table Adjustments Bed
  47. 48. Power Wood Working Tools <ul><li>Router </li></ul><ul><li>Jig Saw </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle Sander </li></ul><ul><li>Belt/Disc Sander </li></ul><ul><li>Drill Press </li></ul>
  48. 53. Feed Lever Motor Table Locking Clamp Column Base Table Chuck On-Off Switch
  49. 54. Pneumatic Wood Working Tools <ul><li>Trim Nailers (Pin Nailers) </li></ul><ul><li>Staplers </li></ul>
  50. 57. Safety Rules for the Band Saw <ul><li>Never use the saw with the doors open or the guide/guard up. </li></ul><ul><li>Before opening the doors, turn the power disconnect off. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure the blade is stopped before leaving the machine. </li></ul>
  51. 58. Safety Rules for the Band Saw <ul><li>Before cutting, set the guide/guard no more than 1/8 inch from your work. </li></ul><ul><li>When cutting, be sure your hands are not in line with the saw blade. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not cut round stock without the teachers direct supervision </li></ul></ul>
  52. 59. Safety Rules for the Power Miter Saw (Chop Saw) <ul><li>Check to be sure the guard is working properly before cutting. </li></ul><ul><li>Unplug the saw before making adjustments or working near the blade. </li></ul><ul><li>Be certain your wood is back against the fence before you start to cut. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not cut round stock without the teachers direct supervision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a stick or piece of wood to knock small blocks from under the blade, not your hand. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 60. Safety Rules for the Power Miter Saw <ul><li>Always keep your hands at least 6 inches from the blade. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a board has a “hook” in it, be sure to keep the “hook” against the fence at the saw. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the hold down clamp to hold pieces of wood shorter than 6 inches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always bring the saw blade up to speed before starting to cut. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 61. Safety Rules for the Jointer <ul><li>Do not joint stock that is less than ¼ inch thick. </li></ul><ul><li>When jointing the edge of a board don’t let your hands go directly over the cutter. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure the guard is operating and in place. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You should not leave the jointer until the blades have stopped completely. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 62. Safety Rules for the Jointer <ul><li>Turn off the power disconnect before moving the guard away from the blades or making any adjustments to the machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Use push sticks on any board that isn’t taller than the fence. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure the fence is locked into place before jointing a board. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never joint “End Grain”!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t joint boards that are less than 8” long. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 63. Safety Rules for the Surfacer <ul><li>Do not surface boards shorter than 14 inches. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not take a cut greater than 1/16 inch. </li></ul><ul><li>Ear protection must be worn when operating the surfacer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed the board into the surfacer with the grain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always start surfacing with the roughest surface up. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 64. Safety Work Sheet <ul><ul><li>List 6 safety rules for the band saw. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List 9 safety rules for the power miter box (chop saw). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List 9 safety rules for the jointer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List 5 safety rules for the surfacer. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 65. End of Part 3
  59. 66. Introduction to Wood Working Part 4 Building the Project
  60. 67. The Three P’s of Wood Working <ul><li>Plan the project including drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Price – determine the cost of all materials </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures – Formulate the steps needed to build the project. </li></ul><ul><li>When plans and procedures are completed, anyone should be able to build the project without any additional instructions or information. </li></ul>
  61. 68. Orthographic Projections <ul><li>Insert drawing </li></ul>
  62. 69. Planning Your Project <ul><li>Make good drawings of the project. Drawings should include Top, Front and Side views with dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine how many pieces of material you need and what the finished size of each. </li></ul><ul><li>Rough cut the lumber, 1 inch larger than what you need for the finished dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut wood to finished size. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut joints as necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Dry fit the project together. </li></ul>
  63. 70. Planning Your Project <ul><li>Make adjustments so parts fit properly then glue up the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal sanding should be done before the project is glued up. After glue up, carefully scrape the heavy glue deposits and then do the external sanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply stain. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply finish. (Minimum 3 coats of finish) </li></ul><ul><li>Scuff sand with 400 grit or higher between coats. </li></ul>
  64. 71. Computing Project Cost <ul><li>The formula to compute board foot is: </li></ul><ul><li>TxWxL/144 = Board Foot </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>1x6x10/144 = .42 (.416666666666) </li></ul>
  65. 72. Project Steps Example <ul><li>Cheese cutting block </li></ul><ul><li>1&quot;x5-1/2&quot;x9&quot; finished size </li></ul><ul><li>Machines used; Planer, jointer, circular saw, radial saw, router </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to complete </li></ul><ul><li>A. Glue up 1-1/16&quot; scrap stock, any width, to make board 1-1/16&quot;x6&quot;x19&quot; (this will make two cheese slicers). </li></ul><ul><li>B. Scrape off excess glue. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Use planer to mill to 1&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Join one edge. </li></ul><ul><li>E. Rip to width (5-1/2&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>F. Crosscut to 9-1/2&quot; (radial saw) (makes two). </li></ul><ul><li>G. Scrape off planer marks </li></ul>
  66. 73. Project Steps Example <ul><li>H. Crosscut to 9&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>I. Route top and bottom all the way around to 1/4&quot; radius with routing over bit. </li></ul><ul><li>J. Cut tapered slot (about 3/32&quot; wide) in board. This slot should be cut 2-7/8&quot; from edge of board to beginning of slot. Set-up jig should be made to accommodate making tapered cut with radial saw. </li></ul><ul><li>K. Drill 0.261&quot; diameter hole (letter &quot;G&quot; size drill bit) 3-3/4&quot; deep (centered at 3/8&quot; from back) </li></ul><ul><li>L. Sand top and bottom, sides, and polish sand ends. </li></ul><ul><li>M. Tung oil and lemon oil complete project. </li></ul><ul><li>N. Assemble wire cutter </li></ul><ul><li>O. Your Gourmet Cheese Slicer is ready to use. </li></ul>
  67. 74. End of Part 4
  68. 75. Editing Note <ul><li>Take out all the verbiage and replace with definitions of each layer of the tree on the next slide. </li></ul>
  69. 76. Cross Section of a Tree Outer Bark Inner Bark Cambium Sap Wood Wood Ray Heartwood Pith