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The first Contingency we’ll    be working on is:            TheIneffective Natural    Contingency  Estimated Time: 15 min.
Julie’s on the swim team. Her coach says they’re doing more goofing off than practicing. So she’s going to try something n...
Let’s look at the Three-Contingency       model for this example:                                                      Jul...
The first contingency is theIneffective Natural Contingency.                                                    Julie has ...
The first test for this     contingency is the “Natural Contingency Test”.   We need to determine  whether the contingency...
Does this contingency exist prior to   performance management?            Before           Behavior           After       ...
Doesincrease in Julie’s     the this contingency exist prior to     Oops, does anyone add   performance management?      a...
Does this contingency exist prior to   You’re right,  nobody added   performance management?       this   contingency!    ...
So then, what kind of                       contingency is this?            Before           Behavior           After     ...
No, no one added this…she                            naturally gets a little bit better                       So then, wha...
That’s right! Julie                       So then, what kind of                           naturally gets better each      ...
Now we know that thiscontingency is a naturalcontingency…it existedprior to performancemanagement…but wehave to ask a few ...
First, we look at the before and afterconditions…and see if the change fromthe before to the after condition is largeand/o...
This is the“Ineffective Contingency Test”     If the change is     small…          Or improbable…           Then the      ...
Is this contingency effective or    ineffective?            Before           Behavior           After                     ...
Is this contingency Look               Wait a minute!                               effective or    ineffective?after befo...
Is this contingencyjob! This                     Good                            effective or                     continge...
We know this contingency is                           ineffective, but why?            Before           Behavior          ...
No…every time Julie practices,                      We know this contingency is                           there’s an incre...
Very good. The                           increase in ability is                      We know this contingency is          ...
How about this one. Is thiscontingency a natural contingency?            Before          Behavior        After          Yo...
Excellent!!!! ThisHow about this one. Is this   contingency exists                            without anyone addingconting...
No, this IS a natural                           contingency. It exists beforeHow about this one. Is this(and without) any ...
Is this contingency effective or                                              ineffective?           Before              B...
Careful, this contingency                          Is this contingency effective or                               is INEFF...
Is this contingency effective or                              Right, this contingency is                                  ...
Why is this contingency ineffective?           Before          Behavior        After         You have a                   ...
No, it’s ineffective because     Why is this contingency ineffective?                          it’s too improbable…you hav...
Why is this contingency ineffective?                      That’s right!!!! Getting seriously                       hurt in...
When we’re analyzing the Three-Contingency Model, it’s also importantto distinguish between the IneffectiveNatural Conting...
Effective Competing Contingencieshave outcomes that compete with theNatural Contingency.   Before          Behavior      A...
So, which of these is a natural contingency?             Before              Behavior         After  A.                   ...
Well, B is a natural contingency. So, which of these is a natural contingency?                                         But...
Yes, A is a natural contingency. So, which of these is a natural contingency?                                  However, lo...
Which of these is a natural contingency?                                    You got it!!!! Both of these exist            ...
Which of these is ineffective?                  Before                   Behavior       After     A.                      ...
You’re exactly      Which of these is ineffective?                right…the outcome is                                    ...
A is ineffective,                                                        because the      Which of these is ineffective?  ...
No, one of these      Which of these is ineffective?                     contingencies is                                 ...
Which of these is ineffective?an Effective                      No, B is effective. It’s                      Competing Co...
Let’s try a few more examples, to make sure you’ve got this stuff               down.
You are trying to quitsmoking, so you tellyour roommate you willpay him $1 for everycigarette you smoke…
Which of these contingencies would be the correct    Ineffective Natural Contingency?           You do not feel           ...
Which of these contingencies would be thethe contingencies is                                    No, one of correct    Ine...
Which of these contingencies would be the correct                                         Nope…B is an effective    Ineffe...
Which of these contingencies would be the correct                                      This one is the effective    Ineffe...
Which of these contingencies would be the correct                                         You’re right!!! C passes    Inef...
Yoko wants to practiceher violin more. Forevery day she doesn’tpractice, for 30minutes, Yoko will haveto do one of herroom...
Which of these contingencies would be the         correct Ineffective Natural Contingency?                                ...
Which of these contingencies would be the         correct Ineffective Natural Contingency?                                ...
Which of these contingencies would be the         correct Ineffective Natural Contingency?                                ...
Which of these contingencies would contingencies is the                          Careful! One of these be the         corr...
Which of these contingencies would be the                       Good job! The natural outcome of         correct Ineffecti...
The Ineffective Natural Contingency    portion of the work-show is complete. You may choose to stop    here or continue on...
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Ineffective

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Ineffective

  1. 1. The first Contingency we’ll be working on is: TheIneffective Natural Contingency Estimated Time: 15 min.
  2. 2. Julie’s on the swim team. Her coach says they’re doing more goofing off than practicing. So she’s going to try something new… If everyone improves their productivity by 15%, they can listen to music during the next practice.
  3. 3. Let’s look at the Three-Contingency model for this example: Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of swimming Julie practices hard greater swimming ability ability Julie will lose the Julie will not lose opportunity to listen the opportunity Julie practices hard to music at the to listen to music next practice at the next practice Julie does not fear Julie fears losing losing the the opportunity Julie practices hard opportunity to listen to music to listen to music
  4. 4. The first contingency is theIneffective Natural Contingency. Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of swimming Julie practices hard greater swimming ability ability Julie will lose the Julie will not lose opportunity to listen the opportunity Julie practices hard to music at the to listen to music next practice at the next practice Julie does not fear Julie fears losing losing the the opportunity Julie practices hard opportunity to listen to music to listen to music
  5. 5. The first test for this contingency is the “Natural Contingency Test”. We need to determine whether the contingency exists prior to performancemanagement. If it does, it’s a natural contingency.
  6. 6. Does this contingency exist prior to performance management? Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability abilityA. YesB. No
  7. 7. Doesincrease in Julie’s the this contingency exist prior to Oops, does anyone add performance management? ability, or is it just something that happens? Look again! Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability abilityA. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  8. 8. Does this contingency exist prior to You’re right, nobody added performance management? this contingency! Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability abilityA. YesB. No
  9. 9. So then, what kind of contingency is this? Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability abilityA. PM ContingencyB. Natural Contingency
  10. 10. No, no one added this…she naturally gets a little bit better So then, what kind of after each time she practices. contingency is a NATURAL That’s why this is this? contingency Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability abilityA. PM Contingency Back to theB. Natural Contingency question!
  11. 11. That’s right! Julie So then, what kind of naturally gets better each contingency is this? time she practices hard…so this is a natural contingency. Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability abilityA. PM ContingencyB. Natural Contingency
  12. 12. Now we know that thiscontingency is a naturalcontingency…it existedprior to performancemanagement…but wehave to ask a few morequestions, to make surethat it is theINEFFECTIVE NaturalContingency.
  13. 13. First, we look at the before and afterconditions…and see if the change fromthe before to the after condition is largeand/or probable. Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability ability
  14. 14. This is the“Ineffective Contingency Test” If the change is small… Or improbable… Then the contingency is ineffective.
  15. 15. Is this contingency effective or ineffective? Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability abilityA. IneffectiveB. Effective
  16. 16. Is this contingency Look Wait a minute! effective or ineffective?after before and at the conditions again! Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability abilityA. Ineffective Back to theB. Effective question!
  17. 17. Is this contingencyjob! This Good effective or contingency is ineffective? ineffective. Keep going to find out why. Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability abilityA. IneffectiveB. Effective
  18. 18. We know this contingency is ineffective, but why? Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability abilityA. The outcome is too improbableB. The outcome is too small
  19. 19. No…every time Julie practices, We know this contingency is there’s an increase in her level of swimming ability. The ineffective, but why? problem is not the probability, it’s the small but cumulative outcome! Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability abilityA. The outcome is too improbable Back to theB. The outcome is too small question!
  20. 20. Very good. The increase in ability is We know this contingency is infinitesimal, which means very small. ineffective, but why? Before Behavior After Julie has Julie has given infinitesimally level of Julie practices greater swimming hard swimming ability abilityA. The outcome is too improbableB. The outcome is too small
  21. 21. How about this one. Is thiscontingency a natural contingency? Before Behavior After You have a You have an very small infinitesimally You buckle chance smaller your safety of getting hurt chance of belt or killed in a being hurt car accident or killedA. YesB. No
  22. 22. Excellent!!!! ThisHow about this one. Is this contingency exists without anyone addingcontingency a natural contingency? or planning it. Before Behavior After You have a You have an very small infinitesimally You buckle chance smaller your safety of getting hurt chance of belt or killed in a being hurt car accident or killedA. YesB. No
  23. 23. No, this IS a natural contingency. It exists beforeHow about this one. Is this(and without) any performance management contingencies!contingency a natural contingency? Before Behavior After You have a You have an very small infinitesimally You buckle chance smaller your safety of getting hurt chance of belt or killed in a being hurt car accident or killedA. Yes Back to theB. No question!
  24. 24. Is this contingency effective or ineffective? Before Behavior After You have a You have an very small infinitesimally You buckle chance smaller your safety of getting hurt chance of belt or killed in a being hurt car accident or killedA. EffectiveB. Ineffective
  25. 25. Careful, this contingency Is this contingency effective or is INEFFECTIVE! Look at ineffective? the before and after conditions again. Before Behavior After You have a You have an very small infinitesimally You buckle chance smaller your safety of getting hurt chance of belt or killed in a being hurt car accident or killedA. Effective Back to theB. Ineffective question!
  26. 26. Is this contingency effective or Right, this contingency is INEFFECTIVE! ineffective? Before Behavior After You have a You have an very small infinitesimally You buckle chance smaller your safety of getting hurt chance of belt or killed in a being hurt car accident or killedA. EffectiveB. Ineffective
  27. 27. Why is this contingency ineffective? Before Behavior After You have a You have an very small infinitesimally You buckle chance smaller your safety of getting hurt chance of belt or killed in a being hurt car accident or killedA. The outcome is too smallB. The outcome is too improbable
  28. 28. No, it’s ineffective because Why is this contingency ineffective? it’s too improbable…you have less of a CHANCE of getting hurt…you don’t get hurt a little bit each time. Before Behavior After You have a You have an very small infinitesimally You buckle chance smaller your safety of getting hurt chance of belt or killed in a being hurt car accident or killedA. The outcome is too small Back to theB. The outcome is too improbable question!
  29. 29. Why is this contingency ineffective? That’s right!!!! Getting seriously hurt in an accident is not very likely…so it won’t control behavior. Before Behavior After You have a You have an very small infinitesimally You buckle chance smaller your safety of getting hurt chance of belt or killed in a being hurt car accident or killedA. The outcome is too smallB. The outcome is too improbable
  30. 30. When we’re analyzing the Three-Contingency Model, it’s also importantto distinguish between the IneffectiveNatural Contingency and EffectiveCompeting Contingencies. This is the “Competing Contingency Test”
  31. 31. Effective Competing Contingencieshave outcomes that compete with theNatural Contingency. Before Behavior After Julie has no Julie talks Julie has social with social reinforcers friends reinforcers Talking with friends effectively competes with practicing hard.
  32. 32. So, which of these is a natural contingency? Before Behavior After A. You have You have given You read one infinitesimally level of page greater knowledge knowledge You have no You have B. visual and auditory You watch TV visual and auditory stimulation stimulationA. A is a Natural ContingencyB. B is a Natural ContingencyC. Both A and B are Natural Contingencies
  33. 33. Well, B is a natural contingency. So, which of these is a natural contingency? But look at A … did anybody add or plan that contingency? Before Behavior After A. You have You have given You read one infinitesimally level of page greater knowledge knowledge You have no You have B. visual and auditory You watch TV visual and auditory stimulation stimulationA. A is a Natural Contingency Back toB. B is a Natural Contingency the question!C. Both A and B are Natural Contingencies
  34. 34. Yes, A is a natural contingency. So, which of these is a natural contingency? However, look also at B. Did anybody add or plan that Before Behaviorcontingency? After A. You have You have given You read one infinitesimally level of page greater knowledge knowledge You have no You have B. visual and auditory You watch TV visual and auditory stimulation stimulationA. A is a Natural Contingency Back toB. B is a Natural Contingency the question!C. Both A and B are Natural Contingencies
  35. 35. Which of these is a natural contingency? You got it!!!! Both of these exist prior to performance management…no one designed Before Behavior to manage performance. them After A. You have You have given You read one infinitesimally level of page greater knowledge knowledge You have no You have B. visual and auditory You watch TV visual and auditory stimulation stimulationA. A is a Natural ContingencyB. B is a Natural ContingencyC. Both A and B are Natural Contingencies
  36. 36. Which of these is ineffective? Before Behavior After A. You have You have given You read one infinitesimally level of page greater knowledge knowledge You have no You have B. visual and auditory You watch TV visual and auditory stimulation stimulationA. A is the Ineffective Natural ContingencyB. B is the Ineffective Natural ContingencyC. Neither. Both A and B are effectiveD. Both A and B are ineffective
  37. 37. You’re exactly Which of these is ineffective? right…the outcome is too small to control the Before Behavior After behavior. A. You have You have given You read one infinitesimally level of page greater knowledge knowledge You have no You have B. visual and auditory You watch TV visual and auditory stimulation stimulationA. A is the Ineffective Natural ContingencyB. B is the Ineffective Natural ContingencyC. Neither. Both A and B are effectiveD. Both A and B are ineffective
  38. 38. A is ineffective, because the Which of these is ineffective? outcome is too small. Before Behavior After A. You have You have given You read one infinitesimally level of page greater knowledge knowledge You have no You have B. visual and auditory You watch TV visual and auditory stimulation No, Bstimulation is effective. It’s an Effective Competing Contingency…the outcome is bigA. A is the Ineffective Natural Contingency enough and probable enough toB. B is the Ineffective Natural Contingency control the behavior. Back toC. Neither. Both A and B are effective theD. Both A and B are ineffective question!
  39. 39. No, one of these Which of these is ineffective? contingencies is ineffective. See if Before Behavior you can figure out After which one! A. You have You have given You read one infinitesimally level of page greater knowledge knowledge You have no You have B. visual and auditory You watch TV visual and auditory stimulation stimulationA. A is the Ineffective Natural ContingencyB. B is the Ineffective Natural Contingency Back toC. Neither. Both A and B are effective theD. Both A and B are ineffective question!
  40. 40. Which of these is ineffective?an Effective No, B is effective. It’s Competing Contingency…the outcome Before is big enough and probable enough to Behavior After control the behavior. A. You have You have given You read one infinitesimally level of page greater knowledge knowledge You have no You have B. visual and auditory You watch TV visual and auditory stimulation stimulationA. A is the Ineffective Natural ContingencyB. B is the Ineffective Natural Contingency Back toC. Neither. Both A and B are effective theD. Both A and B are ineffective question!
  41. 41. Let’s try a few more examples, to make sure you’ve got this stuff down.
  42. 42. You are trying to quitsmoking, so you tellyour roommate you willpay him $1 for everycigarette you smoke…
  43. 43. Which of these contingencies would be the correct Ineffective Natural Contingency? You do not feel You do feel the A. the rush of You take a puff rush of nicotine nicotine You will not have You will have to B. To pay your You take a puff Pay your roommate Roommate $1 $1 You have C. You have a given You take a puff Infinitesimally worse Level of health healthA. A is the correct ContingencyB. B is the correct ContingencyC. C is the correct ContingencyD. None of the Contingencies are correct.
  44. 44. Which of these contingencies would be thethe contingencies is No, one of correct Ineffective Natural Contingency? ineffective. See which one it is. You do not feel You do feel the A. the rush of You take a puff rush of nicotine nicotine You will not have You will have to B. To pay your You take a puff Pay your roommate Roommate $1 $1 You have C. You have a given You take a puff Infinitesimally worse Level of health healthA. A is the correct ContingencyB. B is the correct Contingency Back toC. C is the correct Contingency theD. None of the Contingencies are correct. question!
  45. 45. Which of these contingencies would be the correct Nope…B is an effective Ineffective Natural Contingency? contingency. Try the question again! You do not feel You do feel the A. the rush of You take a puff rush of nicotine nicotine You will not have You will have to B. to pay your You take a puff pay your roommate Roommate $1 $1 You have C. You have a given You take a puff infinitesimally worse level of health healthA. A is the correct ContingencyB. B is the correct Contingency Back toC. C is the correct Contingency theD. None of the Contingencies are correct. question!
  46. 46. Which of these contingencies would be the correct This one is the effective Ineffective Natural Contingency? competing contingency. So it fails the ineffective You do not feel contingency test. Try it You do feel the A. the rush of You take a puff rush again! of nicotine nicotine You will not have You will have to B. To pay your You take a puff Pay your roommate Roommate $1 $1 You have C. You have a given You take a puff Infinitesimally worse Level of health healthA. A is the correct ContingencyB. B is the correct Contingency Back toC. C is the correct Contingency theD. None of the Contingencies are correct. question!
  47. 47. Which of these contingencies would be the correct You’re right!!! C passes Ineffective Natural Contingency? all the tests!!! You do not feel You do feel the A. the rush of You take a puff rush of nicotine nicotine You will not have You will have to B. To pay your You take a puff Pay your roommate Roommate $1 $1 You have C. You have a given You take a puff Infinitesimally worse Level of health healthA. A is the correct ContingencyB. B is the correct ContingencyC. C is the correct ContingencyD. None of the Contingencies are correct.
  48. 48. Yoko wants to practiceher violin more. Forevery day she doesn’tpractice, for 30minutes, Yoko will haveto do one of herroommate, Rick’s,chores .
  49. 49. Which of these contingencies would be the correct Ineffective Natural Contingency? Yoko has an Yoko has a given Yoko practices her infinitesimally A. level of ability on violin for 30 higher level of the violin minutes ability on the violin Yoko has 30 Yoko practices her Yoko doesn’t B. minutes of free violin for 30 have 30 minutes time minutes of free time Yoko will have Yoko won’t have to Yoko practices her C. to do one of her violin for 30 do one of her roommate’s chores roommate’s chores minutes on Saturday on SaturdayA. A is the correct ContingencyB. B is the correct ContingencyC. C is the correct ContingencyD. None of the Contingencies are correct.
  50. 50. Which of these contingencies would be the correct Ineffective Natural Contingency? Yoko has an Yoko has a given Yoko practices her infinitesimally A. level of ability on violin for 30 higher level of the violin minutes ability on the violin Watch out! This is the Yoko has 30 Yoko practices her Yoko doesn’t Effective Competing minutes B. minutes of free violin for 30 have 30 time Contingency. Look atfree time minutes of the contingencies again. Yoko will have Yoko won’t have to Yoko practices her C. to do one of her violin for 30 do one of her roommate’s chores roommate’s chores minutes on Saturday on SaturdayA. A is the correct ContingencyB. B is the correct Contingency Back toC. C is the correct Contingency theD. None of the Contingencies are correct. question!
  51. 51. Which of these contingencies would be the correct Ineffective Natural Contingency? Yoko has an Yoko has a given Yoko practices her infinitesimally A. level of ability on violin for 30 higher level of the violin minutes ability on the violin Yoko has 30 Yoko practices her Yoko doesn’t B. minutes of free violin for 30 have 30 minutes time minutes of free time Uh-oh! This is the Yoko will have Performance Management to Yoko practices her Yoko won’t have C. to do one of her Contingency. It one of her violin for 30 do was roommate’s chores roommate’s chores on Saturday designed by Yoko and Rick to minutes on Saturday manage her performance.A. A is the correct ContingencyB. B is the correct Contingency Back toC. C is the correct Contingency theD. None of the Contingencies are correct. question!
  52. 52. Which of these contingencies would contingencies is the Careful! One of these be the correct Ineffective Natural Contingency? correct Ineffective Natural Contingency. Try to find out which one it is. Yoko has an Yoko has a given Yoko practices her infinitesimally A. level of ability on violin for 30 higher level of the violin minutes ability on the violin Yoko has 30 Yoko practices her Yoko doesn’t B. minutes of free violin for 30 have 30 minutes time minutes of free time Yoko will have Yoko won’t have to Yoko practices her C. to do one of her violin for 30 do one of her roommate’s chores roommate’s chores minutes on Saturday on SaturdayA. A is the correct ContingencyB. B is the correct Contingency Back toC. C is the correct Contingency theD. None of the Contingencies are correct. question!
  53. 53. Which of these contingencies would be the Good job! The natural outcome of correct Ineffective practicing Contingency? Yoko’s Natural is an infinitesimal increase in her abilities. However, an Yoko has Yoko has a given the tiny change in size makes that Yoko practices her infinitesimally A. level of ability on contingency ineffective in controlling of violin for 30 higher level the violin minutes ability on the behavior. violin Yoko has 30 Yoko practices her Yoko doesn’t B. minutes of free violin for 30 have 30 minutes time minutes of free time Yoko will have Yoko won’t have to Yoko practices her C. to do one of her violin for 30 do one of her roommate’s chores roommate’s chores minutes on Saturday on SaturdayA. A is the correct ContingencyB. B is the correct ContingencyC. C is the correct ContingencyD. None of the Contingencies are correct.
  54. 54. The Ineffective Natural Contingency portion of the work-show is complete. You may choose to stop here or continue on with the Performance Management Contingency Section (est. 15 mins.)

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