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1980s to early 1990s2014


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Regan to Bush Sr. Administrations

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1980s to early 1990s2014

  1. 1. 1980s to Early 1990s Regan to Bush Sr.
  2. 2. Picture A
  3. 3. Ronald Regan (1980-1988) • Ronald Reagan's presidency maybe one of the most important in 20th-century U.S. history. • Reagan began his political career as a Democrat and eventually grew to hate high taxes, big government, and communism. • His leadership helped prepare the way for the end of the cold war.
  4. 4. The New Republican Party • As a leader of Republican Party, he wanted economic freedom and remove the federal government from the regulation of industry and commerce • All influenced by the Heritage foundation (free enterprise) • Heritage Foundation influenced other Regan policies • Promote conservative policies based on limited govt., individual freedom, and strong national defense • National Rifle Association endorsed (supported) Ronald Regan, made it the first time the NRA supported a candidate. • Organization to promote rifle shooting and marksmanship skills • Moral Majority endorsed Regan • Made up of Fundamentalist Christians (started by Rev. Jerry Falwell)
  5. 5. Picture C
  6. 6. Reaganomics • Reagan promised that, he would lower taxes, increase defense spending, and reduce the budget deficit. • He said an economic theory known as supply-side economics (quickly nicknamed Reaganomics) would make those apparently contradictory goals possible.
  7. 7. 4 Factors of Reaganomics • Tax cuts and Domestic Spending • Reduced taxes would spur investment, which would increase goods (supply) and jobs. • More jobs, income and would create greater tax revenues. • Deregulation • Eliminate federal regulations on industry, making it easier for companies to compete and more freedom • Relaxed enforcement of anti-trust laws and more mergers • Increased Military Spending • Stimulated economy and created jobs • Domestic Jobs and Other Factors • Steady world oil prices, new jobs (computers and health care), and more flexible work practices
  8. 8. Result of Early Reaganomics • Social (Welfare) programs cut because fewer people would need them. By the election of 1984, most Americans felt better off economically. • Inflation and unemployment were down and the economy was expanding. • Further, their fears about becoming involved in a war faded. • As a result, Reagan was reelected by the largest number of electoral votes in history.
  9. 9. Negatives of Reaganomics • Regan promised a budget where govt. spending would be limited to amount of taxes collected. • Instead, by 1988, the national debt had soared past $3 trillion. • To fund the debt, the Federal Reserve was forced to keep interest rates high (bad for those with loans). • Unemployment was occurring in the U.S. • The federal government was not, as promised, reduced in size.
  10. 10. Picture D
  11. 11. Immigration & Domestic Affairs • Introduced the Mazzoli-Simpson Act of 1986 • “Legalized” illegal aliens who lived in the U.S. since 1981 • Nominated Sandra Day O’Connor as 1st woman Supreme Court Justice (Texan!) • Conservative that preferred “judicial restraint” • Many people started to move to the Sun Belt (West and South) • Technological developments such as dams, air conditioning, and rising oil prices (people preferring milder winters) • California and Texas became largest states
  12. 12. The Reagan Doctrine (Policy) • Regan’s foreign policy was called Reagan Doctrine • Contain communism AND help anti-Communist movements known as “Freedom Fighters”. • Strategic Defense Initiative (nicknamed called Star Wars) to give the United States a shield from nuclear attack • Believed in Peace through Strength • Make enemies think U.S. had the way and desire to go to war would actually create peace. • “Let he who desires peace prepare for war”
  13. 13. Picture E
  14. 14. U.S. Marines Deployed to Lebanon stop at 2:37 • In 1982, a civil war between Christians and Palestinian refugees in Middle East • Country of Lebanon requested a U.S. assistance • Suicide bomber attacked the American and French barracks in 1983. • 241 Marines were killed • Regan withdrew forces from Lebanon shortly after • Regan announced he would not negotiate with terrorists
  15. 15. Iran-Contra Affair • “Contra” means rebels. • Secretly sell weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages • Iran was enemy of the U.S. • Profits from Iran went to “Contra” rebels fighting the Communist government of Nicaragua • Shocked the nation. Went against the policy of not negotiating with terrorists Contras in Nicaragua “Freedom Fighters” Iran-U.S. enemy
  16. 16. Iran-Contra Affair Aftermath • Investigation cleared the President of any wrong • Many officials were convicted of lying to Congress and sent to prison • Hurt America’s credibility in the world • Reminded many people of the Watergate Scandal • People questioned their trust in government.
  17. 17. Triumph of Democracy • During second term, Reagan built a relationship with the Mikhail Gorbachev, leader of the Soviet Union in 1985. • Gorbachev agreed and wanted peace in Eastern Europe • In 1987, the Americans and Soviets signed a historic agreement to eliminate thousands of nuclear missiles.
  18. 18. End of the Berlin Wall (video) Do you think President Reagan’s speech helped or did not help the tearing down the Berlin Wall? Justify your answer. • Reagan spoke at Germany’s Berlin Wall, a symbol of communism. • He challenged Gorbachev to tear it down. • 2 years later, Gorbachev allowed the people of Berlin to dismantle the wall. • Reagan returned to Germany in September 1990—just weeks before Germany was officially reunified–and took several symbolic swings with a hammer at a remaining chunk of the wall.
  19. 19. Bush Sr. Administration • Served as Regan’s Vice President • Promised to continue policies by Regan, while improving education and fighting drug use • Experienced in foreign policy • Biggest problem domestically was to shrink the budget deficit • Increased income taxes on the wealthy
  20. 20. Cartoon 1 Cartoon 2
  21. 21. End of the Cold War • Most important event of Bush Presidency was the end of the Cold War • Eastern Europe moved from Communism to democracy • Berlin Wall was torn down, and Germany was reunited from 1989 to 1991 • Russia and other newly independent republics and given economic assistance from U.S.
  22. 22. The Persian Gulf War • Gulf War was Bush’s greatest single foreign policy success • Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in August of 1990 • Capturing its plentiful oil wealth and extending it’s borders • Refused requests by United Nations (U.N.) to withdraw • Some feared he would invade Saudi Arabia next • U.N. forces, led by U.S. launched attack against Iraq • Invasion succeeded in only a few days • Hussein agreed to remove all Iraqi troops from Kuwait and pay for damages • Significance was the first major challenge to world order since Cold War • Used new prestige in Middle East to start peace talks with Israel and its Arab neighbors