Since you understand the PMcontingency, we now need to explainwhy that contingency is effective incontrolling behavior. Th...
First we have to determinewhether or not we even needthe theoretical contingency…
If the outcome for the PM contingency isdelayed by more than 60 seconds, it meansthat it is indirect-acting.But behavior i...
Paul is a waiter at Old Peninsula Brew Pub.His manager is trying to get the wait staffto suggest appetizer and drink items...
Before         Behavior          After    Paul will not                      Paul will    receive a $5    Paul up-sells   ...
Ineffective Natural Contingency                                                  Paul has  Paul has given        Paul up-s...
What kind of contingency is this?                Before        Behavior        After                   No         Lauren s...
What kind of contingency is this?                Before             Behavior             After                   No       ...
What kind of contingency is this?                Before             Behavior              After                   No      ...
Well then, do we need a theoretical    contingency for this example?           Before        Behavior        After        ...
Well then, do we need a theoretical    contingency for this example?           Before              Behavior            Aft...
Well then, do we need a theoretical    contingency for this example?           Before            Behavior               Af...
We know that only direct-actingcontingencies control behavior; that’s why we need the theoretical contingency to      expl...
What kind of contingency is this?          Before        Behavior      After          You fear                  You do not...
What kind of contingency is this?          Before        Behavior             After          You fear                     ...
What kind of contingency is this?          Before             Behavior            After          You fear                 ...
Next question:The Inferred TestIs the contingencyinferred or observable?We should be talkingabout something wecan’t see (l...
Is this contingency inferred?           Before        Behavior      After           You fear                  You do not f...
Is this contingency inferred?           Before        Behavior         After           You fear                    You do ...
Is this contingency inferred?           Before        Behavior            After           You fear                        ...
How about this one…is this contingency    inferred or observable?          Before          Behavior     After         You ...
How about this one…is this contingency    inferred or observable?          Before          Behavior           After       ...
How about this one…is this contingency    inferred or observable?          Before              Behavior             After ...
Is this contingency a theoretical         contingency?           Before          Behavior     After          You will get ...
We know that this         Is this contingency a theoretical             contingency is NOT         inferred, and the outco...
You’re right! Since it is NOT          inferred and the outcome is         Is this contingency a theoretical           NOT...
What type of contingency is it?           Before          Behavior     After          You will get a                You wi...
Remember that to be the ineffective     What type of contingency is it?                           natural contingency, the...
What type of contingency is it?                           That’s right!! It’s a performance-                              ...
Now we need the contingency        to pass the    Linked to PM Test  The theoretical contingency    should be linked to th...
You have            You have                           You start   infinitesimally           given level                  ...
Is the theoretical contingency in this example linked to the PM contingency?                                              ...
Is the theoretical contingency in this example linked to the PM contingency?                                              ...
Is the theoretical contingency in this example linked to the PM contingency?                                              ...
Which contingency is the theoretical contingency linked to in  this example?                                              ...
Which contingency is the theoretical contingency linked to in  this example?                              This time, the t...
Which contingency is the theoretical contingency linked to in  this example?                                              ...
Is the theoretical contingency correct in this example?                                                      Mary has     ...
Is the theoretical contingency correct in this example?                                                       Mary has    ...
Is the theoretical contingency correct in this example?                                                        Mary has   ...
Here’s another rule,The Escape Contingency Test:  If the PM contingency is   designed to increase or maintain performance,...
In this example, is the PM contingency designed to increase or     maintain performance?                                  ...
In this example, is the PM contingency designed to increase or     maintain performance?                       It IS desig...
In this example, is the PM contingency designed to increase or     maintain performance? Very good. It’s an analog to     ...
What kind of contingency is the   theoretical contingency?               Before            Behavior        After          ...
What kind of iscan’t be an analog, because the            outcome contingency avoidance,             No. This             ...
No. First, it is NOT an   What kind of contingency is the                analog, because there is not                delay...
What kind of No. In this contingency, the aversive                  contingency is the                condition (fear) is ...
What kind of contingencyisis escape                     That’s right, this an the                contingency! The outcome ...
There is just one more test to put   the Theoretical Contingency           through, the  Punishment Contingency Test If th...
Is this PM contingency designed to increase or decrease      Tony’s hitting?                                              ...
Is this PM contingency designed to increase or decrease           The PM contingency is an analog to      Tony’s hitting? ...
Is this PM contingency designed to increase or decrease      Tony’s hitting? is an analog to       Good! The PM       pena...
What kind of contingency is this?            Before        Behavior      After          Tony does                     Tony...
What kind of contingency the behavior.the outcome                     immediately follows is this? And Tony’s             ...
What kind of contingencyCareful! The outcome                                is this?                              immediat...
What kind of contingency But inaversive condition                        No. In escape, an this?                         i...
What kind of contingency fear this? on                         Right!!! The is is contingent                              ...
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Theoretical

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Theoretical

  1. 1. Since you understand the PMcontingency, we now need to explainwhy that contingency is effective incontrolling behavior. That brings us to: The Theoretical Contingency Estimated Time: 15 min.
  2. 2. First we have to determinewhether or not we even needthe theoretical contingency…
  3. 3. If the outcome for the PM contingency isdelayed by more than 60 seconds, it meansthat it is indirect-acting.But behavior is controlled by direct-actingcontingencies…So if the PM contingency is indirect-acting,we need to add a direct-acting theoreticalcontingency to directly control thebehavior.
  4. 4. Paul is a waiter at Old Peninsula Brew Pub.His manager is trying to get the wait staffto suggest appetizer and drink items to up-sell to customers. At the end of the day,if Paul’s sales printout shows at least 25%total sales in appetizers and drinks sales,Paul will get a $5 bonus from his manager.
  5. 5. Before Behavior After Paul will not Paul will receive a $5 Paul up-sells receive a $5 bonus at the one item bonus at the end of the day end of the dayThis contingency is Indirect-Acting,because Paul will not receive his bonusuntil the end of the day. This meanswe DO need the TheoreticalContingency. Now let’s see what thatlooks like…
  6. 6. Ineffective Natural Contingency Paul has Paul has given Paul up-sells one Infinitesimallylevel of daily sales item higher daily sales Performance Management Contingency Paul will lose Paul will not loseopportunity for a $5 Paul up-sells one opportunity for a $5bonus at the end of item bonus at the end of the day the day Direct-Acting Theoretical Contingency Paul does not fear Paul fears loss of loss of opportunity for a Paul up-sells one opportunity for a $5 bonus at the item $5 bonus at the end of the day end of the day
  7. 7. What kind of contingency is this? Before Behavior After No Lauren sings Applause applause from her solo from voice teacher perfectly voice teacherA. Direct-actingB. Indirect-acting
  8. 8. What kind of contingency is this? Before Behavior After No Lauren sings Applause applause from her solo from voice teacher perfectly voice teacher No. Lauren’s teacher immediately applauds her good performance. There isn’t any delay, so this is direct-acting.A. Direct-acting Back to theB. Indirect-acting question!
  9. 9. What kind of contingency is this? Before Behavior After No Lauren sings Applause applause from her solo from voice teacher perfectly voice teacher You’re exactly right! Lauren’s voice teacher applauds immediately after her performance, so this contingency is direct-acting.A. Direct-actingB. Indirect-acting
  10. 10. Well then, do we need a theoretical contingency for this example? Before Behavior After No Lauren sings Applause applause from her solo from voice teacher perfectly voice teacherA. YesB. No
  11. 11. Well then, do we need a theoretical contingency for this example? Before Behavior After No Lauren sings Applause applause from her solo from voice teacher perfectly voice teacher Careful! This contingency is direct-acting. And when the PM contingency is direct-acting, we don’t need a theoretical contingency.A. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  12. 12. Well then, do we need a theoretical contingency for this example? Before Behavior After No Lauren sings Applause applause from her solo from voice teacher perfectly voice teacher Yup! No theoretical contingency is needed because the applause directly reinforces Lauren’s behavior.A. YesB. No
  13. 13. We know that only direct-actingcontingencies control behavior; that’s why we need the theoretical contingency to explain the indirect-acting PM contingency. We need the contingency to pass the Direct-Acting Test; that is, the outcome must be immediate to make it effective
  14. 14. What kind of contingency is this? Before Behavior After You fear You do not fear You start getting a bad getting a to study grade bad gradeA. Direct-actingB. Indirect-acting
  15. 15. What kind of contingency is this? Before Behavior After You fear You do not fear You start getting a bad getting a to study grade bad grade This is a DIRECT-ACTING contingency. When you start to study the fear of a bad grade is immediately terminated (or reduced). So it’s immediate, sizable, and probable.A. Direct-acting Back to theB. Indirect-acting question!
  16. 16. What kind of contingency is this? Before Behavior After You fear You do not fear You start getting a bad getting a to study grade bad grade Very good!!! The outcome is immediate, sizable, and probable, so this contingency is direct- acting!A. Direct-actingB. Indirect-acting
  17. 17. Next question:The Inferred TestIs the contingencyinferred or observable?We should be talkingabout something wecan’t see (like fear orguilt) as opposed tosomething we can see(like a toy, token, orgrade)
  18. 18. Is this contingency inferred? Before Behavior After You fear You do not fear You start getting a bad getting a to study grade bad gradeA. YesB. No
  19. 19. Is this contingency inferred? Before Behavior After You fear You do not fear You start getting a bad getting a to study grade bad grade Hmm…think about it a little longer. Can you see “fear?” If not, it is inferred.A. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  20. 20. Is this contingency inferred? Before Behavior After You fear You do not fear You start getting a bad getting a to study grade bad grade Right!!! It is inferred because we can’t directly see “fear” and “no fear”.A. YesB. No
  21. 21. How about this one…is this contingency inferred or observable? Before Behavior After You will get a You will not bad grade You start get a bad on the test to study grade on the tomorrow test tomorrowA. ObservableB. Inferred
  22. 22. How about this one…is this contingency inferred or observable? Before Behavior After You will get a You will not bad grade You start get a bad on the test to study grade on the tomorrow test tomorrow This contingency is OBSERVABLE, because we can see it. We can look at the bad grade.A. Observable Back to theB. Inferred question!
  23. 23. How about this one…is this contingency inferred or observable? Before Behavior After You will get a You will not bad grade You start get a bad on the test to study grade on the tomorrow test tomorrow Yup! We can see the bad grade. So this contingency is observable.A. ObservableB. Inferred
  24. 24. Is this contingency a theoretical contingency? Before Behavior After You will get a You will not bad grade You start get a bad on the test to study grade on the tomorrow test tomorrowA. YesB. No
  25. 25. We know that this Is this contingency a theoretical contingency is NOT inferred, and the outcome contingency? is NOT immediate. So it can’t be a theoretical Before contingency. Behavior After You will get a You will not bad grade You start get a bad on the test to study grade on the tomorrow test tomorrowA. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  26. 26. You’re right! Since it is NOT inferred and the outcome is Is this contingency a theoretical NOT immediate, it is not a contingency? theoretical contingency. Before Behavior After You will get a You will not bad grade You start get a bad on the test to study grade on the tomorrow test tomorrowA. YesB. No
  27. 27. What type of contingency is it? Before Behavior After You will get a You will not bad grade You start get a bad on the test to study grade on the tomorrow test tomorrowA. Ineffective natural contingencyB. Performance-Management contingency
  28. 28. Remember that to be the ineffective What type of contingency is it? natural contingency, the outcome must be small or improbable. And it CAN’T be planned or added. Look at this outcome again, and see if it passes these tests. Before Behavior After You will get a You will not bad grade You start get a bad on the test to study grade on the tomorrow test tomorrowA. Ineffective natural contingency Back to theB. Performance-Management contingency question!
  29. 29. What type of contingency is it? That’s right!! It’s a performance- management contingency!!! Before Behavior After You will get a You will not bad grade You start get a bad on the test to study grade on the tomorrow test tomorrowA. Ineffective natural contingencyB. Performance-Management contingency
  30. 30. Now we need the contingency to pass the Linked to PM Test The theoretical contingency should be linked to the performance management contingency, not theineffective natural contingency
  31. 31. You have You have You start infinitesimally given level to study greater of knowledge knowledgeThese TheseSHOULD AREALWAYS NEVERBE You will get a You will not linked.linked. bad grade You start get a bad on the test to study grade on the tomorrow test tomorrow You fear You do not getting a fear getting bad grade You start a bad grade on the to study on the test test tomorrow tomorrow
  32. 32. Is the theoretical contingency in this example linked to the PM contingency? Julie has Julie has given Julie practices infinitesimally level of hard greater swimming swimming ability ability Julie will lose Julie will not lose opportunity to Julie practices opportunity to listen listen to music hard to music at at next practice next practice Julie does not Julie fears loss of Julie practices fear loss of opportunity to listen hard opportunity to to music listen to musicA. YesB. No
  33. 33. Is the theoretical contingency in this example linked to the PM contingency? Julie has Julie has given Julie practices infinitesimally level of hard greater swimming swimming ability ability Julie will lose Julie will not lose opportunity to Julie practices opportunity to listen listen to music hard to music at at next practice next practice Julie does not Julie fears loss of Julie practices fear loss of opportunity to listen hard opportunity to to music listen to music The theoretical contingency IS linked to the PM contingency in this example. Julie fears the loss of the opportunity to listen to music, which is part of the PM contingency.A. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  34. 34. Is the theoretical contingency in this example linked to the PM contingency? Julie has Julie has given Julie practices infinitesimally level of hard greater swimming swimming ability ability Julie will lose Julie will not lose opportunity to Julie practices opportunity to listen listen to music hard to music at at next practice next practice Julie does not Julie fears loss of Julie practices fear loss of opportunity to listen hard opportunity to to music listen to music Great! Julie’s fear of the lost opportunity for music is linked to the PM contingency – the opportunity for music.A. YesB. No
  35. 35. Which contingency is the theoretical contingency linked to in this example? Mary has Mary has given Mary practices infinitesimally level of piano for 30 minutes greater piano playing ability playing ability Mary will lose Mary will not lose opportunity for Mary practices for opportunity for discount on next 30 minutes discount on piano lesson next piano lesson Mary fears losing Mary does not the opportunity Mary practices for fear losing the to increase her 30 minutes opportunity to ability increase her abilityA. It’s linked to the PM contingencyB. It’s linked to the natural contingency
  36. 36. Which contingency is the theoretical contingency linked to in this example? This time, the theoretical Mary has given contingency is linked to infinitesimally Mary practices the has Mary level of piano natural minutes for 30 contingency. But it piano greater should be linked to the playing ability PM playing ability contingency. Mary will lose Mary will not lose opportunity for Mary practices for opportunity for discount on next 30 minutes discount on piano lesson next piano lesson Mary fears losing Mary does not the opportunity Mary practices for fear losing the to increase her 30 minutes opportunity to ability increase her abilityA. It’s linked to the PM contingency Back to theB. It’s linked to the natural contingency question!
  37. 37. Which contingency is the theoretical contingency linked to in this example? Mary has Mary has given Mary practices infinitesimally level of piano for 30 minutes greater piano playing ability playing ability Mary will lose Mary will not lose opportunity for Mary practices for opportunity for discount on next 30 minutes discount on piano lesson next piano lesson Right. This time the theoretical contingency is linked to the Mary fears losing Mary does not the opportunity Mary practices for fear losing the to increase her 30 minutes natural contingency. But it opportunity to ability SHOULDher ability to the PM increase be linked contingency.A. It’s linked to the PM contingencyB. It’s linked to the natural contingency
  38. 38. Is the theoretical contingency correct in this example? Mary has Mary has given Mary practices infinitesimally level of piano for 30 minutes greater piano playing ability playing ability Mary will lose Mary will not lose opportunity for Mary practices for opportunity for discount on next 30 minutes discount on piano lesson next piano lesson Mary fears losing Mary does not the opportunity Mary practices for fear losing the to increase her 30 minutes opportunity to ability increase her abilityA. YesB. No
  39. 39. Is the theoretical contingency correct in this example? Mary has Mary has given Mary practices infinitesimally level of piano for 30 minutes greater piano playing ability playing ability Mary will lose No. In this example, thenot lose Mary will opportunity for Mary practices for contingency is for theoretical opportunity discount on next 30 linked to the natural minutes discount on contingency. It SHOULD lesson piano lesson next piano be linked to the PM contingency. So this Mary fears losing example is incorrect. does not Mary the opportunity Mary practices for fear losing the to increase her 30 minutes opportunity to ability increase her abilityA. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  40. 40. Is the theoretical contingency correct in this example? Mary has Mary has given Mary practices infinitesimally level of piano for 30 minutes greater piano playing ability playing ability Mary will lose Mary will not lose opportunity for You got it! The theoretical for Mary practices for opportunity discount on next 30 minutes discount on piano lesson contingency is linked to thelesson next piano natural contingency. It SHOULD be linked to the PM contingency. So this Mary fears losing Mary does not the opportunity example is incorrect. Mary practices for fear losing the to increase her 30 minutes opportunity to ability increase her abilityA. YesB. No
  41. 41. Here’s another rule,The Escape Contingency Test: If the PM contingency is designed to increase or maintain performance, the theoretical contingency should be an escape contingency.
  42. 42. In this example, is the PM contingency designed to increase or maintain performance? Mary has Mary has given Mary practices infinitesimally level of piano for 30 minutes greater piano playing ability playing ability Mary will lose Mary will not lose opportunity for Mary practices for opportunity for discount on next 30 minutes discount on piano lesson next piano lesson Mary does not Mary fears losing Mary practices for fear losing the the opportunity 30 minutes opportunity for for a discount a discountA. YesB. No
  43. 43. In this example, is the PM contingency designed to increase or maintain performance? It IS designed to increase or maintain Mary has Mary has given performance. If Mary practicesinfinitesimally level of piano Mary practices she will NOT lose the opportunity for a discount. playing ability for 30 minutes greater piano playing ability Try it again. Mary will lose Mary will not lose opportunity for Mary practices for opportunity for discount on next 30 minutes discount on piano lesson next piano lesson Mary does not Mary fears losing Mary practices for fear losing the the opportunity 30 minutes opportunity for for a discount a discountA. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  44. 44. In this example, is the PM contingency designed to increase or maintain performance? Very good. It’s an analog to avoidance. Mary avoids losing the Mary has given opportunity for a discount by Mary has Mary practices infinitesimally level of piano practicing for 30 minutes. piano for 30 minutes greater playing ability playing ability Mary will lose Mary will not lose opportunity for Mary practices for opportunity for discount on next 30 minutes discount on piano lesson next piano lesson Mary does not Mary fears losing Mary practices for fear losing the the opportunity 30 minutes opportunity for for a discount a discountA. YesB. No
  45. 45. What kind of contingency is the theoretical contingency? Before Behavior After Mary fears Mary does not losing discount Mary practices fear losing on next for 30 minutes discount on lesson next lessonA. Analog to avoidanceB. Analog to penalty/punishmentC. EscapeD. Penalty/Punishment
  46. 46. What kind of iscan’t be an analog, because the outcome contingency avoidance, No. This immediate. Also, in is the theoreticalcontingency isn’t contacted as long as the contingency? the organism does the behavior. But Mary already has fear in the Before condition. Before Behavior After Mary fears Mary does not losing discount Mary practices fear losing on next for 30 minutes discount on lesson next lessonA. Analog to avoidanceB. Analog to penalty/punishmentC. Escape Back to theD. Penalty/Punishment question!
  47. 47. No. First, it is NOT an What kind of contingency is the analog, because there is not delay between the behavior theoretical contingency? and the consequence. Also, the fear is removed, not Behavior Before Behavior presented. Can you figure it After out? Mary fears Mary does not losing discount Mary practices fear losing on next for 30 minutes discount on lesson next lessonA. Analog to avoidanceB. Analog to penalty/punishmentC. Escape Back to theD. Penalty/Punishment question!
  48. 48. What kind of No. In this contingency, the aversive contingency is the condition (fear) is REMOVED contingent theoretical contingency? about it again! on practicing. Think Behavior Before BehaviorAfter After Mary fears Mary does not losing discount Mary practices fear losing on next for 30 minutes discount on lesson next lessonA. Analog to avoidanceB. Analog to penalty/punishmentC. Escape Back to theD. Penalty/Punishment question!
  49. 49. What kind of contingencyisis escape That’s right, this an the contingency! The outcome is immediate, theoretical contingency? in the before and the fear present condition is removed in the after Before Behavior condition! After Mary fears Mary does not losing discount Mary practices fear losing on next for 30 minutes discount on lesson next lessonA. Analog to avoidanceB. Analog to penalty/punishmentC. EscapeD. Penalty/Punishment
  50. 50. There is just one more test to put the Theoretical Contingency through, the Punishment Contingency Test If the PM contingency is designed to decrease performance, thetheoretical contingency should be a punishment contingency
  51. 51. Is this PM contingency designed to increase or decrease Tony’s hitting? Tony has Tony has good infinitesimally Tony hits a nurse medical treatment worse medical treatment Tony will not get Tony will get a token Tony hits a nurse a token within within 30 minutes 30 minutes Tony does not fear Tony fears losing losing the Tony hits a nurse the opportunity opportunity for for a token a tokenA. It’s designed to increase performanceB. It’s designed to decrease performance
  52. 52. Is this PM contingency designed to increase or decrease The PM contingency is an analog to Tony’s hitting? penalty. Tony will lose the opportunity for a token if he hits a nurse. So this Tony has should decrease the frequency that he infinitesimally Tony has good Tony hits a nurse medical treatment hits nurses. worse medical treatment Tony will not get Tony will get a token Tony hits a nurse a token within within 30 minutes 30 minutes Tony does not fear Tony fears losing losing the Tony hits a nurse the opportunity opportunity for for a token a tokenA. It’s designed to increase performance Back to theB. It’s designed to decrease performance question!
  53. 53. Is this PM contingency designed to increase or decrease Tony’s hitting? is an analog to Good! The PM penalty, so Tony’s hitting the nurses should decrease. Tony has Tony has good infinitesimally Tony hits a nurse medical treatment worse medical treatment Tony will not get Tony will get a token Tony hits a nurse a token within within 30 minutes 30 minutes Tony does not fear Tony fears losing losing the Tony hits a nurse the opportunity opportunity for for a token a tokenA. It’s designed to increase performanceB. It’s designed to decrease performance
  54. 54. What kind of contingency is this? Before Behavior After Tony does Tony fears Tony hits a not fear losing losing a nurse a token tokenA. Analog to avoidanceB. Analog to penalty/punishmentC. EscapeD. Punishment
  55. 55. What kind of contingency the behavior.the outcome immediately follows is this? And Tony’s Oops! It’s not an analog because fear (an aversive condition) follows the Before Behavior response, so After be punishment. it would Tony does Tony fears Tony hits a not fear losing losing a nurse a token tokenA. Analog to avoidanceB. Analog to penalty/punishmentC. Escape Back to theD. Punishment question!
  56. 56. What kind of contingencyCareful! The outcome is this? immediately follows the response, so it is a punishment Before Behavior After contingency, not an analog. Tony does Tony fears Tony hits a not fear losing losing a nurse a token tokenA. Analog to avoidanceB. Analog to penalty/punishmentC. Escape Back to theD. Punishment question!
  57. 57. What kind of contingency But inaversive condition No. In escape, an this? is removed. is this contingency an aversive condition (fear) is Before Behavior After presented. Tony does Tony fears Tony hits a not fear losing losing a nurse a token tokenA. Analog to avoidanceB. Analog to penalty/punishmentC. Escape Back to theD. Punishment question!
  58. 58. What kind of contingency fear this? on Right!!! The is is contingent Tony’s hitting. The fear should Before Behavior punish After behavior. the hitting Tony does Tony fears Tony hits a not fear losing losing a nurse a token tokenA. Analog to avoidanceB. Analog to penalty/punishmentC. EscapeD. Punishment

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